HMHS History
6.6K views | +0 today
Follow
HMHS History
"Where liberty is, there is my country." - Benjamin Franklin
Curated by Michael Miller
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Czech Republic poised to change name to 'Czechia'

Czech Republic poised to change name to 'Czechia' | HMHS History | Scoop.it
The Czech Republic is expected to change its name to "Czechia" to make it easier for companies and sports teams to use it on products and clothing.

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 15, 9:12 AM

That sound you hear is cartographers and database managers gasping at the joy and shock of need to updata all their data and maps.  Old maps still show Czechoslovakia, maybe on date in the future someone will be excited to find "The Czech Republic" on the map as much as I was fascinated to discover Hindustan on a 19th century globe. I also enjoyed this quote from the Czech foreign minister: “It is not good if a country does not have clearly defined symbols or if it even does not clearly say what its name is."  

 

Tag: Czechia, languagetoponyms, culture.

Laura Brown's curator insight, April 15, 11:22 AM

Marketing and media are the new gods. Can't imagine the power they have in order to cause a country to change it's name. Not so long ago battles and wars were fought over cultural identity, now it's for sale. 

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Teenage Girls Have Led Language Innovation for Centuries

Teenage Girls Have Led Language Innovation for Centuries | HMHS History | Scoop.it
They've been on the cutting edge of the English language since at least the 1500s

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Woodstock School's curator insight, September 8, 2015 1:22 AM

Do we speak their language?

Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, September 8, 2015 1:03 PM

unit 3

Chris Costa's curator insight, September 9, 2015 2:37 PM

I find the social aspect of this absolutely fascinating; gender may be entirely a cultural construct, but we can see its influences in every aspect of human life. Women are responsible for 90 percent of linguistic changes that occur over the course of our lifetimes- because men resist such changes due to their (mostly) feminine origins. A good, witty read for those interested.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts

The world’s languages, in 7 maps and charts | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"These seven maps and charts, visualized by The Washington Post, will help you understand how diverse other parts of the world are in terms of languages."

 

Tags: language, culture, infographic.


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Caitlyn Christiansen's curator insight, May 26, 2015 10:35 AM

The world is extremely diverse in its spread of native languages. Yet only a handful are commonly spoken by the majority of the world, about 2/3. Over half of the world's languages are expected to go extinct because of the extreme diversity and the minimal distribution which means that in some places almost every person speaks a completely different language and many are dying as their last speakers do not pass it on to their children.

 

This article is relates to cultural patterns and processes through the geographic spread of languages around the globe and the increasing acculturation that causes the loss of many of these languages in our increasingly globalized world.

Michael Amberg's curator insight, May 26, 2015 10:35 PM

Its interesting to see just how many people speak the languages we speak everyday, and to see just how many people DONT speak it.

Shane C Cook's curator insight, May 27, 2015 5:34 AM

It is amazing to see all main languages in perspective to the world. Mandarine holding the top spot with 1.39 Billion surprises me but at the same time doesn't. There are 1.3 billion people living there in the first place.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

32 Mispronounced Places

32 Mispronounced Places | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"There’s nothing more irritating to a pedant’s ear and nothing more flabbergasting than realizing you’ve been pronouncing the name of so many places wrong, your entire life! Despite the judgment we exhibit toward people who err in enunciating, we all mispronounce a word from time to time, despite our best efforts. Well, now it’s time we can really stop mispronouncing the following places."


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Kristen McDaniel's curator insight, February 20, 2015 11:37 AM

So interesting!  I knew Louisville, only because my husband of almost 18 years is from there and taught me very early in our relationship that it was "Luh-vull".  ha!  

Savannah Rains's curator insight, March 24, 2015 3:14 AM

This fun article is telling people about common places that we butcher the names of. Some of the reasons that we say them wrong is because they are in different languages so we shouldn't be pronouncing everything perfectly. But the ones that we say everyday like Colorado, is because we ALL mispronounce it so it becomes the norm. This article really sheds some light on the way that languages can be misinterpreted or changed because of people.

Claire Law's curator insight, April 26, 2015 2:16 AM

I love discovering I've mispronounced a word, particularly place names. Most of these are in the US but the few international examples are interesting (and the mispronounced variations are perplexing, perhaps we're blessed in Australia with journalists who can pronounce tricky foreign toponyms). I'm surprised Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) and Uluru (NT, Australia) don't make the list.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

23 maps and charts on language

23 maps and charts on language | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"Did you know that Swedish has more in common with Hindi than it does with Finnish? Explaining everything within the limits of the world is probably too ambitious a goal for a list like this. But here are 23 maps and charts that can hopefully illuminate small aspects of how we manage to communicate with one another."

 

Tags: language, culture, English, infographic.


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Rich Schultz's curator insight, November 26, 2014 1:40 PM

Mapping of languages...

Isabella El-Hage's curator insight, March 19, 2015 11:15 AM

This article links with Unit Three through "language and communication". These 23 maps range from the history of languages, which languages connect with which, common languages in certain places, different phrases used in the same country for the same thing, and more. Looking at maps to spatially see language helps when trying to understand how the world communicates. One of the maps that I found interesting was the "New York tweets by language". It shows how diverse that city is, and how people are still preserving their native language in a English prominent country.  

Avery Liardon's curator insight, March 23, 2015 9:00 PM

Unit 2:

Shows how many languages are actually closely related. Whether or not they sound the same or are located in similar regions, many share the same origins. For example: many words in Spanish and English are the same due to their similar roots. 

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

The Geography of Language

"Over the course of human history, thousands of languages have developed from what was once a much smaller number. How did we end up with so many? And how do we keep track of them all? Alex Gendler explains how linguists group languages into language families, demonstrating how these linguistic trees give us crucial insights into the past."


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Woodstock School's curator insight, June 4, 2014 6:05 AM

A good teaching tool for explaining the diversity of languages.

Adilson Camacho's curator insight, June 12, 2014 9:38 PM

Geografia Cultural

Chris Plummer's curator insight, January 11, 2015 11:46 PM

Summary- This video explains how so many languages came to be and why. By the early existence of human there was a such smaller variety of languages. Tribes that spoke one language would often split in search of new recourses. Searching tribe would develop in many new different ways than the original tribe. new foods, land, and other elements created a radically different language than the original. 

 

Insight- In unit 3 we study language as a big element of out chapter. One key question in chapter 6 was why are languages distributed the way they are. It is obvious from the video that languages are distributed they way they are is because of the breaking up from people which forced people to develop differently thus creating a different language. As this process continues, there become more and more branches of a language family.  

Rescooped by Michael Miller from AP Human Geography Digital Knowledge Source
Scoop.it!

Are Elvish, Klingon, Dothraki and Na'vi real languages?

View full lesson on TED-ED: What do Game of Thrones' Dothraki, Avatar's Na'vi, Star Trek's Klingon and LOTR's Elvish have in common? They are all fantasy constructed languages, or conlangs. Conlangs have all the delicious complexities of real languages: a high volume of words, grammar rules, and room for messiness and evolution. John McWhorter explains why these invented languages captivate fans long past the rolling credits.


Via Seth Dixon, Allison Anthony
more...
Seth Dixon's curator insight, January 4, 2014 10:54 AM

This TED ED video lesson brings up some important questions to ponder for cultural geography (and uses some popular fantasy/science fiction examples to do it).   For languages that are spoken by actual populations, they often 'borrow' vocabulary from other languages, making some ask the question, can loan words damage language integrity? 

 

Tags: language, culture.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Atlas of True Names

Atlas of True Names | HMHS History | Scoop.it

The Atlas of True Names reveals the etymological roots, or original meanings,
of the familiar terms on today's maps of the World, Europe, the British Isles and the United States.

For instance, where you would normally expect to see the Sahara indicated,
the Atlas gives you "The Tawny One", derived from Arab. es-sahra “the fawn coloured, desert”.


Via Seth Dixon
more...
John Blunnie's curator insight, July 2, 2013 11:12 AM

True names give these maps a unique and historic twist.

Carol Thomson's curator insight, July 17, 2013 4:57 AM

I loved looking at the map of great britain.  I hope it grabs my pupils' attention as an introduction to maps.

Amy Marques's curator insight, July 31, 2013 7:19 PM

Great to see what the original names where! Especially for those that are similar to its current name and those that are completely irrelevant!

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

The Geography of Chechnya

The Geography of Chechnya | HMHS History | Scoop.it
The Caucasus region, dominated by the imposing Great Caucasus mountain range and stretching between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, has long been known as one of the world’s ethnically and linguistically most diverse areas.

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Marissa Roy's curator insight, November 19, 2013 10:16 AM

Most Americans had never heard Chechnya before the Boston bombing in April 2013. Now, most think that it is full of America-hating terriosts. However, Chechnya is so very complex and diverse a place, that it is ludacris to think that. Over 100 languages are spoken in the country. The southern half speaks languages such as Georgian, Svan and Mingrelian. Turkish, Iranian and Chechens are the languages you will probably hear in the North. Another misconception is that there are many Christians in Chechnya as well as Muslims. This country is made up of so many different groups, it is incredible. 

Elizabeth Bitgood's curator insight, March 3, 2014 9:27 AM

It is amazing to consider such a small area (the size of New England) could hold such a vast area of languages.  The mountainous region certainly helps in creating such diversity as it isolated villages from each other in the ages before modern communication and travel.

Samuel D'Amore's curator insight, December 15, 2014 6:46 PM

This map does a fantastic job of highlighting the cultural diversity within Russia and the former Soviet states. Understanding how these cultural regions overlap one another is paramount in understanding the region's tensions and the repercussions that result including Chechen terrorism in Russia and even in America (Boston bombings).

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

There’s a Philly Sign Language Accent

There’s a Philly Sign Language Accent | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"Speech with a drawl, twang, clipped consonants, broad vowels, slurred words or extra diphthongs might give away that the speaker is from the American South, Boston, the Midwest or elsewhere. The spice that a certain region may lend to spoken language can even be strong enough to flavor non-audible language as well. Indeed, American Sign Language (ASL) has its own accents. And like its audible counterpart, one of the strongest regional accents in ASL is that of Philadelphia residents, reports Nina Porzucki for PRI."

 

Tags: language, culture, regions.

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Abdulsalam Al-Mukradi's curator insight, February 14, 7:16 PM

Accents are varies but we really have to care about the language itself. Universities play a major role in avoiding accents in languages. They try to use one accent that follow the dictionary phonetics.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Long Toponyms

Liam Dutton nails pronouncing Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch

 

Known as Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, Llanfair PG and Llanfairpwll, the small community of 3,000 on the island of Anglesey has the longest single word toponym (place name) in Europe. The name means "Saint Mary's Church in a hollow of white hazel near the swirling whirlpool of the church of Saint Tysilio with a red cave."

The longest toponym in the world is a New Zealand hill named Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu.

 

Tags:place, language, toponyms.


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Antonios Vitaliotis's curator insight, September 23, 2015 2:27 PM
After a few drinks...ask your friends to say: Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch
John Puchein's curator insight, November 6, 2015 7:40 AM

The city in this is featured in our text books. I know this guy practiced it for a while just to say it on TV! 

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Sixty Languages at Risk of Extinction in Mexico—Can They Be Kept Alive?

Sixty Languages at Risk of Extinction in Mexico—Can They Be Kept Alive? | HMHS History | Scoop.it
Sixty of Mexico's native languages are at risk of being silenced forever—but many people are working to keep them alive, experts say.

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Chris Costa's curator insight, September 20, 2015 10:28 PM

Monolingualism is great in the sense that it facilitates greater communication across a wider range of people, creating a sense of unity among those same people. However, lingual differences are one of the most beautiful aspects of human culture and civilization, with thousands of specific idioms and uses pertaining to each language shaping a millennium of various human experiences scattered across the globe. I often must explain to my friends that something that sounds good in one language I speak (I am moderately fluent in Portuguese) does not translate well in the other when each individual word is translated rather than the sentiment of the phrase as a whole. It is sad to think that this collection of specific nuances and experiences pertaining to a multitude of languages could be lost by the end of the century; in our desire to be closer to each other, we are losing the best of what we have to offer one another.  I hope that efforts to reverse this trend are successful. On a more light-hearted note, I did chuckle a little while reading that two of the last speakers of one of these indigenous languages in Mexico are two old men who refuse to speak to one another. They have the power to save something much larger than themselves, and yet are unable to do so because of petty, earthly rivalries. Humans are a complicated bunch.

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, September 22, 2015 8:29 AM

The demise of a language is a truly tragic event. I am heartened to see that there are efforts being undertaken to preserve these historic languages. New technologies  will hopefully aid us in this effort. I imagine that the United States probably faces similar issues when it comes to language loss. We should coordinate some sort of national policy in how to deal with the issue. The current state of political affairs will probably hamper  the cause, but it is still worth a shot. I am in full support of all efforts that might preserve these classic languages.

Gene Gagne's curator insight, December 2, 2015 9:29 AM

This is one of the reasons that when immigrants come into this country its important they keep their native language going as well as learning to speak English. The sharing of culture, and language is indeed very important. Lots of people come to America and are told to speak English and eventually they lose their native language as well as culture. The English speaking only citizens of this country lose out on a good education about someone's native country. Its too bad. Just think music, language, food, values etc...there is a lot to learn.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Cultural Code-Switching

Cultural Code-Switching | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"The way we mix languages and speech patterns is an apt metaphor for the way race, ethnicity and culture intersect in our lives."


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 3, 2015 3:57 PM

Who we are, and how we behave is often dependent on the the circumstances and the cultural norms that govern those situations, places and relationships.  All of us, including President Obama, fit into many distinct cultural environments and the picture above shows a quick moment, when he can slip in and out of cultural settings (this was spoofed by Key and Peele). 


Questions to Ponder: When do you 'code switch' and how come?  What does this mean for society at large and for the intersecting cultural groups with which we personally might identify?  When is this being fake or culturally inauthentic? 


Tags: culturelanguage, race, unit 3 culture.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

-stan by your land

Central Asia is full of lands whose names end in -stan. A certain powerful North American country has a related name. How? It's not your standard explanation...

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Chris Costa's curator insight, October 19, 2015 12:15 PM

I found this video to be incredibly interesting. I am moderately fluent in Portuguese, and comparing the language with English has always left me with an incredible fascination with human languages in general. As uniquely complex as each language we speak today has become, it is always interesting to see similarities in pronunciation, grammar, and syntax between two languages we would never associate with each other; the other day, I was reading about the influences of French on the Anglo-saxon language structures we see today in modern English (it is believed that all native English speakers already know up to 15,000 words in French as well, all the result of French influences in the English royal court for hundreds of years). Seeing the word "sta" be manifested in so many different language groups- Germanic, Slavic, and Persian- is mind blowing when one considers how much time has passed since the word was first used. With many Americans today harboring numerous xenophobic and racist views concerning everything they perceive to be "other," it's nice to be reminded that, for all our differences, we are a lot more alike than many of us would like to admit. 

Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, December 14, 2015 11:17 AM

it's interesting that a word that originated in one country half a world away influenced our entire nation, in the form of the name we took, and almost every nation on earth through the influence of language.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 12:27 PM

A very interesting little video. While I was already aware that the -stan at the end of the Central Asia state names meant country. What I found fascinating is how it derives from the term for field and standing thus being in or of a place. I also found it interesting how it brings up the other historical -stans but it failed to show Kurdistan for some reason because that is closer to becoming a reality than most of the others. The video unfortunately became difficult to follow for me at least after a while doing all the linguistic tracing to English and other indo-european languages to effectively say Canada and terms like homestead are similar if not the same type of thing as -stan. The Pakistan segments was interesting for simply learning what the first half of the nations name was. Lastly it should be observed that culturally and geographically the term 0stan seems to be in the Middle East/Central Asia and reference steppe decent cultures. Hopefully if a followup video is ever made it will clarify on these things a bit more and discuss Kurdistan which it left out.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Linguistic Family Tree

Linguistic Family Tree | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"When linguists talk about the historical relationship between languages, they use a tree metaphor. An ancient source (say, Indo-European) has various branches (e.g., Romance, Germanic), which themselves have branches (West Germanic, North Germanic), which feed into specific languages (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian).  Minna Sundberg, creator of the webcomic Stand Still. Stay Silent, a story set in a lushly imagined post-apocalyptic Nordic world, has drawn the antidote to the boring linguistic tree diagram."


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Linda Denty's curator insight, November 9, 2014 7:31 PM

A really wonderful graphic.

Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, November 11, 2014 3:21 AM

Linguistic Family Tree

Sreya Ayinala's curator insight, December 2, 2014 9:50 PM

Unit 3 Cultural Patterns and Processes (Language)

      The image shows how many languages are related and have many common ancestors. Languages are grouped into language families and are even more broadly categorized.

      Language is a huge part of culture and it is the way that people communicate amongst each other. There are hundreds of languages in our world, but as globalization and pop culture diffuse many languages are being lost and no longer spoken. A good example of a dead language would be Latin. Many of our common day languages trace their roots back to Latin, but no one speaks Latin anymore.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

A tour of the British Isles in accents

Got the audio here - http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01slnp5 The person doing the voice is Andrew Jack who is a dialect coach.

 

Tags: language, culture, English, UK.


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Sascha Humphrey's curator insight, April 6, 2014 4:33 AM

He's really quite good, and the seamless change of dialect is quite impressive!

Michael MacNeil's curator insight, April 6, 2014 11:32 AM

The diversity of the English language is amazing.  Even in the "motherland" it changes from location to location...aye bay goom.

Melissa Marshall's curator insight, April 9, 2014 10:19 PM

This is a really interesting video for understanding regional dialect differences!

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

How Far Is It To The 'Boondocks'? Try The Philippines

How Far Is It To The 'Boondocks'? Try The Philippines | HMHS History | Scoop.it

Few know "boondocks" is a relic of U.S. military occupation in the Philippines.

 


Via Seth Dixon
more...
Seth Dixon's curator insight, October 8, 2013 10:06 PM

I imaged that the term 'the boondocks' was of Asian origin, but I was surprised to learn how this U.S. military lingo was able to become a mainstream term.  The Tagalog word bundok means mountain and given the guerrilla warfare tactics, U.S. soldiers thought of their enemies as hiding 'in the boondocks.' This term spread throughout the military to mean an isolated region, but today the term has morphed from its military-based meaning of mountainous jungles to one that can also describe a sparsely populated rural America.  This is a fascinating article from NPR's Code Switch team that focuses on issues of culture, identity and race. 


Tags: language, toponyms, historical, conflict, culturediffusion.

Tony Aguilar's curator insight, October 13, 2013 3:06 AM

We have all heard the phrase living in the "Boonies" The boondocks was a word that was taken from a philipino word called Bundok, that meant the guerilla warfare they were experiencing from phillipino insurgents during the Spanish American War with the America. In this war which Teddy Roosevelt helped lead we gained US Puerto Rico and Guam as new Territories from the Treaty of Paris. The war was fought against Emilio Aguinaldo who was a master at guerilla tactics against American soldiers. This was a desperate war involving coloniazation or exerting our power as a country against other countries that ammassed a huge death toll. Now that we know the word boondok, is not an all American word that was popularized in the 1950's but it was actually taken from the Phillipino language during a time of fighting in the Jungle or the Sticks. But boondocks also refers to a people living around mouintainous regions. Just some food for thought.

Rescooped by Michael Miller from AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DIGITAL STUDY: MIKE BUSARELLO
Scoop.it!

Not All English is the Same

Not All English is the Same | HMHS History | Scoop.it

"22 Maps That Show How Americans Speak English Totally Differently From Each Other"


Via Seth Dixon, Mike Busarello's Digital Storybooks
more...
Lena Minassian's curator insight, January 27, 2015 5:58 PM

This article was actually funny and interesting. You do not really pay attention to the pronunciation of words just because we are surrounded by the same people who say a particular word the same way. Many individuals in the US are in for a culture shock if they leave their respected homes. One word that you have grown up with may be a completely different word in another area. We tend to not focus a lot of attention on the smaller details like this type of grammar and pronunciation so this caught my eye because it was interesting to think about and realize how you say words compared to the rest of the United States.

Louis Mazza's curator insight, January 28, 2015 11:53 AM

to me this is not so shocking but definitely entertaining. i mean between my family their is pronunciation differences. some say tomato others say toma`to right? not all English is the same is a concept that makes perfect sense to me. in other countries such as Italy, a person from the north cannot understand a person from the south because they speak in different dialects. perhaps it has to their with their location, or job types. but it holds true that different parts of a country can speak the same language in different ways. 

Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, April 8, 2015 3:04 PM

I've seen this collection of maps a number of times before, but they are just as interesting and informative every time I look at them. It's really a fun exercise in seeing what phrases you use or how you pronounce certain words as opposed to the rest of the country. As a Rhode Islander, the bubbler/water fountain divide was of particular interest to me. I also found it funny that I have the vaguely Western/Midwestern tendency of calling "rotaries" (or what are traditionally called rotaries in my area), "roundabouts". This is especially curious to me, because I generally tend to think of that term as a British one. Could this possibly mean that a lot of British immigrants settled in the Western/Midwestern United States? Or am I just mistaken and buying into a poorly informed stereotype about British people?

 

Whatever the case, these maps are very informative and say a lot about the linguistic differences that occur even within one country. Now granted, the United States is a large country, so there is bound to be a good amount of variation. But it's still fascinating to me just how much variety there can be. The fact that when traveling, your use or pronunciation of a certain word or phrase can immediately identify you as an out-of-towner is very interesting. This is yet another example of the importance of doing your own research in order to avoid making incorrect assumptions. Just because all of the people within a geographic border may live in the same country, it does not mean that their dialects or colloquialisms are all the same. It does not even necessarily mean that they speak the same language. Different immigrant groups (because almost no country is impervious to immigration) settle in different areas and this ends up contributing (in part) to the different dialects and expressions that one finds within geographic borders. 

Rescooped by Michael Miller from Geography Education
Scoop.it!

Out of Africa – Did the Colonial Powers ever Really Leave?

Out of Africa – Did the Colonial Powers ever Really Leave? | HMHS History | Scoop.it
Africa may have achieved independence, but the old colonial ties are still important as France’s decision to send troops to Mali to fight Islamist extremists shows.

Via Seth Dixon
more...
Jess Deady's curator insight, May 4, 2014 4:04 PM

Colony powers are still located within Africa. Just because Africa is technically independent doesn't mean that British Colonial power isn't still in place.

Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, September 11, 2014 2:11 PM

unit 4

Felix Ramos Jr.'s curator insight, March 26, 2015 11:08 AM

This article reminds us all of the growth-stunt that colonialism in Africa brought to the continent.  It is not surprising to see that most African countries still depend heavily on their old colonial masters for survival.  People who may casually follow African politics might think that colonialism started with the Berlin Conference and ended in 1990 or so, but one could argue that it hasn't ended due to the urgent dependency African countries still have on their old colonizers.  Africa might be the most beautiful continent in the world but has the worst story of any in the world.