Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
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The Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules Target IQGAP1 and Modulate Epithelial Cell Migration

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules Target IQGAP1 and Modulate Epithelial Cell Migration | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Quorum sensing (QS) signaling allows bacteria to control gene expression once a critical population density is achieved. The Gram-negative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) as QS signals, which coordinate the production of virulence factors and biofilms. These bacterial signals can also modulate human cell behavior.

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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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Naked mole-rats turn into plants when oxygen is low

Naked mole-rats turn into plants when oxygen is low | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Deprived of oxygen, naked mole-rats can survive by metabolizing fructose just as plants do, researchers report this week in the journal Science -- a finding that could lead to treatments for heart attacks and strokes.

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Flexible working: Solo scientist : Naturejobs

Flexible working: Solo scientist : Naturejobs | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Researchers who work for themselves can benefit from forming coalitions that provide both practical and psychological support.
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Half Of All PhD Students Suffer From Psychological Distress

Half Of All PhD Students Suffer From Psychological Distress | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
PhD students are far more at risk from suffering from a mental health problem than the general population, according to a new study.
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Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses

Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The ability to recognize invading viral pathogens and to distinguish their components from those of the host cell is critical to initiate the innate immune response. The efficiency of this detection is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of the cell to viral infection. Innate sensing of viruses is, therefore, an indispensable step in the line of defense for cells and organisms. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel sensors of viral components and hallmarks of infection, as well as mechanisms by which cells discriminate between self and non-self. This review highlights the mechanisms used by cells to detect viral pathogens in the cytosol, and recent advances in the field of cytosolic sensing of viruses.


Via Ed Rybicki
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Study identifies key factor in DNA damage associated with aging 

Study identifies key factor in DNA damage associated with aging  | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

In a recent study, Rochester scientists made two important contributions to DNA damage research. First, though scientists could previously point to an association between DNA damage and aging, the Rochester group has demonstrated a causal relationship between reduced DNA damage and extended lifespan. Second, the researchers have identified a cellular factor—an enzyme called topoisomerase 2, or Top2, implicated in DNA damage—that can be targeted to reduce that damage. The findings are published in the journal Aging.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Common Commensal Cancer Viruses

Common Commensal Cancer Viruses | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Pathogenic Versus Commensal Tumor Viruses Another way to look at infectious carcinogens is whether or not a tumor virus is a rare or a common human infection. Commensal viruses are common, inapparent infections that do not usually cause symptoms or disease in the host.

Via Ed Rybicki
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Electrons Use DNA Like a Wire for Signaling DNA Replication 

Electrons Use DNA Like a Wire for Signaling DNA Replication  | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

A Caltech-led study has shown that the electrical wire-like behavior of DNA is involved in the molecule's replication.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models

Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Oral administration of a cocktail of three viruses, all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, prevents infection and cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments, report scientists from Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM) and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts inNature Communications on Feb. 1. The findings are the first to demonstrate the potential efficacy of bacteria-killing viruses—known as bacteriophages, or phages—as an orally administered preventive therapy against an acute gastrointestinal bacterial disease.

 

“While phage therapy has existed for decades, our study is proof-of-principle that it can be used to protect against infection and intervene in the transmission of disease,” said senior study author Andrew Camilli, Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and professor of molecular biology and microbiology at TUSM. “We are hopeful that phages can someday be a tool in the public health arsenal that helps decrease the global burden of cholera, which affects up to four million people around the world each year.”

 

In previous work, Camilli and colleagues searched for phages that are specific for Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera—a potentially lethal infectious disease marked by severe diarrhea and dehydration. While phages that kill V. cholerae are abundant in nature, the team identified three strains that uniquely retained the ability to kill V. cholerae within the small intestine, the site of infection in humans. These phages function by targeting bacterial surface receptors normally involved in infectiousness, making them ideal therapeutic candidates—to develop resistance, cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, February 13, 5:08 AM
While this great, it is a modern vindication of something no less a person that the co-discoverer of phages himself, Felix d'Herelle, advocated as a cure for dysentery - and put into practice in India in the 1920s, apparently (https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2015/02/17/happy-centenary-phages/). He was also the godfather of work done at the Eliava Institute in Georgia, which really laid the foundation of phage therapy.
Ed Rybicki's comment, February 13, 5:09 AM
Thanks! Great stuff.
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Enteroviruses infect human enteroids and induce antiviral signaling in a cell lineage-specific manner

Enteroviruses infect human enteroids and induce antiviral signaling in a cell lineage-specific manner | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
National Academy of Sciences

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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10 Mysteries of the Human Microbiome Revealed

10 Mysteries of the Human Microbiome Revealed | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Your body hosts trillions of microbes—mainly bacteria, fungi, and viruses. That's (mostly) a good thing.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Research Spotlight: New Frontiers in Cellular Therapies – 360 Degrees of Immuno-oncology - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MA

Research Spotlight: New Frontiers in Cellular Therapies – 360 Degrees of Immuno-oncology - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MA | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
New Frontiers in Cellular Therapies: The field of immuno-oncology has recently exploded with novel cellular therapies that elegantly exploit the tumor-antigen recognition and cytotoxic potential of T cells.
Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert C FAURE
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Proliferating Helper T Cells Require Rictor/mTORC2 Complex to Integrate Signals from Limiting Environmental Amino Acids*

Proliferating Helper T Cells Require Rictor/mTORC2 Complex to Integrate Signals from Limiting Environmental Amino Acids* | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria : Nature : Nature Research

High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria : Nature : Nature Research | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Vaccine-induced high-avidity IgA can protect against bacterial enteropathogens by directly neutralizing virulence factors or by poorly defined mechanisms that physically impede bacterial interactions with the gut tissues (‘immune exclusion’). IgA-mediated cross-linking clumps bacteria in the gut lumen and is critical for protection against infection by non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). However, classical agglutination, which was thought to drive this process, is efficient only at high pathogen densities (≥108 non-motile bacteria per gram). In typical infections, much lower densities (100–107 colony-forming units per gram) of rapidly dividing bacteria are present in the gut lumen. Here we show that a different physical process drives formation of clumps in vivo: IgA-mediated cross-linking enchains daughter cells, preventing their separation after division, and clumping is therefore dependent on growth. Enchained growth is effective at all realistic pathogen densities, and accelerates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen. Furthermore, IgA enchains plasmid-donor and -recipient clones into separate clumps, impeding conjugative plasmid transfer in vivo. Enchained growth is therefore a mechanism by which IgA can disarm and clear potentially invasive species from the intestinal lumen without requiring high pathogen densities, inflammation or bacterial killing. Furthermore, our results reveal an untapped potential for oral vaccines in combating the spread of antimicrobial resistance.


Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses

Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The ability to recognize invading viral pathogens and to distinguish their components from those of the host cell is critical to initiate the innate immune response. The efficiency of this detection is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of the cell to viral infection. Innate sensing of viruses is, therefore, an indispensable step in the line of defense for cells and organisms. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel sensors of viral components and hallmarks of infection, as well as mechanisms by which cells discriminate between self and non-self. This review highlights the mechanisms used by cells to detect viral pathogens in the cytosol, and recent advances in the field of cytosolic sensing of viruses.


Via Ed Rybicki, Chris Upton + helpers
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Ross River Virus: Many Vectors and Unusual Hosts Make for an Unpredictable Pathogen

Ross River Virus: Many Vectors and Unusual Hosts Make for an Unpredictable Pathogen | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
@GertrudRey #ZIKA Ross River Virus, another MBV, can be transmitted from animals to humans.

https://t.co/1X2HmZO7PP

Via burkesquires
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The blood DNA virome in 8,000 humans

The blood DNA virome in 8,000 humans | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Author summary Novel sequencing technologies offer insight into the virome in human samples. Here, we identify the viral DNA sequences in blood of over 8,000 individuals undergoing whole genome sequencing. This approach serves to identify 94 viruses; however, many are shown to reflect widespread DNA contamination of commercial reagents or of environmental origin. While this represents a significant limitation to reliably identify novel viruses infecting humans, we could confidently detect sequences and quantify abundance of 19 human viruses in 42% of individuals. Ancestry, sex, and age were important determinants of viral prevalence. This large study calls attention on the challenge of interpreting next generation sequencing data for the identification of novel viruses. However, it serves to categorize the abundance of human DNA viruses using an unbiased technique.

Via Bwana Moses
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Cross-species jumps may play unexpectedly big role in virus evolution: Comparing host and virus evolutionary trees reveals new insights into emergence of viral diseases

Cross-species jumps may play unexpectedly big role in virus evolution: Comparing host and virus evolutionary trees reveals new insights into emergence of viral diseases | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
On occasion, a virus may jump from one host species to another and adapt to the new host. Such cross-species transmission happens more often than expected, according to new research, and it may play a much bigger role in virus evolution than previously thought.

Via Cindy
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The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats

The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
World Health Organization publishes list that it hopes will focus development of antibiotics.
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A Newborn's First Breath Forges A Lifetime of Immunity

A Newborn's First Breath Forges A Lifetime of Immunity | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
More than ten thousand liters of air enter the lungs on a given day, but it’s not just oxygen that fills the lungs; pathogens and pollutants also hit

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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A Bacterial Two Hit Combo Against Cancer

A Bacterial Two Hit Combo Against Cancer | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

An engineered strain of Salmonella has been shown to prevent the spread of tumors in mice without causing a harmful systemic infection.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Antigen processing and immune regulation in the response to tumours

Antigen processing and immune regulation in the response to tumours | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The MHC class I and II antigen processing and presentation pathways display peptides to circulating CD8+ cytotoxic and CD4+ helper T cells respectively to enable pathogens and transformed cells to b

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Biallelic JAK1 mutations in immunodeficient patient with mycobacterial infection

Biallelic JAK1 mutations in immunodeficient patient with mycobacterial infection | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
JAK1 mediates intracellular signalling from multiple cytokine receptors. Here, Elettoet al.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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The Hippo Pathway Kinases LATS1/2 Suppress Cancer Immunity

The Hippo Pathway Kinases LATS1/2 Suppress Cancer Immunity | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The Hippo pathway, known to be tumor suppressive, is surprisingly found to have a
role in suppressing anti-tumor immune responses. Loss of the LATS1/2 kinases results
in the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses that reduce tumor growth
and improves vaccine efficacy.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Toll-Like Receptor 9 Stimulation Induces Aberrant Expression of a Proliferation-Inducing Ligand by Tonsillar Germinal Center B Cells in IgA Nephropathy

The TNF family member a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL; also known as TNFSF13), produced by myeloid cells, participates in the generation and survival of antibody–producing plasma cells. We studied the potential role of APRIL in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We found that a significant proportion of germinal centers (GCs) in tonsils of patients with IgAN contained cells aberrantly producing APRIL, contributing to an overall upregulation of tonsillar APRIL expression compared with that in tonsils of control patients with tonsillitis. In IgAN GC, antigen–experienced IgD–CD38+/–CD19+ B cells expressing a switched IgG/IgA B cell receptor produced APRIL. Notably, these GC B cells expressed mRNA encoding the common cleavable APRIL-α but also, the less frequent APRIL-/ mRNA, which encodes a protein that lacks a furin cleavage site and is, thus, the uncleavable membrane-bound form. Significant correlation between TLR9 and APRIL expression levels existed in tonsils from patients with IgAN. In vitro, repeated TLR9 stimulation induced APRIL expression in tonsillar B cells from control patients with tonsillitis. Clinically, aberrant APRIL expression in tonsillar GC correlated with greater proteinuria, and patients with IgAN and aberrant APRIL overexpression in tonsillar GC responded well to tonsillectomy, with parallel decreases in serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1. Taken together, our data indicate that antibody disorders in IgAN associate with TLR9–induced aberrant expression of APRIL in tonsillar GC B cells.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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