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Consequences of flagellin export through the type III secretion system of Pseudomonas syringae reveal a major difference in the innate immune systems of mammals and the mod...

Consequences of flagellin export through the type III secretion system of Pseudomonas syringae reveal a major difference in the innate immune systems of mammals and the mod... | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Bacterial flagellin is perceived as a microbe (or pathogen)-associated molecular pattern (MAMP or PAMP) by the extracellular pattern recognition receptors, FLS2 and TLR5, of plants and mammals, respectively.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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5 Viruses That Are Scarier Than Ebola

5 Viruses That Are Scarier Than Ebola | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
By Elizabeth Palermo, Staff Writer
Published: 08/15/2014 01:58 PM EDT on LiveScience

The Ebola virus has now killed more than 1,000 people in West Africa. Although the mortality rate of the most recent outbreak isn't as high as in previous eve...
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Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction

Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

A systematic quantitative analysis of temporal changes in host and viral proteins throughout the course of a productive infection could provide dynamic insights into virus-host interaction. We developed a proteomic technique called “quantitative temporal viromics” (QTV), which employs multiplexed tandem-mass-tag-based mass spectrometry. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is not only an important pathogen but a paradigm of viral immune evasion. QTV detailed how HCMV orchestrates the expression of >8,000 cellular proteins, including 1,200 cell-surface proteins to manipulate signaling pathways and counterintrinsic, innate, and adaptive immune defenses. QTV predicted natural killer and T cell ligands, as well as 29 viral proteins present at the cell surface, potential therapeutic targets. Temporal profiles of >80% of HCMV canonical genes and 14 noncanonical HCMV open reading frames were defined. QTV is a powerful method that can yield important insights into viral infection and is applicable to any virus with a robust in vitro model.


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Why HIV Virions Have Low Numbers of Envelope Spikes: Implications for Vaccine Development

Why HIV Virions Have Low Numbers of Envelope Spikes: Implications for Vaccine Development | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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Disruption of Fas-Fas Ligand Signaling, Apoptosis, and Innate Immunity by Bacterial Pathogens

Disruption of Fas-Fas Ligand Signaling, Apoptosis, and Innate Immunity by Bacterial Pathogens | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology (Our Pearls article is out: #PLOSPathogens: Disruption of Fas-Fas Ligand Signaling, Apoptosis, and Innate Immunity...

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Ebola and ZMapp: What is the 'Secret Serum' That 'Cured' American Doctor Kent Brantly?

Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu's insight:

"ZMapp is composed of three 'humanised' monoclonal antibodies manufactured in plants, specifically Nicotiana. It is an optimised cocktail combining the best components of MB-003 and ZMAb.

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Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu's curator insight, August 5, 12:24 PM

"ZMapp is composed of three 'humanised' monoclonal antibodies manufactured in plants, specifically Nicotiana. It is an optimised cocktail combining the best components of MB-003 and ZMAb.

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Cell division ‘master key’ protein structure revealed | Laboratory News

Cell division ‘master key’ protein structure revealed | Laboratory News | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
One of the most important proteins found in nature has been mapped by scientists from the Institute of Cancer Research.
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Effects of two amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins on the interaction of two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O with...

Some cell-adapted strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize heparan sulfate (HS) as a receptor to facilitate viral infection in cultured cells. A number of independent sites on the capsid that might be involved in FMDV-HS interaction have been studied. However, the previously reported residues do not adequately explain HS-dependent infection of two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains (O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc and O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc) of FMDV serotype O.
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Scientists 'delete' HIV virus from human DNA for the first time

Scientists 'delete' HIV virus from human DNA for the first time | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A team at Temple University in Philadelphia used a combination of a DNA-snipping enzyme to eradicate the viral genome from the human cell.
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Influenza A Virus Host Shutoff Disables Antiviral Stress-Induced Translation Arrest

Influenza A Virus Host Shutoff Disables Antiviral Stress-Induced Translation Arrest | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
by Denys A. Khaperskyy, Mohamed M. Emara, Benjamin P. Johnston, Paul Anderson, Todd F.

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Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes

Plant Pathogen Silences Host’s Immune Genes | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
by S. Marvin Friedman | As more and more information becomes available, one marvels (and also frets) at the sophisticated strategies that pathogens have evolved in order to evade their hosts’ defense mechanisms. Many pathogens of plants and animals deliver effectors into their hosts in order to suppress immune responses. To date, the vast majority of…
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Research | Research news | 2014 | Cellular defense against fatal associations between proteins and DNA

Research | Research news | 2014 | Cellular defense against fatal associations between proteins and DNA | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Max Planck researchers discover new mechanism of DNA repair
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Effective suppression of Dengue virus using a novel group-I intron that induces apoptotic cell death upon infection through conditional expression of the Bax C-termina...

Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic regions. Currently no consistently effective preventive measures for DENV exist, prompting development of transgenic and paratransgenic vector control approaches. Production of transgenic mosquitoes refractory for virus infection and/or transmission is contingent upon defining antiviral genes that have low probability for allowing escape mutations, and are equally effective against multiple serotypes. Previously we demonstrated the effectiveness of an anti-viral group I intron targeting U143 of the DENV genome in mediating trans-splicing and expression of a marker gene with the capsid coding domain. In this report we examine the effectiveness of coupling expression of DeltaN Bax to trans-splicing U143 intron activity as a means of suppressing DENV infection of mosquito cells.
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The placental specific gene, PLAC1, is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus and is expressed in human tumor cells

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causal agent in a number of malignancies in humans including hematopoietic tumors and non-hematopoietic tumors. Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines containing the Epstein-Barr virus have been shown to form tumors in nude mice while clonal derivatives of such cell lines in which the viral genome has been lost do not (JID 177: 1194-1201, 1998; JV 72: 9150-9156, 1998; JV 68: 6069-6073, 1994). The re-introduction of EBV into these EBV negative BLs reconstitutes the tumor phenotype. Thus, EBV-induced cellular genes play critical role in EBV-related tumors.
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Ebola Protein Discovery Could Clear Path For Treatment - YouTube

Researchers found Ebola's VP24 protein interferes with the body's immune response system. It's a finding that could lead to future treatment. Follow Jay Stru...
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The Role of Host and Microbial Factors in the Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Bacteraemia Arising from a Single Bacterial Cell Bottleneck

The Role of Host and Microbial Factors in the Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Bacteraemia Arising from a Single Bacterial Cell Bottleneck | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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Mouse Cytomegalovirus infection overrules T regulatory cell suppression on natural killer cells

Cytomegalovirus establishes lifelong persistency in the host and leads to life threatening situations in immunocompromised patients. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) critically control and suppress innate and adaptive immune responses. However, their specific role during MCMV infection, especially pertaining to their interaction with NK cells, remains incompletely defined.
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The typhoid fever pathogen uses a cloaking mechanism to evade neutrophil neutralization

The typhoid fever pathogen uses a cloaking mechanism to evade neutrophil neutralization | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Typhoid fever is caused by systemic infection with Salmonella enterica Typhi. In contrast, infection with the closely related bacterium Salmonella enterica Thyphimurium is usually limited to the gut and causes less serious diarrheal disease. Research published on Aug. 7 in PLOS Pathogens comparing the two pathogens reveals how S. Typhi avoids recognition and elimination by patrolling immune cells called neutrophils, allowing it to disseminate throughout the patient's body.
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Processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein by the proprotein convertase furin

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In the present study, we have investigated processing and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus. When GP expressed from vaccinia virus vectors was analyzed by pulse–chase experiments, the mature form and two different precursors were identified. First, the endoplasmic reticulum form preGPer, full-length GP with oligomannosidic N-glycans, was detected. preGPer (110 kDa) was replaced by the Golgi-specific form preGP (160 kDa), full-length GP containing mature carbohydrates. preGP was finally converted by proteolysis into mature GP1,2, which consisted of two disulfide-linked cleavage products, the amino-terminal 140-kDa fragment GP1, and the carboxyl-terminal 26-kDa fragment GP2. GP1,2 was also identified in Ebola virions. Studies employing site-directed mutagenesis revealed that GP was cleaved at a multibasic amino acid motif located at positions 497 to 501 of the ORF. Cleavage was blocked by a peptidyl chloromethylketone containing such a motif. GP is cleaved by the proprotein convertase furin. This was indicated by the observation that cleavage did not occur when GP was expressed in furin-defective LoVo cells but that it was restored in these cells by vector-expressed furin. The Reston subtype, which differs from all other Ebola viruses by its low human pathogenicity, has a reduced cleavability due to a mutation at the cleavage site. As a result of these observations, it should now be considered that proteolytic processing of GP may be an important determinant for the pathogenicity of Ebola virus.

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Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu's curator insight, August 3, 11:50 AM

In the present study, we have investigated processing and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus. When GP expressed from vaccinia virus vectors was analyzed by pulse–chase experiments, the mature form and two different precursors were identified. First, the endoplasmic reticulum form preGPer, full-length GP with oligomannosidic N-glycans, was detected. preGPer (110 kDa) was replaced by the Golgi-specific form preGP (160 kDa), full-length GP containing mature carbohydrates. preGP was finally converted by proteolysis into mature GP1,2, which consisted of two disulfide-linked cleavage products, the amino-terminal 140-kDa fragment GP1, and the carboxyl-terminal 26-kDa fragment GP2. GP1,2 was also identified in Ebola virions. Studies employing site-directed mutagenesis revealed that GP was cleaved at a multibasic amino acid motif located at positions 497 to 501 of the ORF. Cleavage was blocked by a peptidyl chloromethylketone containing such a motif. GP is cleaved by the proprotein convertase furin. This was indicated by the observation that cleavage did not occur when GP was expressed in furin-defective LoVo cells but that it was restored in these cells by vector-expressed furin. The Reston subtype, which differs from all other Ebola viruses by its low human pathogenicity, has a reduced cleavability due to a mutation at the cleavage site. As a result of these observations, it should now be considered that proteolytic processing of GP may be an important determinant for the pathogenicity of Ebola virus.

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Potential 'universal' blood test for cancer discovered

Potential 'universal' blood test for cancer discovered | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A simple blood test that can be used to diagnose whether people have cancer or not has been devised by researchers. The test will enable doctors to rule out cancer in patients presenting with certain symptoms, saving time and preventing costly and unnecessary invasive procedures such as colonoscopies and biopsies being carried out. Alternatively, it could be a useful aid for investigating patients who are suspected of having a cancer that is currently hard to diagnose.
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The CD8 Antiviral Factor (CAF) can suppress HIV-1 transcription from the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter in the absence of elements upstream of the CATATAA box

The CD8 Antiviral Factor (CAF) suppresses viral transcription from the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter in a non-cytolytic manner. However, the region on the LTR upon which CAF acts is unknown. Our objective was to determine the region on the LTR upon which CAF acts to suppress HIV-1 transcription.
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What Would It Take to Stop AIDS by 2030?

What Would It Take to Stop AIDS by 2030? | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The United Nations announced today that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic could be slowed to a trickle within the next two decades. Can it be done?
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Oncogenic Herpesvirus KSHV Hijacks BMP-Smad1-Id Signaling to Promote Tumorigenesis

Oncogenic Herpesvirus KSHV Hijacks BMP-Smad1-Id Signaling to Promote Tumorigenesis | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Although KSHV exerts multiple mechanisms to promote cell survival by repressing TGF-β signaling, little is known whether KSHV manipulates BMP signaling and contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies. In the present study, we have identified Smad1 as a novel binding protein of LANA by tandem affinity purification. We demonstrated that LANA up-regulated Id transcription through BMP-Smad1-Id signaling pathway. Id proteins were significantly up-regulated in KSHV-transformed MM (KMM) cells, and were abundantly expressed in human KS lesions; therefore, they were probably relevant to the development of KS. Importantly, we have shown that Ids are required to maintain the oncogenic phenotype of KMM cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus hijacks and converts a developmental pathway into an indispensable oncogenic pathway for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we showed that BMP signaling inhibitors dramatically hampered the tumorigenicity of KMM cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that small inhibitors targeting BMP-Smad1-Id signaling pathway are promising candidates for the treatment of KS.

 


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Small molecules that inhibit Vif-induced degradation of APOBEC3G

HIV-1 Vif is essential for virus replication in natural target cells such as T cells and macrophages. Vif recruits a ubiquitin ligase to degrade restrictive APOBEC3 proteins. APOBEC3G is one of the most potent retroviral restriction factors targeted by Vif and, as such, the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction has emerged as a promising HIV-1 therapeutic target.
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The 2014 Innate Immunity Summit - Euroscicon News

The 2014 Innate Immunity Summit - Euroscicon News | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A three day event discussing aspects of the innate immune system. This year there are three main topics for discussion The Innate Immunity Interactions with Pathogens Interactions of the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems ...

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell

Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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