Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
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The Legionella Effector RavZ Inhibits Host Autophagy Through Irreversible Atg8 Deconjugation

Eukaryotic cells can use the autophagy pathway to defend against microbes that gain access to the cytosol or reside in pathogen-modified vacuoles.

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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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Designing A Faster, Better, Stronger Immune Response

Designing A Faster, Better, Stronger Immune Response | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
It is the antibodies that detect pathogens in order to fight infections and prevent disease, but there is an entire team of immune cells that work together
Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert C FAURE
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Modulation of apoptosis and viral latency – an axis to be well understood for successful cure of human immunodeficiency virus

The current review summarizes our present understanding of apoptosis modulation in HIV-infected cells, uninfected bystander cells and latently infected cells, with a focus on highlighting strategies to activate the apoptotic pathway to kill latently infected cells.

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CDC confirms Zika virus causes microcephaly, other birth defects

CDC confirms Zika virus causes microcephaly, other birth defects | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
This confirms what researchers have suspected with mounting evidence about harms caused by the virus.

 

Federal health officials confirmed Wednesday that the Zika virus causes a rare birth defect and other severe fetal abnormalities, marking a turning point in an epidemic that has spread to nearly 40 countries and territories in the Americas and elsewhere.

 

Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a careful review of existing research and agreed that the evidence was conclusive, Director Thomas Frieden said. It is the first time a mosquito-borne virus has been linked to congenital brain defects.

 

"It is now clear, and CDC has concluded, that the virus causes microcephaly," Frieden said. CDC is launching more studies to determine whether children with that rare condition, which is characterized at birth by an abnormally small head, represent the "tip of the iceberg of what we could see in damaging effects on the brain and other developmental problems."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Investors Europe Stock Brokers's curator insight, April 13, 10:24 PM

"It is now clear, and CDC has concluded, that the virus causes microcephaly," Frieden said. CDC is launching more studies to determine whether children with that rare condition, which is characterized at birth by an abnormally small head, represent the "tip of the iceberg of what we could see in damaging effects on the brain and other developmental problems."

Nicole Masureik's curator insight, April 14, 2:26 AM
We all thought as much, but how horrible to have it confirmed. My heart goes out to all those parents whose babies are affected, to the babies themselves, and to their extended families. What a tragedy for all concerned!
Rescooped by Kenzibit from Immunology and Biotherapies
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Genetically Modified Immune Cells With ‘Suicide Genes’ Designed To Attack Cancers

Genetically Modified Immune Cells With ‘Suicide Genes’ Designed To Attack Cancers | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Immunotherapies have been gaining in popularity in the last few years as a potential treatment for cancer. The idea is to use a patient’s own immune system to reject tumorous growth, either by vaccination, injection of substances that stimulate immunity, or cell transfer.
Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert C FAURE
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The Importance of Toll-like Receptors in NF-κB Signaling Pathway Activation by Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Regulators of this Response - Hu - 2016 - Helicobacter - Wiley Online Library

The Importance of Toll-like Receptors in NF-κB Signaling Pathway Activation by Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Regulators of this Response - Hu - 2016 - Helicobacter - Wiley Online Library | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common pathogenic bacterium in the stomach that infects almost half of the population worldwide and is closely related to gastric diseases and some extragastric diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia and...
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Cell Research - Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

Cell Research - Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Cell death and differentiation is a monthly research journal focused on the exciting field of programmed cell death and apoptosis.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
Kenzibit's insight:
Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
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Gilbert C FAURE's curator insight, April 3, 4:46 AM
Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
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Rescooped by Kenzibit from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Harnessing the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immune System as a Eukaryotic Antiviral Defense

Harnessing the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immune System as a Eukaryotic Antiviral Defense | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Via Ed Rybicki
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Black fever parasite beats drugs by adding just two DNA bases to its genome

Black fever parasite beats drugs by adding just two DNA bases to its genome | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute scientists show how the parasite responsible for the neglected tropical disease Black Fever (visceral leishmaniasis) can become immune to drug treatment. Studying the whole genomes of more than 200 samples of Leishmania donovani revealed that the addition of just two bases of DNA to a gene known as LdAQP1 stops the parasite from absorbing antimonial drugs.

While antimonials are no longer the first-line treatment for the disease, the discovery does show that whole-genome sequencing of L. donovani parasites could be used to study and track the emergence of resistance to frontline drugs – alerting health workers to potential hot spots of resistance.

Black Fever is the second most deadly parasitic disease after malaria, affecting nearly 300,000 people every year and killing up to 50,000. The parasite is mainly found in the Indian subcontinent, where up to 80 per cent of the disease occurs. To best understand how the parasite evolves and track the spread of drug resistance, researchers need a way to survey and monitor the parasite’s population structure. Unfortunately standard techniques to do this have proved fruitless because the strains of L. donovani parasite are so genetically similar.

 

Exploring the genetic landscape of L. donovani at such depth and breadth yielded new insights into the parasites’ ability to develop drug resistance, and its evolutionary history. In particular, the researchers found that the insertion of just two bases of DNA into the genome of approximately 35,000,000 bases helped the parasite to overcome antimonial drugs.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Scientists identify a virus and two bacteria that could be causing Alzheimer's

Scientists identify a virus and two bacteria that could be causing Alzheimer's | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
"We can’t keep ignoring the evidence.”
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How your microbiome can put you at the scene of the crime

How your microbiome can put you at the scene of the crime | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

One morning last summer, evolutionary biologist Jose Lopez was having coffee on the back porch of his house in Hollywood, Florida, when two burglars climbed in through a front window and did what home invaders usually do: They rifled through drawers, disconnected the TV to carry it off, and even opened the fridge to have a Coke.

 


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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How Gut Microbiota Impacts HIV Disease

How Gut Microbiota Impacts HIV Disease | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
A new understanding of the role gut microbiota plays in HIV disease is beginning to emerge, suggesting potential new strategies to manage the infection

Via Chad Smithson
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Inhibition of protein kinase C promotes dengue virus replication

Inhibition of protein kinase C promotes dengue virus replication | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Our in silico analyses indicated that the non-structural protein 5 (NS5), especially the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain, contains conserved phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (PKC). Phosphorylation of NS5 RdRp was further verified by PKC in vitro kinase assay. Inhibitions of PKC by a PKC-specific chemical inhibitor or siRNA suppressed NS5 phosphorylation in vivo, increased viral replication and reduced viability of the DENV-infected cells. In contrary, activation of PKC effectively suppressed intracellular viral number.

Via Cindy
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Vast Complexity of Immune Pattern Recognition Receptors

Vast Complexity of Immune Pattern Recognition Receptors | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
To respond to many different microbes & to avoid inflammation over reaction and disease, we need vast complexity of immune pattern recognition receptors.
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Ubiquitin versus misfolding: The minimal requirements for inclusion body formation

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CDC confirms Zika virus causes microcephaly, other birth defects

CDC confirms Zika virus causes microcephaly, other birth defects | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
This confirms what researchers have suspected with mounting evidence about harms caused by the virus.

 

Federal health officials confirmed Wednesday that the Zika virus causes a rare birth defect and other severe fetal abnormalities, marking a turning point in an epidemic that has spread to nearly 40 countries and territories in the Americas and elsewhere.

 

Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a careful review of existing research and agreed that the evidence was conclusive, Director Thomas Frieden said. It is the first time a mosquito-borne virus has been linked to congenital brain defects.

 

"It is now clear, and CDC has concluded, that the virus causes microcephaly," Frieden said. CDC is launching more studies to determine whether children with that rare condition, which is characterized at birth by an abnormally small head, represent the "tip of the iceberg of what we could see in damaging effects on the brain and other developmental problems."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Investors Europe Stock Brokers's curator insight, April 13, 10:24 PM

"It is now clear, and CDC has concluded, that the virus causes microcephaly," Frieden said. CDC is launching more studies to determine whether children with that rare condition, which is characterized at birth by an abnormally small head, represent the "tip of the iceberg of what we could see in damaging effects on the brain and other developmental problems."

Nicole Masureik's curator insight, April 14, 2:26 AM
We all thought as much, but how horrible to have it confirmed. My heart goes out to all those parents whose babies are affected, to the babies themselves, and to their extended families. What a tragedy for all concerned!
Rescooped by Kenzibit from DNA & RNA Research
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Cancer cells turn healthy cells to the ‘dark side’

Cancer cells turn healthy cells to the ‘dark side’ | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Cancer cells use a mutant gene to coerce neighbouring healthy tissue into helping with the disease’s growth and spread, a major new study reports.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Typhoid toxin increases host survival and promotes asymptomatic infection

Typhoid toxin increases host survival and promotes asymptomatic infection | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
MicrobeWorld explores the world of microbes with vivid images and descriptions. Learn about microbiology, what microbiologists do, how they do it, and current topics in the news.
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The Importance of Toll-like Receptors in NF-κB Signaling Pathway Activation by Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Regulators of this Response - Hu - 2016 - Helicobacter - Wiley Online Library

The Importance of Toll-like Receptors in NF-κB Signaling Pathway Activation by Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Regulators of this Response - Hu - 2016 - Helicobacter - Wiley Online Library | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common pathogenic bacterium in the stomach that infects almost half of the population worldwide and is closely related to gastric diseases and some extragastric diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia and...
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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11 Crazy Gene-Hacking Things We Can Do with CRISPR

11 Crazy Gene-Hacking Things We Can Do with CRISPR | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
11 Crazy Gene-Hacking Things We Can Do with CRISPR

Via Gerd Moe-Behrens
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Study finds vast diversity among viruses that infect bacteria 

Study finds vast diversity among viruses that infect bacteria  | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Microbial habitats worldwide likely shaped by RNA viruses that eat bacteria


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Elimination of HIV-1 Genomes from Human T-lymphoid Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing

Elimination of HIV-1 Genomes from Human T-lymphoid Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
We employed an RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 DNA editing system to precisely remove the entire HIV-1 genome spanning between 5′ and 3′ LTRs of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA copies from latently infected human CD4+ T-cells.
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Inhibition of CXCR4 by LY2624587, a Fully Humanized Anti-CXCR4 Antibody Induces Apoptosis of Hematologic Malignancies

Inhibition of CXCR4 by LY2624587, a Fully Humanized Anti-CXCR4 Antibody Induces Apoptosis of Hematologic Malignancies | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
SDF-1 and CXCR4 are a chemokine and chemokine receptor pair playing critical roles in tumorigenesis.
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Anti-Immunology: Evasion of the Host Immune System by Bacterial and Viral Pathogens: Cell

Anti-Immunology: Evasion of the Host Immune System by Bacterial and Viral Pathogens: Cell | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
And we thought tumor cells were sneaky... Anti-Immunology: Evasion of the host immune system. #immunology https://t.co/tG5zRRbmhQ
Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Stress wakes up the sleeping herpes virus

Stress wakes up the sleeping herpes virus | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Once someone has contracted herpes the virus can emerge again at any time. The re-emergence is linked with periods of stress. Scientists have been looking into how this happens.
The first finding relates to how herpes establishes a life-long association with an infected person. Here the DNA genome of the virus hides within the nucleus of human infected cells.
The second finding relates to how stress triggers a reactivation of the virus. This is connected to human cellular stress responses. For the study, University of Helsinki researchers looked at Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus.
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma (an aggressive form of lymphoma), a cancer commonly occurring in AIDS patients. Due to its cancer association, the virus is classified as an oncovirus ,a group that includes both RNA and DNA-based viruses. There are seven known oncoviruses that can cause cancer in humans. Other examples include human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus.

Via Ed Rybicki, Chris Upton + helpers
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