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Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of the innate immune system, which plays a fundamental role in rapidly and effectively controlling infections and initiating adaptive immunity.
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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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APOBEC3B: Pathological consequences of an innate immune DNA mutator Burns MB, Leonard B, Harris RS - Biomed J

Biomed J, Official publication of Chang Gung University
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Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury

Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Neutrophils, the most abundant human immune cells, are rapidly recruited to sites of infection, where they fulfill their life-saving antimicrobial functions. While traditionally regarded as short-lived phagocytes, recent findings on long-term survival, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, heterogeneity and plasticity, suppressive functions, and tissue injury have expanded our understanding of their diverse role in infection and inflammation. This review summarises our current understanding of neutrophils in host-pathogen interactions and disease involvement, illustrating the versatility and plasticity of the neutrophil, moving between host defence, immune modulation, and tissue damage.
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This 17-Year-Old Has Discovered DNA Mutations That Could Combat HIV And Meningitis

This 17-Year-Old Has Discovered DNA Mutations That Could Combat HIV And Meningitis | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
High schooler Andrew Jin is answering previously unasked questions in biology.
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MDC and Charité Researchers Tweak the Immune System to Target Cells Bearing Tumor Antigens

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Complement in therapy and disease: Regulating the complement system with antibody-based therapeutics

Complement in therapy and disease: Regulating the complement system with antibody-based therapeutics | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Highlights

 

The complement cascade: a fine molecular interplay regulates functional outcome.

An imbalance by overactive or attenuated complement activation has severe pathological implications.

Enhancement or inhibition of complement creates a powerful strategy for therapeutic intervention.

Synergy between complement and cell-mediated effector functions impacts therapeutic efficacy.

Antibody combination therapies, engineering approaches and optimized treatment designs provide exciting opportunities for new and improved therapies.


Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, March 9, 8:17 AM
Molecular Immunology

Available online 17 February 2015

In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users

Review Complement in therapy and disease ☆: Regulating the complement system with antibody-based therapeuticsJoost P.M. Melisa, 1, Kristin Strumanea, 1, Sigrid R. Ruulsa, Frank J. Beurskensa, Janine Schuurmana,Paul W.H.I. Parrena, b, ,   doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2015.01.028
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Deadly bacteria, "Burkholderia pseudomallei" released from US high-security lab

Deadly bacteria, "Burkholderia pseudomallei" released from US high-security lab | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Deadly bacteria, "Burkholderia pseudomallei" released from US high-security lab. Officials are investigating how a deadly type of bacteria was released from a high-security laboratory at the Tulane National Primate Center in Louisiana.
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Man’s death leads to the discovery of a new virus

Man’s death leads to the discovery of a new virus | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Scientists have described a previously unknown insect-borne virus, following the death of a man in the Kansas county of Bourbon in the US in mid-2014.

According to the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the otherwise healthy, 50-year-old man was working outside on his property in mid-2014, when he sustained multiple tick bites, which led to an array of symptoms including fever, fatigue, rash, headaches, nausea and vomiting around two days after. After he was hospitalised, his white blood cell count dipped, his lungs and kidney started failing, and by day 11, suffered a heart attack, and died.

The culprit? Scientists were able to isolate a new virus from a blood sample collected from the patient nine days after he fell ill, and attributed it to the Thogotovirus genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. This family contains six genera - Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.

The researchers say there’s a marked difference between the symptoms suffered by this man, and other known Thogotoviruses. As Liz Szabo reports at USA Today, Thogotoviruses usually cause diseases such as meningitis or encephalitis, where the lining of the brain becomes severely inflamed. But they've never seen these viruses destroy white blood cell counts like the Bourbon virus did to this man.

The team discusses this in the current edition of the CDC journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases: "Of the seven symptomatic human infections that have been associated with viruses in the genus Thogotovirus, most case-patients have had neurologic findings (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis) without any described abnormalities in blood counts. Although cerebrospinal fluid was not tested for the patient reported, his clinical signs and symptoms were not suggestive of neurologic infection. Furthermore, the patient did not have any respiratory symptoms that would be expected with other viruses that are known human pathogens in the large family of Orthomyxoviridae, such as influenza virus."

As of this month, this man is the only case of Bourbon virus disease that has been identified, but there are likely more cases that have yet to be diagnosed. “I think we have to assume this has been around for some time, and we haven’t been able to diagnose it,” Dana Hawkinson, an infectious disease specialist who treated the patient at the University of Kansas Medical Centre in Kansas City, told Denise Grady at The New York Times. “We suspect there have been milder cases and people have recovered from them, but we don’t have a lot of information.”

"It will be important to determine how widespread the Bourbon virus is in both ticks, insects, animals and humans and to grasp the spectrum of illness it is capable of causing," Amesh Adalja, senior associate at the Centre for Health Security at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre in the US, told USA Today. "The fact that a novel virus was discovered underscores the need for perpetual vigilance, in all locales, with respect to emerging infectious diseases. It is only by leaving no stone unturned when investigating unexplained illnesses that humans can best prepare for microbial threats."

The researchers report that right now, there is no treatment for the disease, no vaccine, and no lab tests to identify it. So those in the US at a high risk of tick bites are advised to wear insect repellents and long-sleeved shirts and pants when outdoors, and to avoid thickly wooded areas as much as possible.
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Biological Warfare: Parasitic Wasp Uses A Virus To Control Its Host - Science Sushi

Biological Warfare: Parasitic Wasp Uses A Virus To Control Its Host - Science Sushi | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Viral venom? A parasitic wasp uses a unique RNA virus to turn its unwitting host into a bodyguard.
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The role of CD95 and CD95 ligand in cancer - Nature.com

The role of CD95 and CD95 ligand in cancer - Nature.com | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Cell death and differentiation is a monthly research journal focused on the exciting field of programmed cell death and apoptosis.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, February 8, 2:05 PM

CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and its ligand, CD95L, have long been viewed as a death receptor/death ligand system that mediates apoptosis induction to maintain immune homeostasis. In addition, these molecules are important in the immune elimination of virus-infected cells and cancer cells. CD95L was, therefore, considered to be useful for cancer therapy. However, major side effects have precluded its systemic use. During the last 10 years, it has been recognized that CD95 and CD95L have multiple cancer-relevant nonapoptotic and tumor-promoting activities. CD95 and CD95L were discovered to be critical survival factors for cancer cells, and were found to protect and promote cancer stem cells. We now discuss five different ways in which inhibiting or eliminating CD95L, rather than augmenting, may be beneficial for cancer therapy alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy or immune therapy.

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Innate Immunity: Signaling Host Defenses | HHMI.org

Innate Immunity: Signaling Host Defenses | HHMI.org | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
New studies by HHMI scientists show how cells use sophisticated signaling mechanisms to control production of interferon.
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Cell Cycle-Independent Phospho-Regulation of Fkh2 during Hyphal Growth Regulates Candida albicans Pathogenesis

Cell Cycle-Independent Phospho-Regulation of Fkh2 during Hyphal Growth Regulates  Candida albicans  Pathogenesis | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Author Summary The fungus Candida albicans is a commensal in the human microbiota, responsible for superficial infections such as oral and vaginal thrush. However, it can become highly virulent, causing life-threatening systemic candidemia in severely immunocompromised patients, including those taking immunosuppressive drugs for transplantation, sufferers of AIDS and neutropenia, and individuals undergoing chemotherapy or at extremes of age. With a rapidly increasing ageing population worldwide, C. albicans and other fungal pathogens will become more prevalent, demanding a greater understanding of their pathogenesis for the development of effective therapeutics. Fungal pathogenicity requires a coordinated change in the pattern of gene expression orchestrated by a set of transcription factors. Here we have discovered that a transcription factor, Fkh2, is modified by phosphorylation under the control of the kinases Cdc28 and Cbk1 in response to conditions that activate virulence factor expression. Fkh2 is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation, but this phosphorylation endows it with a specialized function in promoting the expression of genes required for tissue invasion, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis in the host. This study highlights the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating pathogenesis and furthers our understanding of the pathogenic switch in this important opportunistic fungal pathogen.
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Putative E3 Ubiquitin Ligase of Human Rotavirus Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Using Molecular Mimicry To Target β-TrCP

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KSHV microRNAs repress breakpoint cluster region protein expression, enhance Rac1 activity, and increase in vitro angiogenesis

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Cancer virology researchers reveal new pathway that controls how cells make proteins

Cancer virology researchers reveal new pathway that controls how cells make proteins | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A serendipitous combination of technology and scientific discovery, coupled with a hunch, allowed University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) researchers to reveal a previously invisible biological process that may be implicated in the rapid growth of some cancers.
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GEN | Insight & Intelligence™:Targeting Kinases Essential to Malaria Parasites

GEN | Insight & Intelligence™:Targeting Kinases Essential to Malaria Parasites | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A large unmet medical need exists for effective new treatments for malaria in the developing world.
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Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Cortical Astrocytes and Alterations That Occur during Infection with Brain Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

Proteome-Wide Lysine Acetylation in Cortical Astrocytes and Alterations That Occur during Infection with Brain Parasite  Toxoplasma gondii | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) that has been detected on thousands of proteins in nearly all cellular compartments. The role of this widespread PTM has yet to be fully elucidated, but can impact protein localization, interactions, activity, and stability. Here we present the first proteome-wide survey of lysine acetylation in cortical astrocytes, a subtype of glia that is a component of the blood-brain barrier and a key regulator of neuronal function and plasticity. We identified 529 lysine acetylation sites across 304 proteins found in multiple cellular compartments that largely function in RNA processing/transcription, metabolism, chromatin biology, and translation. Two hundred and seventy-seven of the acetylated lysines we identified on 186 proteins have not been reported previously in any other cell type. We also mapped an acetylome of astrocytes infected with the brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii . It has been shown that infection with T . gondii modulates host cell gene expression, including several lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) and deacetylase (KDAC) genes, suggesting that the host acetylome may also be altered during infection. In the T . gondii -infected astrocytes, we identified 34 proteins exhibiting a level of acetylation >2-fold and 24 with a level of acetylation <2-fold relative to uninfected astrocytes. Our study documents the first acetylome map for cortical astrocytes, uncovers novel lysine acetylation sites, and demonstrates that T . gondii infection produces an altered acetylome.
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Cellular scissors chop up HIV virus

Cellular scissors chop up HIV virus | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Imagine a single drug that could prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, treat patients who have already contracted HIV, and even remove all the dormant copies of the virus from those with the more advanced disease. It sounds like science fiction, but scientists have gotten one step closer to creating such a drug by customizing a powerful defense system used by many bacteria and training this scissor-like machinery to recognize the HIV virus.
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Host ESCRT Proteins Are Required for Bromovirus RNA Replication Compartment Assembly and Function

Host ESCRT Proteins Are Required for Bromovirus RNA Replication Compartment Assembly and Function | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Author Summary Positive-strand RNA {(+)RNA} viruses cause numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. (+)RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their RNA replication compartments, which are mini-organelles featuring the close association of both viral and host components. To further understand the role of host components in forming such RNA replication compartments, we used brome mosaic virus (BMV), a well characterized model virus, to study some common features of (+)RNA virus RNA replication. We show that knocking out several components of the cellular Endosomal Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery resulted in parallel defects in BMV RNA replication and replication compartment formation, whereas other ESCRT components affected RNA replication independently of replication compartment formation. Deleting a subset of ESCRT proteins altered the frequency of replication compartment formation but had no effect on the size of these compartments, whereas a second subset affected RNA replication independently of replication compartment formation. Moreover, BMV’s interaction with the ESCRT machinery appears to be distinct from that reported for other viruses and from the ESCRT requirements for forming vesicles in cellular multivesicular bodies. These findings further illuminate the remarkable abilities of positive-strand RNA viruses to integrate viral and host protein functions to remodel membranes, and suggest potentially potent new ways to control such viruses.
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Phosphatidylserine Vesicles Enable Efficient En Bloc Transmission of Enteroviruses: Cell

Phosphatidylserine Vesicles Enable Efficient En Bloc Transmission of Enteroviruses: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Virus-cutting enzyme helps bacteria remember a threat

Virus-cutting enzyme helps bacteria remember a threat | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Bacteria may not have brains, but they do have memories, at least when it comes to viruses that attack them. Many bacteria have a molecular immune system which allows these microbes to capture and retain pieces of viral DNA that they have encountered in the past, in order to recognize and destroy it when it shows up again.


Via idtdna
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A Pill That Mimics the Immune System

A Pill That Mimics the Immune System | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Synthetic antibodies that can be orally ingested to fight cancer and autoimmune diseases may replace cumbersome intravenous therapeutics
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Virology Journal | Abstract | Role of human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 in dengue virus replication

Host and viral proteins are involved in dengue virus (DENV) replication. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2 are abundant host cellular proteins that exhibit RNA binding activity and play important roles in the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses such as poliovirus and hepatitis C virus. hnRNP C1/C2 have previously been shown to interact with vimentin and viral NS1 in DENV-infected cells; however, their functional role in DENV replication is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hnRNP C1/C2 in DENV replication by using an in vitro model of DENV infection in a hepatocyte cell line (Huh7) and siRNA-mediated knockdown of hnRNP C1/C2.

Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
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A Third Rotary Motor Has Now Been Found in Bacteria

A Third Rotary Motor Has Now Been Found in Bacteria | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Evolution News and Views (ENV) provides original reporting and analysis about the debate over intelligent design and evolution.
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, March 8, 4:21 PM

They go on a bit about "irreducible complexity", but if yoiu ignore that, it's really interesting: like finding your car has a crankshaft you didn't know about!

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PI3-kinase activation is critical for host barrier permissiveness to Listeria monocytogenes

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A Hierarchical Cascade of Second Messengers Regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Surface Behaviors

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