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Scooped by Louise Brousseau
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Neutral and Adaptive Drivers of Microgeographic Genetic Divergence within Continuous Populations: The Case of the Neotropical Tree Eperua falcata (Aubl.)

Neutral and Adaptive Drivers of Microgeographic Genetic Divergence within Continuous Populations: The Case of the Neotropical Tree  Eperua falcata  (Aubl.) | Evolutionary ecology in Amazonian trees | Scoop.it

Background

In wild plant populations, genetic divergence within continuous stands is common, sometimes at very short geographical scales. While restrictions to gene flow combined with local inbreeding and genetic drift may cause neutral differentiation among subpopulations, microgeographical variations in environmental conditions can drive adaptive divergence through natural selection at some targeted loci. Such phenomena have recurrently been observed in plant populations occurring across sharp environmental boundaries, but the interplay between selective processes and neutral genetic divergence has seldom been studied. Methods

We assessed the extent of within-stand neutral and environmentally-driven divergence in the Neotropical tree Eperua falcate Aubl. (Fabaceae) through a genome-scan approach. Populations of this species grow in dense stands that cross the boundaries between starkly contrasting habitats. Within-stand phenotypic and candidate-gene divergence have already been proven, making this species a suitable model for the study of genome-wide microgeographic divergence. Thirty trees from each of two habitats (seasonally flooded swamps and well-drained plateaus) in two separate populations were genotyped using thousands of AFLPs markers. To avoid genotyping errors and increase marker reliability, each sample was genotyped twice and submitted to a rigorous procedure for data cleaning, which resulted in 1196 reliable and reproducible markers.

Results

Despite the short spatial distances, we detected within-populations genetic divergence, probably caused by neutral processes, such as restrictions in gene flow. Moreover, habitat-structured subpopulations belonging to otherwise continuous stands also diverge in relation to environmental variability and habitat patchiness: we detected convincing evidence of divergent selection at the genome-wide level and for a fraction of the analyzed loci (comprised between 0.25% and 1.6%). Simulations showed that the levels of differentiation for these outliers are compatible with scenarios of strong divergent selection.

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Rescooped by Louise Brousseau from Plant Genomics
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High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and preliminary functional analysis in four Neotropical tree species

High-throughput transcriptome sequencing and preliminary functional analysis in four Neotropical tree species | Evolutionary ecology in Amazonian trees | Scoop.it
The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources.

Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
Louise Brousseau's insight:

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/15/238

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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, March 30, 2014 11:55 PM
Abstract (provisional)Background

The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources.

Results

In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of four tropical tree species (Carapa guianensis, Eperua falcata, Symphonia globulifera and Virola michelii) with contrasting ecological features, belonging to four widespread botanical families (respectively Meliaceae, Fabaceae, Clusiaceae and Myristicaceae). We sequenced cDNA libraries from three organs (leaves, stems, and roots) using 454 pyrosequencing. We have developed an R and bioperl-based bioinformatic procedure for de novo assembly, gene functional annotation and marker discovery. Mismatch identification takes into account single-base quality values as well as the likelihood of false variants as a function of contig depth and number of sequenced chromosomes. Between 17103 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 23390 (for Eperua falcata) contigs were assembled. Organs varied in the numbers of unigenes they apparently express, with higher number in roots. Patterns of gene expression were similar across species, with metabolism of aromatic compounds standing out as an overrepresented gene function. Transcripts corresponding to several gene functions were found to be over- or underrepresented in each organ. We identified between 4434 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 9076 (for Virola surinamensis) well-supported mismatches. The resulting overall mismatch density was comprised between 0.89 (S. globulifera) and 1.05 (V. surinamensis) mismatches/100bp in variation-containing contigs.

Conclusion

The relative representation of gene functions in the four transcriptomes suggests that secondary metabolism may be particularly important in tropical trees. The differential representation of transcripts among tissues suggests differential gene expression, which opens the way to functional studies in these non-model, ecologically important species. We found substantial amounts of mismatches in the four species. These newly identified putative variants are a first step towards acquiring much needed genomic resources for tropical tree species.