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Innate Immune Sensing of HIV-1 by Dendritic Cells

HIV-1-specific antibodies and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are detected in most HIV-1-infected people, yet HIV-1 infection is not eradicated. Contributing to the failure to mount a sterilizing immune response may be the inability of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) to sense HIV-1 during acute infection, and thus the inability to effectively prime naive, HIV-1-specific T cells.

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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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Why be a scientist? - BioMed Central blog

Why be a scientist? - BioMed Central blog | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Regular guest blogger Bryony Graham explains that although being a scientist can sometimes be frustrating, it's also incredibly rewarding.
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The prognostic landscape of genes and infiltrating immune cells across human cancers

The prognostic landscape of genes and infiltrating immune cells across human cancers | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Abstract

Molecular profiles of tumors and tumor-associated cells hold great promise as biomarkers of clinical outcomes. However, existing data sets are fragmented and difficult to analyze systematically. Here we present a pan-cancer resource and meta-analysis of expression signatures from ~18,000 human tumors with overall survival outcomes across 39 malignancies. By using this resource, we identified a forkhead box MI (FOXM1) regulatory network as a major predictor of adverse outcomes, and we found that expression of favorably prognostic genes, including KLRB1(encoding CD161), largely reflect tumor-associated leukocytes. By applying CIBERSORT, a computational approach for inferring leukocyte representation in bulk tumor transcriptomes, we identified complex associations between 22 distinct leukocyte subsets and cancer survival. For example, tumor-associated neutrophil and plasma cell signatures emerged as significant but opposite predictors of survival for diverse solid tumors, including breast and lung adenocarcinomas. This resource and associated analytical tools (http://precog.stanford.edu) may help delineate prognostic genes and leukocyte subsets within and across cancers, shed light on the impact of tumor heterogeneity on cancer outcomes, and facilitate the discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 24, 8:30 AM

NATURE MEDICINE | RESOURCE

The prognostic landscape of genes and infiltrating immune cells across human cancersAndrew J Gentles,Aaron M Newman,Chih Long Liu,Scott V Bratman,Weiguo Feng,Dongkyoon Kim,Viswam S Nair,Yue Xu,Amanda Khuong,Chuong D Hoang,Maximilian Diehn,Robert B West,Sylvia K Plevritis& Ash A AlizadehAffiliationsContributionsCorresponding authorNature Medicine (2015) doi:10.1038/nm.3909Received 19 January 2015 Accepted 19 June 2015 Published online 20 July 2015
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Genomic Technologies Speed Pathogen Detection

Genomic Technologies Speed Pathogen Detection | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

This article discusses advances in genomic technologies that have improved the efficiency and tractibility of pathogen discovery, detection, and tracking clinical and public health settings.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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A new strain of 'flesh-eating' bacteria is spreading globally, scientists warn

A new strain of 'flesh-eating' bacteria is spreading globally, scientists warn | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A dangerous new variant of flesh-eating bacteria has been discovered, and researchers have found that it's already contributed to a spike in severe infections in the UK, Canada, Japan, France and Sweden. Usually group A streptococcus bugs cause...
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Success and failure of the cellular immune response against HIV-1 : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group

Success and failure of the cellular immune response against HIV-1 : Nature Immunology : Nature Publishing Group | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Understanding the success and failure of the HIV-specific cellular immune response has implications for immunotherapies and vaccines for HIV-1. Migueles and Connors discuss the mechanisms that are most likely responsible for durable and potent immunologic control of HIV-1 by the cellular immune response.

Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 5, 2:41 AM

NATURE IMMUNOLOGY | REVIEW

Success and failure of the cellular immune response against HIV-1Stephen A Migueles& Mark ConnorsAffiliationsCorresponding authorNature Immunology 16, 563–570 (2015) doi:10.1038/ni.3161
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, July 5, 2:53 AM

The cellular immune response to HIV-1 has now been studied in extraordinary detail!!!!

 

A very large body of data provides the most likely reasons that the HIV-specific cellular immune response succeeds in a small number of people but fails in most. Understanding the success and failure of the HIV-specific cellular immune response has implications that extend not only to immunotherapies and vaccines for HIV-1 but also to the cellular immune response in other disease states.

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Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Differential Requirements for eIF4E Dose in Normal Development and Cancer: Cell

Differential Requirements for eIF4E Dose in Normal Development and Cancer: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Mitochondria in the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: Immunity

Mitochondria in the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: http://t.co/iOZKI1V344

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, June 18, 5:27 AM

Mitochondria are well appreciated for their role as biosynthetic and bioenergetic organelles. In the past two decades, mitochondria have emerged as signaling organelles that contribute critical decisions about cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. Mitochondria not only sustain immune cell phenotypes but also are necessary for establishing immune cell phenotype and their function. Mitochondria can rapidly switch from primarily being catabolic organelles generating ATP to anabolic organelles that generate both ATP and building blocks for macromolecule synthesis. This enables them to fulfill appropriate metabolic demands of different immune cells. Mitochondria have multiple mechanisms that allow them to activate signaling pathways in the cytosol including altering in AMP/ATP ratio, the release of ROS and TCA cycle metabolites, as well as the localization of immune regulatory proteins on the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this Review, we discuss the evidence and mechanisms that mitochondrial dependent signaling controls innate and adaptive immune responses.

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HIV Latency Is Established Directly and Early in Both Resting and Activated Primary CD4 T Cells

by Leonard Chavez, Vincenzo Calvanese, Eric Verdin Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication to undetectable levels but cannot fully eradicate the virus because a small reservoir of CD4+...

Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
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Potent Cell-Intrinsic Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells Facilitate HIV-1-Specific T Cell Immunity in HIV-1 Elite Controllers

Potent Cell-Intrinsic Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells Facilitate HIV-1-Specific T Cell Immunity in HIV-1 Elite Controllers | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Author Summary Elite controllers (EC), a small group of HIV-1-infected individuals that are able to control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, provide living evidence that the human immune system is able to spontaneously control HIV-1 infection and serve as a model for inducing a functional cure of HIV-1 infection in broader patient populations. Prior studies indicated that T cell-mediated immune responses represent the backbone of effective antiviral immune defense in EC; however, emerging studies suggest that innate and cell-intrinsic immune activities may have critical roles for supporting and enhancing HIV-1-specific T cells. Here, we performed a detailed investigation of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) from elite controllers and their responses to HIV-1 infection. These studies indicate that cDC from EC have improved abilities to sense cytosolic HIV-1 replication products, and can more effectively mount cell-intrinsic type I interferon (IFN) secretion in response to HIV-1 infection. Notably, such increased production of type I IFN in response to viral antigen translated into enhanced abilities to prime and expand HIV-1-specific T cells. Together, these data suggest that a fine-tuned interplay between innate dendritic cell responses and adaptive HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells represents a critical component of antiviral immune defense in elite controllers.
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Antibodies to host cell receptors help clear HCV infection - Nature.com

Antibodies to host cell receptors help clear HCV infection
Nature.com
Antibodies against host entry receptors have been shown in vitro and in vivo to curb HCV infection.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Factors to Consider When Choosing a Lab for PhD Training

Factors to Consider When Choosing a Lab for PhD Training | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A life-long career in scientific research depends alot on your PhD training as the primary “developmental” phase followed by the “pay-off” phase of postdoctoral training and beyond. Accruing the mu...
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The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Publishing Group

The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Publishing Group | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique DC subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field of pDC biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and functions of pDCs, the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids, their functions at mucosal sites, and their roles in infection, autoimmunity and cancer.


Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 25, 2:53 AM

NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY | REVIEW

 The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cellsMelissa Swiecki& Marco ColonnaAffiliationsCorresponding authorNature Reviews Immunology 15, 471–485 (2015) doi:10.1038/nri3865
Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, July 25, 6:50 AM

n this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field of pDC biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and functions of pDCs, the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids, their functions at mucosal sites, and their roles in infection, autoimmunity and cancer.

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Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative ... - Nature.com

Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative ... - Nature.com | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Oncogenesis 

 

Abstract

Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. ..... We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses. ACSN may also support patient stratification, prediction of treatment response and resistance to cancer drugs, as well as design of novel treatment strategies.


Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 20, 3:51 PM

Citation: Oncogenesis (2015) 4, e160; doi:10.1038/oncsis.2015.19
Published online 20 July 2015

Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps
OPEN

I Kuperstein1,2,3, E Bonnet1,2,3, H-A Nguyen1,2,3, D Cohen1,2,3, E Viara4, L Grieco1,2,3,5,6,7, S Fourquet1,2,3, L Calzone1,2,3, C Russo1,2,3, M Kondratova1,2,3, M Dutreix1,8,9, E Barillot1,2,3 and A Zinovyev1,2,3

1Institut Curie, Paris, France2INSERM, U900, Paris, France3Mines ParisTech, Fontainebleau, France4Sysra, Paris, France5Ecole Normale Supérieure, IBENS, Paris, France6CNRS, UMR8197, Paris, France7INSERM, U1024, Paris, France8CNRS, UMR3347, Orsay, France9INSERM, U1021, Orsay, France

Correspondence: Dr E Barillot or Dr A Zinovyev, U900 - Bioinformatics and Computational Systems Biology of Cancer, Institut Curie - INSERM - Mines ParisTech, 26 rue d'Ulm, Paris 75248 Cedex 05, France. E-mail:Emmanuel.Barillot@curie.fr or Andrei.Zinovyev@curie.fr

Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, July 21, 2:09 AM

Citation: Oncogenesis (2015) 4, e160; doi:10.1038/oncsis.2015.19
Published online 20 July 2015

Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps
OPEN

I Kuperstein1,2,3, E Bonnet1,2,3, H-A Nguyen1,2,3, D Cohen1,2,3, E Viara4, L Grieco1,2,3,5,6,7, S Fourquet1,2,3, L Calzone1,2,3, C Russo1,2,3, M Kondratova1,2,3, M Dutreix1,8,9, E Barillot1,2,3 and A Zinovyev1,2,3

1Institut Curie, Paris, France2INSERM, U900, Paris, France3Mines ParisTech, Fontainebleau, France4Sysra, Paris, France5Ecole Normale Supérieure, IBENS, Paris, France6CNRS, UMR8197, Paris, France7INSERM, U1024, Paris, France8CNRS, UMR3347, Orsay, France9INSERM, U1021, Orsay, France

Correspondence: Dr E Barillot or Dr A Zinovyev, U900 - Bioinformatics and Computational Systems Biology of Cancer, Institut Curie - INSERM - Mines ParisTech, 26 rue d'Ulm, Paris 75248 Cedex 05, France. E-mail:Emmanuel.Barillot@curie.fr or Andrei.Zinovyev@curie.fr

Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, July 21, 3:43 AM

 The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like’ map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content.

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Helicobacter pylori: Past… Present… Future - Labmate Online

Helicobacter pylori: Past… Present… Future - Labmate Online | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Helicobacter pylori: Past… Present… Future
Labmate Online
While the relative virulence of H. pylori can be identified by analysis of the bacterial genotype, there are a number of host factors that affect the development of H.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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T cell specific adaptor protein (TSAd) promotes interaction of Nck with Lck and SLP-76 in T cells

Background:
The Lck and Src binding adaptor protein TSAd (T cell specific adaptor) regulates actin polymerization in T cells and endothelial cells. The molecular details as to how TSAd regulates this process remain to be elucidated.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, July 15, 4:31 AM
Conclusions

TSAd binds to and co-localizes with Nck. Expression of TSAd increases both Nck-Lck and Nck-SLP-76 interaction in T cells. Recruitment of Lck and SLP-76 to Nck by TSAd could be one mechanism by which TSAd promotes actin polymerization in activated T cells.

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Role of Innate T Cells in Anti-Bacterial Immunity. - PubMed - NCBI

Role of Innate T Cells in Anti-Bacterial Immunity. - PubMed - NCBI | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Front Immunol. 2015 Jun 11;6:302. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00302. eCollection 2015. Review

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, July 5, 2:54 AM
Abstract

Innate T cells are a heterogeneous group of αβ and γδ T cells that respond rapidly (<2 h) upon activation. These innate T cells also share a non MHC class I or II restriction requirement for antigen recognition. Three major populations within the innate T cell group are recognized, namely, invariant NKT cells, mucosal associated invariant T cells, and gamma delta T cells. These cells recognize foreign/self-lipid presented by non-classical MHC molecules, such as CD1d, MR1, and CD1a. They are activated during the early stages of bacterial infection and act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review, we focus on the functional properties of these three innate T cell populations and how they are purposed for antimicrobial defense. Furthermore, we address the mechanisms through which their effector functions are targeted for bacterial control and compare this in human and murine systems. Lastly, we speculate on future roles of these cell types in therapeutic settings such as vaccination.

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Viral apoptotic mimicry : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral apoptotic mimicry : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, June 26, 3:54 AM

Plethora of events occur at the host pathogen interface and virus is no exception @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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HIV-1 and interferons: who's interfering with whom? : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

HIV-1 and interferons: who's interfering with whom? : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Critical Role for the DNA Sensor AIM2 in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer: Cell

Critical Role for the DNA Sensor AIM2 in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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A single gene turns colorectal cancer cells back into normal tissue in mice

A single gene turns colorectal cancer cells back into normal tissue in mice | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Anti-cancer strategies generally involve killing off tumor cells. However, cancer cells may instead be coaxed to turn back into normal tissue simply by reactivating a single gene, according to a study published June 18 in the journal Cell. Researchers found that restoring normal levels of a human colorectal cancer gene in mice stopped tumor growth and re-established normal intestinal function within only four days.
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Immunology and Cell Biology - A novel protein-based subunit Shigella vaccine candidate

Immunology and Cell Biology - A novel protein-based subunit Shigella vaccine candidate | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Immunology and Cell Biology focuses on the general functioning of the immune system in its broadest sense, with a particular emphasis on its cell biology. Areas that are covered include but are not limited to: Cellular immunology, Innate and adaptive immunity, Immune responses to pathogens,Tumour immunology,Immunopathology, Immunotherapy, Immunogenetics, Immunological studies in humans and model organisms (including mouse, rat, Drosophila etc)

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes

Host–Pathogen Coevolution: The Selective Advantage of Bacillus thuringiensis Virulence and Its Cry Toxin Genes | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
by Leila Masri, Antoine Branca, Anna E. Sheppard, Andrei Papkou, David Laehnemann, Patrick S. Guenther, Swantje Prahl, Manja Saebelfeld, Jacqueline Hollensteiner, Heiko Liesegang, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Rolf Daniel, Nicolaas K.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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EU rejects bid to ban animal testing in European labs - BBC News

EU rejects bid to ban animal testing in European labs - BBC News | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
An EU-wide campaign to stop laboratory experiments on animals fails to persuade the European Commission to impose a ban.
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