Originally discovered by Emil Von Bering and Paul Erhlich, antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that target a specific foreign object (antigen). They are called monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) when they are produced by clones derived from a single parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies have a high affinity for their epitope, the specific site of the protein they bind to. Continue Reading
Via Krishan Maggon
Penicillin was one of the first antibiotics developed and has saved millions of lives. First used in the early 1940s, penicillin is still one of the most widely used and least toxic family of antibiotics.
The Novartis Prize for Basic Immunology 2016 is shared by John Kappler (National Jewish Health, USA), Philippa Marrack (National Jewish Health, USA) and Harald von Boehmer (Emeritus, Harvard Medical School, USA) for their work in demonstrating how the immune system is able to discriminate "self" from "non-self" through a process in the thymus based on positive and negative selection via T-cell receptor mediated recognition of peptide-MHC complexes.
he Novartis Prize for Clinical Immunology 2016 is awarded to Zelig Eshhar (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel), Carl June (University of Pennsylvania, USA) and Steven Rosenberg (National Institutes of Health, USA) for their work on the pre-clinical and clinical development as well as technological application of cellular immune therapy using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T cells (CAR-T-cells) for diseases such as cancer.
"Immune disorders destroy the lives of many and increased research in this field is vital," said Hidde Ploegh, Jury chair, "these prestigious awards recognize the outstanding contributions made by the world's top scientists. It is so important that we recognize and reward these exceptional scientists who have paved the way for future research and treatment."
David M. Underhill, Siamon Gordon, Beat A. Imhof, Gabriel Núñez & Philippe Bousso AffiliationsCorresponding authors Nature Reviews Immunology (2016) doi:10.1038/nri.2016.89 Published online 01 August 2016
Gilbert C FAURE's insight:
The year 2016 marks 100 years since the death of Élie Metchnikoff (1845–1916), the Russian zoologist who pioneered the study of cellular immunology and who is widely credited with the discovery of phagocytosis, for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. However, his long scientific career spanned many disciplines and has had far-reaching effects on modern immunology beyond the study of phagocytosis. In this Viewpoint article, five leading immunologists from the fields of phagocytosis, macrophage biology, leukocyte migration, the microbiota and intravital imaging tell Nature Reviews Immunology how Metchnikoff's work has influenced past, present and future research in their respective fields.
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