Hormones in Plant Development
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Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors : Nature

Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors : Nature | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

"Rising temperatures and lessening fresh water supplies are threatening agricultural productivity and have motivated efforts to improve plant water use and drought tolerance. During water deficit, plants produce elevated levels of abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance by controlling guard cell aperture and other protective responses.... Here we describe a variant of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE 1 (PYR1) that possesses nanomolar sensitivity to the agrochemical mandipropamid and demonstrate its efficacy for controlling ABA responses and drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, crystallographic studies provide a mechanistic basis for its activity and demonstrate the relative ease with which the PYR1 ligand-binding pocket can be altered to accommodate new ligands. Thus, we have successfully repurposed an agrochemical for a new application using receptor engineering. We anticipate that this strategy will be applied to other plant receptors and represents a new avenue for crop improvement."


Via Mary Williams, ROOTSPROUT
M S's insight:

Nice study

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Mary Williams's curator insight, February 5, 2015 2:57 AM

There's a nice radio interview w/ Sean Cutler on the Nature site too
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature14123.html

Rescooped by M S from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Auxin conjugated to fluorescent dyes – a tool for the analysis of auxin transport pathways

Auxin conjugated to fluorescent dyes – a tool for the analysis of auxin transport pathways | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

Auxin is a small molecule involved in most processes related to plant growth and development. Its effect usually depends on the distribution in tissues and the formation of concentration gradients. Until now there has been no tool for the direct tracking of auxin transport at the cellular and tissue level; therefore the majority of studies have been based on various indirect methods. However, due to their various restrictions, relatively little is known about the relationship between various pathways of auxin transport and specific developmental processes. We present a new research tool: fluorescently labelled auxin in the form of a conjugate with two different fluorescent tracers, FITC and RITC, which allows direct observation of auxin transport in plant tissues. Chemical analysis and biological tests have shown that our conjugates have auxin-like biological activity and transport; therefore they can be used in all experimental systems as an alternative to IAA. In addition, the conjugates are a universal tool that can be applied in studies of all plant groups and species. The conjugation procedure presented in this paper can be adapted to other fluorescent dyes, which are constantly being improved. In our opinion, the conjugates greatly expand the possibilities of research concerning the role of auxin and its transport in different developmental processes in plants.


Via Francis Martin
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, January 15, 2014 9:45 AM

That will be useful!

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Engineering synthetic TALE and CRISPR/Cas9 transcription factors for regulating gene expression -Methods

Engineering synthetic TALE and CRISPR/Cas9 transcription factors for regulating gene expression -Methods | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Kabadi & Gersbach, 2014

Engineered DNA-binding proteins that can be targeted to specific sites in the genome to manipulate gene expression have enabled many advances in biomedical research. This includes generating tools to study fundamental aspects of gene regulation and the development of a new class of gene therapies that alter the expression of endogenous genes. Designed transcription factors have entered clinical trials for the treatment of human diseases and others are in preclinical development. High-throughput and user-friendly platforms for designing synthetic DNA-binding proteins present innovative methods for deciphering cell biology and designing custom synthetic gene circuits. We review two platforms for designing synthetic transcription factors for manipulating gene expression: Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and the RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We present an overview of each technology and a guide for designing and assembling custom TALE- and CRISPR/Cas9-based transcription factors. We also discuss characteristics of each platform that are best suited for different applications.


Via dromius
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A new subfamily of putative cytokinin receptors is revealed by an analysis of the evolution of the two-component signaling system of plants


Via PMG
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PMG's curator insight, February 12, 2014 2:28 AM

a novel subfamily of cytokinin receptors with members only from the early diverging land plants Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens and then experimentally characterized two members of this subfamily. HTPs of charophyceae seemed to be more closely related to those of land plants than to other groups of green algae. Further down the signaling pathway, the type-B RRs were found across all plant clades, but many members lack either the canonical Asp residue or the DNA-binding domain. In contrast, the type-A RRs seemed to be limited to land plants. Finally, the analysis provided hints that one additional group of RRs, the type-C RRs, might be degenerated receptors and thus evolutionary of a different origin than bona fide response regulators.

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Structural Basis for DNA Binding Specificity by the Auxin-Dependent ARF Transcription Factors

Structural Basis for DNA Binding Specificity by the Auxin-Dependent ARF Transcription Factors | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

Via PMG
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PMG's curator insight, February 2, 2014 10:43 AM

Finally structural basis of ARFs for DNA binding is now revealed.

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Structural basis for cytokinin recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana histidine kinase 4 (Nature Chemical Biology)

Structural basis for cytokinin recognition by Arabidopsis thaliana histidine kinase 4 (Nature Chemical Biology) | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

Cytokinins are classic hormones that orchestrate plant growth and development and the integrity of stem cell populations. Cytokinin receptors are eukaryotic sensor histidine kinases that are activated by both naturally occurring adenine-type cytokinins and urea-based synthetic compounds. Crystal structures of the Arabidopsis thaliana histidine kinase 4 sensor domain in complex with different cytokinin ligands now rationalize the hormone-binding specificity of the receptor and may spur the design of new cytokinin ligands.


Via GMI Vienna
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PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) regulates auxin biosynthesis at high temperature (PNAS)

PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) regulates auxin biosynthesis at high temperature (PNAS) | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

At high ambient temperature, plants display dramatic stem elongation in an adaptive response to heat. This response is mediated by elevated levels of the phytohormone auxin and requires auxin biosynthesis, signaling, and transport pathways. The mechanisms by which higher temperature results in greater auxin accumulation are unknown, however. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), is also required for hypocotyl elongation in response to high temperature. PIF4 also acts redundantly with its homolog, PIF5, to regulate diurnal growth rhythms and elongation responses to the threat of vegetative shade. PIF4 activity is reportedly limited in part by binding to both the basic helix-loop-helix protein LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED 1 and the DELLA family of growth-repressing proteins. Despite the importance of PIF4 in integrating multiple environmental signals, the mechanisms by which PIF4 controls growth are unknown. Here we demonstrate that PIF4 regulates levels of auxin and the expression of key auxin biosynthesis genes at high temperature. We also identify a family of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes that are expressed at high temperature in a PIF4-dependent manner and promote elongation growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate direct molecular links among PIF4, auxin, and elongation growth at high temperature.


Via GMI Vienna
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The CLE40 and CRN/CLV2 Signaling Pathways Antagonistically Control Root Meristem Growth in Arabidopsis

Differentiation processes in the primary root meristem are controlled by several signaling pathways that are regulated by phytohormones or by secreted peptides. Long-term maintenance of an active root meristem requires that the generation of new stem cells and the loss of these from the meristem due to differentiation are precisely coordinated. Via phenotypic and large-scale transcriptome analyses of mutants, we show that the signaling peptide CLE40 and the receptor proteins CLV2 and CRN act in two genetically separable pathways that antagonistically regulate cell differentiation in the proximal root meristem. CLE40 inhibits cell differentiation throughout the primary root meristem by controlling genes with roles in abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin signaling. CRN and CLV2 jointly control target genes that promote cell differentiation specifically in the transition zone of the proximal root meristem. While CRN and CLV2 are not acting in the CLE40 signaling pathway under normal growth conditions, both proteins are required when the levels of CLE40 or related CLE peptides increase. We show here that two antagonistically acting pathways controlling root meristem differentiation can be activated by the same peptide in a dosage-dependent manner.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Current Biology - An Auxin Transport Mechanism Restricts Positive Orthogravitropism in Lateral Roots

Current Biology - An Auxin Transport Mechanism Restricts Positive Orthogravitropism in Lateral Roots | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

For all you auxin / gravitropism / lateral root fans (aren't we all?)


Via Mary Williams
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Cytokinin signaling stabilizes the response activator ARR1 - Kurepa - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Cytokinin signaling stabilizes the response activator ARR1 - Kurepa - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

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PMG's curator insight, February 12, 2014 2:36 AM

ytokinin signaling increases the abundance of ARR1, a ubiquitously expressed RRB, by preventing its degradation by the 26S proteasome. We also show that the RRAs act to suppress ARR1 accumulation, thus providing an explanation for their inhibitory action in cytokinin signaling. Collectively, our results reveal an additional regulatory mechanism in the cytokinin response pathway that involves the cytokinin–dependent stability control of a major RRB response activator.

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Different auxin response machineries control distinct cell fates in the early plant embryo (Developmental Cell)

Different auxin response machineries control distinct cell fates in the early plant embryo (Developmental Cell) | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

The cell types of the plant root are first specified early during embryogenesis and are maintained throughout plant life. Auxin plays an essential role in embryonic root initiation, in part through the action of the ARF5/MP transcription factor and its auxin-labile inhibitor IAA12/BDL. MP and BDL function in embryonic cells but promote auxin transport to adjacent extraembryonic suspensor cells, including the quiescent center precursor (hypophysis). Here we show that a cell-autonomous auxin response within this cell is required for root meristem initiation. ARF9 and redundant ARFs, and their inhibitor IAA10, act in suspensor cells to mediate hypophysis specification and, surprisingly, also to prevent transformation to embryo identity. ARF misexpression, and analysis of the short suspensor mutant, demonstrates that lineage-specific expression of these ARFs is required for normal embryo development. These results imply the existence of a prepattern for a cell-type-specific auxin response that underlies the auxin-dependent specification of embryonic cell types.


Via GMI Vienna
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Brassinosteroids inhibit pathogen-associated molecular pattern–triggered immune signaling independent of the receptor kinase BAK1 (PNAS)

Brassinosteroids inhibit pathogen-associated molecular pattern–triggered immune signaling independent of the receptor kinase BAK1 (PNAS) | Hormones in Plant Development | Scoop.it

Plants and animals use innate immunity as a first defense against pathogens, a costly yet necessary tradeoff between growth and immunity. In Arabidopsis, the regulatory leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) BAK1 combines with the LRR-RLKs FLS2 and EFR in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and the LRR-RLK BRI1 in brassinosteroid (BR)-mediated growth. Therefore, a potential tradeoff between these pathways mediated by BAK1 is often postulated. Here, we show a unidirectional inhibition of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by BR perception. Unexpectedly, this effect occurred downstream or independently of complex formation with BAK1 and associated downstream phosphorylation. Thus, BAK1 is not rate-limiting in these pathways. BRs also inhibited signaling triggered by the BAK1-independent recognition of the fungal PAMP chitin. Our results suggest a general mechanism operative in plants in which BR-mediated growth directly antagonizes innate immune signaling.


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