The study suggests that in Sub-Saharan Africa, up to 15 percent* of HIV patients treated with tenofovir-based drug combinations will develop tenofovir resistance in the first year of treatment alone, with this figure rising over time.
Herpes simplex virus establishes latent infection in peripheral neurons, and neuronal stress is known to reactivate virus production, but the molecular mechanisms underlying reactivation are unclear. Cliffe et al. now show that a neuron-specific Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) stress pathway activates the expression of latent herpes simplex virus.
Herpesvirus graphic courtesy of Russell Kightley Media
RNAs are functionally diverse macromolecules whose proper functions rely strictly upon their correct tertiary structures. However, because of their high structural flexibility, correct folding of RNAs is challenging and slow. Therefore, cells and viruses encode a variety of RNA remodeling proteins, including helicases and RNA chaperones. In RNA viruses, these proteins are believed to play pivotal roles in all the processes involving viral RNAs during the life cycle. RNA helicases have been studied extensively for decades, whereas RNA chaperones, particularly virus-encoded RNA chaperones, are often overlooked. This review describes the activities of RNA chaperones encoded by RNA viruses, particularly the ones identified and characterized in recent years, and the functions of these proteins in different steps of viral life cycles, and presents an overview of this unique group of proteins.
Viral infection activates danger signals that are transmitted via the retinoic acid–inducible gene 1–like receptor (RLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein signaling...
The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established.
A team of researchers from Colorado State University has been studying DNA damage in living cells to learn more about how genetic abnormalities arise. It has long been known that DNA molecules in every cell get constantly damaged by things from the outside environment, like sunlight, cigarette smoke and radiation. However, more recently researchers have discovered that sources from within the cell itself can sometimes be even more damaging.
SLAM family receptors, associated with SAP adaptors, play key roles in immunity.
SLAM receptors can be either activating or inhibitory, depending on the context.
The SLAM family has been implicated in a wide range of human diseases.
One SLAM family receptor, SLAMF7, is a drug target in multiple myeloma.
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family is a group of six receptors restricted to hematopoietic cells. Most of these receptors are self-ligands, and thus are triggered in the context of interactions between hematopoietic cells. By way of their cytoplasmic domain, SLAM-related receptors associate with the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) family of adaptors, which control the signals and functions of SLAM family receptors. Recent findings have provided new insights into the key roles of SLAM family receptors in normal immunity, their involvement in human diseases and their usefulness as drug targets to treat human malignancies. These data are reviewed herein.
Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) are a subset of plant receptor-like kinases lacking both extracellular and transmembrane domains. Some of the 46 members in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RLCK subfamily VII have been linked to plant innate immunity; however, most remain uncharacterized. Thus, multiple subfamily VII members are expected to be involved in plant immune signaling. Here, we investigate the role of AvrPphB SUSCEPTIBLE1-LIKE13 (PBL13), a subfamily VII RLCK with unique domain architecture. Unlike other characterized RLCKs, PBL13 transfer DNA insertion lines exhibit enhanced disease resistance after inoculation with virulent Pseudomonas syringae. The pbl13-2 knockout also exhibits elevated basal-level expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 defense marker gene, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst in response to perception of bacterial microbial patterns, and accelerated flagellin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Recombinant PBL13 is an active kinase, and its primary autophosphorylated sites map to a 15-amino acid repeat motif unique to PBL13. Complementation of pbl13-2 with PBL13-3xFLAG converts the enhanced resistance and elevated ROS phenotypes back to wild-type levels. In contrast, kinase-dead PBL13K111A-3xFLAG was unable to rescue pbl13-2 disease phenotypes. Consistent with the enhanced ROS burst in the pbl13-2 knockout, PBL13 is able to associate with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced oxidase RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG PROTEIN D (RBOHD) by split-luciferase complementation assay, and this association is disrupted by flagellin treatment. We conclude that the PBL13 kinase negatively regulates plant innate immunity to pathogenic bacteria and can associate with RBOHD before pathogen perception. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that PBL13 acts to prevent inappropriate activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogen challenge.
Author Summary Dengue virus (DENV) is a major arthropod-borne human pathogen, infecting more than 400 million individuals annually worldwide; however, neither a therapeutic drug nor a prophylactic vaccine is currently available.
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