Computers and high-throughput sequencing technologies enabled an emerging field called genomics that will revolutionize the way we understand cancer and treat patients. Via comprehensive interrogation of the molecular and informational content of cells, genomics is adding immensely to the biological knowledge of cell normality and dysregulation that leads to cancer. In this talk, George Vasmatzis explains the Human Genome and how it's read and interpreted, as well as how genomics can be used for cancer biomarker discovery and patient treatment.
The proteins CD47 and SIRPα are fundamental to establishing a correct number of immune cells, so-called B lymphocytes. This according to a dissertation by Shrikant Shantilal Kolan from Umeå University in Sweden.
Multiple myeloma is a disorder of terminally differentiated plasma cells, characterized by immune dysfunction, deregulated signaling within the bone marrow stromal compartment, and a microenvironment that fosters immunosuppression. Immunomodulatory techniques, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), demonstrate long-term disease control via manipulation of the immunologic milieu. However, allo-HCT is associated with numerous toxicities including infectious complications and graft versus host effect and is not suitable for many patients. Novel agents and cellular-based therapies aim to restore the balance of humoral and adaptive immunity without the morbidity of allo-HCT and DLI. In the following review, we will summarize the use of immunomodulatory techniques in multiple myeloma, including monoclonal antibodies, vaccine therapy, checkpoint inhibitors, autologous T cells, and engineered T cells.
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A new RNA test of blood platelets can be used to detect, classify and pinpoint the location of cancer by analysing a sample equivalent to one drop of blood. Using this new method for blood-based RNA tests of blood platelets, researchers have been able to identify cancer with 96 per cent accuracy and classifying the type of cancer at an accuracy of 71 per cent. This according to a study at Umeå University that has recently been published in the journal Cancer Cell.
Researchers at University of Virginia School of Medicine find that mice injected with flu virus began producing large amounts of red blood cells, in development that could remove need for blood transfusions
It all began in 1891, when Dr. William B. Coley, a bone sarcoma surgeon at the Memorial Hospital in New York, injected streptococcal organisms into a patient with inoperable cancer. He thought that the infection he induced would have the
A unique molecule developed at Duke Medicine, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and MacroGenics, Inc., is able to bind HIV-infected cells to the immune system's killer T cells. It could become a key part of a shock-and-kill strategy being developed in the hope of one day clearing HIV infection.
A team including the scientist who first harnessed the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas9 system for mammalian genome editing has now identified a different CRISPR system with the potential for even simpler and more precise genome engineering.
Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both the transient PTI ROS burst and the robust ETI ROS burst. Here, we show that RBOHB transactivation mediated by MAPK contributes to R3a/AVR3a-triggered ETI (AVR3a-ETI) ROS burst. RBOHB is markedly induced during the ETI and INF1-triggered PTI (INF1-PTI), but not flg22-tiggered PTI (flg22-PTI). We found that the RBOHB promoter contains a functional W-box in the R3a/AVR3a and INF1 signal-responsive cis-element. Ectopic expression of four phospho-mimicking mutants of WRKY transcription factors, which are MAPK substrates, induced RBOHB, and yeast one-hybrid analysis indicated that these mutants bind to the cis-element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated direct binding of the WRKY to the cis-element in plants. Silencing of multiple WRKY genes compromised the upregulation of RBOHB, resulting in impairment of AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts, but not the flg22-PTI ROS burst. These results suggest that the MAPK-WRKY pathway is required for AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts by activation of RBOHB.
In the past two weeks we've learned of a major advance in ongoing efforts to halt the spread of HIV, two separate clinical studies have reported that a daily regimen of a pill called Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing infection in high risk groups. This success is a result…
Editorial: Mannose-6-phosphate receptor delivers the death sentence Journal of Leukocyte Biology (subscription) M6PR is dramatically up-regulated on CD8+ T cells following activation , where this receptor has been shown to be involved in the...
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