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Single Amino Acid Substitutions Confer the Antiviral Activity of the TRAF3 Adaptor Protein onto TRAF5 -- Zhang et al. 5 (250): ra81 -- Science Signaling

The TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor] family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins link cell-surface receptors to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In response to activation of RIG-I (retinoic acid–inducible gene I), a component of a pattern recognition receptor that detects viruses, TRAF3 binds to the adaptor protein Cardif [caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) adaptor–inducing interferon-β (IFN-β)], leading to induction of type I IFNs. We report the crystal structures of the TRAF domain of TRAF5 and that of TRAF3 bound to a peptide from the TRAF-interacting motif of Cardif. By comparing these structures, we identified two residues located near the Cardif binding pocket in TRAF3 (Tyr440 and Phe473) that potentially contributed to Cardif recognition. In vitro and cellular experiments showed that forms of TRAF5 with mutation of the corresponding residues to those of TRAF3 had TRAF3-like antiviral activity. Our results provide a structural basis for the critical role of TRAF3 in activating RIG-I–mediated IFN production.

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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes

Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
by S. Marvin Friedman | As more and more information becomes available, one marvels (and also frets) at the sophisticated strategies that pathogens have evolved in order to evade their hosts’ defense mechanisms. Many pathogens of plants and animals deliver effectors into their hosts in order to suppress immune responses. To date, the vast majority of…
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Research | Research news | 2014 | Cellular defense against fatal associations between proteins and DNA

Research | Research news | 2014 | Cellular defense against fatal associations between proteins and DNA | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Max Planck researchers discover new mechanism of DNA repair
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Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-termina...

Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of DeltaN Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells.
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The placental specific gene, PLAC1, is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus and is expressed in human tumor cells

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causal agent in a number of malignancies in humans including hematopoietic tumors and non-hematopoietic tumors. Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines containing the Epstein-Barr virus have been shown to form tumors in nude mice while clonal derivatives of such cell lines in which the viral genome has been lost do not (JID 177: 1194-1201, 1998; JV 72: 9150-9156, 1998; JV 68: 6069-6073, 1994). The re-introduction of EBV into these EBV negative BLs reconstitutes the tumor phenotype. Thus, EBV-induced cellular genes play critical role in EBV-related tumors.
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RNA Helicases DDX5 and DDX17 Dynamically Orchestrate Transcription, miRNA, and Splicing Programs in Cell Differentiation: Cell Reports

RNA Helicases DDX5 and DDX17 Dynamically Orchestrate Transcription, miRNA, and Splicing Programs in Cell Differentiation: Cell Reports | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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George Church: The Future Without Limit | Innovators

George Church: The Future Without Limit | Innovators | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Geneticist George Church tinkers with DNA to fight disease, create new biofuels, and perhaps even resurrect extinct species.

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Difference in cytokine production and cell cycle progression induced by Epstein-Barr virus Lmp1 deletion variants in Kmh2, a Hodgkin lymphoma cell line

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with 20-40% of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) cases. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a well-known oncogenic protein and two C-terminal deletion variants, del30-LMP1 and del69-LMP1, have been described in animal models to be more tumorigenic than the wild-type form. This work aims to detail the implication of LMP1 in the development of HL and to characterize the particular effects of these variants.
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Microbes defy rules of DNA code

Microbes defy rules of DNA code | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Researchers find widespread 'recoding'.
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The molecule of DC-SIGN captures enterovirus 71 and confers dendritic cell-mediated viral trans-infection

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that occurs in young children. Neither antiviral agents nor vaccines are available for efficiently combating viral infection. Study of EV71–host interplay is important for understanding viral infection and developing strategies for prevention and therapy. Here the interactions of EV71 with human dendritic cells were analyzed.
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Should We Destroy Our Last Living Samples of the Virus That Causes Smallpox?

Should We Destroy Our Last Living Samples of the Virus That Causes Smallpox? | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Later this month, the World Health Organization will decide whether or not to get rid of two live virus repositories in the United States and Russia
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Rescooped by Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Essential Collection: HIV reviews issue - Virology - Elsevier

Essential Collection: HIV reviews issue - Virology - Elsevier | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
We are proud to present five HIV Reviews in the April issue of Virology written by experts in the field. Three of these reviews describe the...

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Is US biomedical research heading for a breakdown?

Is US biomedical research heading for a breakdown? | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Senior researchers who helped build the system now think it's unsustainable.
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Ana Sanchez's curator insight, April 16, 2:41 PM

A big piece of food for thought

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Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Protects from Fatal Neurotropic Infection with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Specific Inhibition of Viral Replication in Neurons

Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Protects from Fatal Neurotropic Infection with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Specific Inhibition of Viral Replication in Neurons | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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Small molecules that inhibit Vif-induced degradation of APOBEC3G

HIV-1 Vif is essential for virus replication in natural target cells such as T cells and macrophages. Vif recruits a ubiquitin ligase to degrade restrictive APOBEC3 proteins. APOBEC3G is one of the most potent retroviral restriction factors targeted by Vif and, as such, the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction has emerged as a promising HIV-1 therapeutic target.
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The 2014 Innate Immunity Summit - Euroscicon News

The 2014 Innate Immunity Summit - Euroscicon News | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A three day event discussing aspects of the innate immune system. This year there are three main topics for discussion The Innate Immunity Interactions with Pathogens Interactions of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems ...

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell

Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Interactions with DCAF1 and DDB1 in the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase are required for Vpr-mediated G2 arrest

HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest is dependent on the interaction of Vpr with an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), Cullin 4A (Cul4A), DDB1 and Cul4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1), and Rbx1. Vpr is thought to associate directly with DCAF1 in the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex although the exact interaction pattern of the proteins in the complex is not completely defined. The Vpr of SIVagm induces G2 arrest of cognate African Green Monkey (AGM) cells but not human cells. The molecular mechanism by which SIVagm Vpr exhibits its species-specific function remained unknown.
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Fasting for two days could regenerate the immune system, according to research

Fasting for two days could regenerate the immune system, according to research | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
It’s often used as a quick weight loss method – but fasting could also help the body to fight off disease.
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Is DNA Multilingual? Recoded stop codons in microbial genes

Is DNA Multilingual? Recoded stop codons in microbial genes | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The genetic code has traditionally been viewed as a universal set of instructions, exquisitely tuned to maintain robust stability and allow evolution-sustaining mutations. But the pervasive occurrence of recoded stop codons, and the backchannel...
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Virology Journal | Abstract | The interferon-inducible antiviral protein daxx is not essential for interferon-mediated protection against avian sarcoma virus

The antiviral protein Daxx acts as a restriction factor of avian sarcoma virus (ASV; Retroviridae) in mammalian cells by promoting epigenetic silencing of integrated proviral DNA. Although Daxx is encoded by a type I (alpha/beta) interferon-stimulated gene, the requirement for Daxx in the interferon anti-retroviral response has not been elucidated. In this report, we describe the results of experiments designed to investigate the role of Daxx in the type I interferon-induced anti-ASV response.
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Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis: A brief History and Recent Advances

Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis: A brief History and Recent Advances | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Want to know more about Apoptosis? Why not read out new blog post that includes recent advances in caspase-dependent apoptosis research as well a brief history on the subject from Molecutools!
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Protein data bank archives its 100,000th molecule structure

Protein data bank archives its 100,000th molecule structure | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
As the single worldwide repository for the three-dimensional structures of large molecules and nucleic acids that are vital to pharmacology and bioinformatics research, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) recently archived its 100,000th molecule structure,...

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HSCARG Negatively Regulates the Cellular Antiviral RIG-I Like Receptor Signaling Pathway by Inhibiting TRAF3 Ubiquitination via Recruiting OTUB1

HSCARG Negatively Regulates the Cellular Antiviral RIG-I Like Receptor Signaling Pathway by Inhibiting TRAF3 Ubiquitination via Recruiting OTUB1 | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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The Hallmarks of Cancer 8: Tumor-Promoting Inflammation | Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network

The Hallmarks of Cancer 8: Tumor-Promoting Inflammation | Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first seven Hallmarks of Cancer articles here. The eighth Hallmark ...
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Targeted Prostaglandin E2 Inhibition Enhances Antiviral Immunity through Induction of Type I Interferon and Apoptosis in Macrophages: Immunity

Targeted Prostaglandin E2 Inhibition Enhances Antiviral Immunity through Induction of Type I Interferon and Apoptosis in Macrophages: Immunity | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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