Hevea brasiliensis
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ScienceDirect.com - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry - The function of Rad6 gene in Hevea brasiliensis extends beyond DNA repair

ScienceDirect.com - Plant Physiology and Biochemistry - The function of Rad6 gene in Hevea brasiliensis extends beyond DNA repair | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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Abstract

The Rad6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) which is required for DNA repair, damage-induced mutagenesis, sporulation, etc. In this study, one Rad6 homolog, designated HbRad6, was cloned in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). The putative protein sequence of HbRad6 contains 152 amino acids, a conserved UBC domain, and a conserved active-site cysteine in the UBC domain, which is required for E2 enzymes catalytic activity. HbRad6 shared high similarity with Rad6 from other species. It shared the highest similarity with rice OsRad6 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtUBC2 with 96.05% identical residues, and 63.16% sequence identity with yeast Rad6 (excluding the acidic tail). Comparing expression among different Hevea tissues demonstrated that HbRad6 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, but it revealed a preferential expression in the latex. Furthermore, HbRad6 expression was markedly induced by DNA-damaging agent H2O2, the latex stimulator ethephon (ET), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), while NaCl and wounding treatments had relatively minor effect upon its expression. Genetic complementation experiment revealed that HbRad6 had minor effects on the complementation of the UV sensitivity of yeast rad6 null mutant, indicating that the Hevea Rad6 protein may partially suppress the UV sensitivity of the yeast rad6 mutant. These results suggested that HbRad6 was a multifunction gene involved in DNA damage repair, hormones and stress responses in rubber tree.

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A newly identified locus controls complete resistance to Microcyclus ulei in the Fx2784 rubber clone - Online First - Springer

A newly identified locus controls complete resistance to Microcyclus ulei in the Fx2784 rubber clone - Online First - Springer | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Using cultivars which are genetically resistant to South American leaf blight (SALB) caused by the fungus Microcyclus ulei is the only way to plant rubber trees in disease-affected areas. Numerous field observations led to the hypothesis that the resistance of the cultivar Fx2784 to SALB is likely to be monogenic. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis by examining the distribution of the trait in a cross between the resistant cultivar and a susceptible one. The individuals resulting from this cross were planted in field trials in French Guiana and Brazil. The resistance of all the trees was assessed by field observations. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) using microsatellite markers was performed in French Guiana to determine which markers were genetically linked to resistance, and the results were validated by field observations in Brazil. In both locations, a 1:1 segregation of the resistance trait was observed, thus reinforcing the monogenic hypothesis. BSA showed tight linkage between resistance and the microsatellite markers located in linkage group 2 in the Hevea genome and enabled to pinpoint the resistance locus. The location was confirmed by observations on the trees planted in Brazil. This result should facilitate the use of Fx2784 resistance in future breeding programs for SALB resistance. This is the third major locus conferring resistance to SALB identified in rubber tree (Hevea spp.). These three loci are genetically independent, a favorable situation for genetic improvement of SALB resistance.

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Tapping Into the Rubber Plant Genome - Science Daily (press release)

Tapping Into the Rubber Plant Genome - Science Daily (press release) | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Tapping Into the Rubber Plant Genome
Science Daily (press release)
6, 2013 — A group of international scientists has sequenced the draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, the major commercial source of natural rubber.
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Sequencing of the genome of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis ...

The entire community of biotechnologists offer their heartiest congratulations to him on being the first to publish along with his associates sequencing of the entire genome of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis in the most ...
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Another first for rubber genomics | Albukhary International University

MILESTONE: The first draft genome sequence of the Hevea brasiliensis is now available in the public domain. IN October 2009, Malaysia made history when the Centre For Chemical Biology at Universiti Sains Malaysia ...
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Dandelions could be the next source for rubber - Care2 News Network

Dandelions could be the next source for rubber - Care2 News Network | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
The demand for rubber, globally, is estimated to fall short by 20 percent by 2020 and thus, will inevitably lead to higher prices. Fortunately, according to CNN, Dutch scientists from biotech firm KeyGene have found a way to ...
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Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

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Abstract (provisional)Background

Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876.

Results

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified.

Conclusions

The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

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Callogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis induction in Hevea brasiliensis : effects of fruit shelf-life and carbon source | Modeste | Research in Biotechnology

Callogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis induction in Hevea brasiliensis : effects of fruit shelf-life and carbon source
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In vitro mycorrhization of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis Müll Arg - Online First - Springer

In vitro mycorrhization of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis Müll Arg - Online First - Springer | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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Abstract

In vitro cultivation systems of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are useful tools to study the interaction between plants and their fungal symbiont, and also to develop new biotechnologies. Plantlets of the latex-producing species Hevea brasiliensis clone PB 260 were grown in a dense extraradical mycelium network of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 developed from a mycelium donor plant (Medicago truncatula A17). The factors indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2-morpholineoethanesulfonic acid monohydrate (MES) buffer, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were tested on root development and colonization by the fungus. No colonization was observed in the presence of plantlets pre-treated with IBA. The highest levels of root colonization were obtained when plantlets were mycorrhized under a high CO2 concentration (1,000 μmol mol−1) with MES (10 mM) added to the growth medium. Widespread root colonization (with presence of arbuscules, intraradical mycelium, and spores/vesicles) was predominantly observed in newly produced roots. Therefore, it appears essential to improve root initiation and growth for improving in vitro mycorrhization of H. brasiliensis. We demonstrated the potential of the “mycelium donor plant” in vitro culture system to produce colonized H. brasiliensis plantlets before their transfer to ex vitro conditions.

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CALCIUM SILICATE (CASIO3) AS ALTERNATIVE IONIC COAGULANT AND SOLID LUBRICANT FOR CERAMIC MOLDS IN NATURAL RUBBER LATEX FILM PREPARATION

CALCIUM SILICATE (CASIO3) AS ALTERNATIVE IONIC COAGULANT AND SOLID LUBRICANT FOR CERAMIC MOLDS IN NATURAL RUBBER LATEX FILM PREPARATION | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Article Citation: Nuchnapa Tangboriboon, Sirikarn Pakdeeniti, Ruksapong Kunanuruksapong, and Anuvat Sirivat (2012) CALCIUM SILICATE (CASIO3) AS ALTERNATIVE IONIC COAGULANT AND SOLID LUBRICANT FOR CERAMIC MOLDS IN NATURAL RUBBER LATEX FILM...
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ABSTRACT

Calcium silicate gel (CaSiO3) is a synthesized, ionic coagulant and solid lubricant prepared by the sol-gel process. Calcium silicate is an oxide compound used as an ionic coagulant in coatings on prototypic, standard molds before those molds are dipped into concentrated natural rubber latex in the latex film-production process. The advantages of coating the CaSiO3 gel, made from eggshells, on a ceramic mold surface are low water treatment, less-acid rising step, and a longer life of the standard molds. Synthesized CaSiO3 has good physical properties: a specific surface area of 107 m2/g, a small pore diameter of 14.91 nm, and a fine, average particle size of 20.76 μm, suitable for coating on standard or other ceramic molds. The concentrated latex film products obtained are thin and clear, with a smooth surfaces; they provide ease of mold release and have high tensile strength. The interfacial interaction γSL, between a prototype standard mold and the CaSiO3 gel, as an ionic coagulant is stronger than the γSL between a prototype standard mold and calcium nitrate gel is because of the electrostatic charges of CaSiO3 (Ca2+, Si4+, and O2−) on the mold surface.

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ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a novel translationally controlled tumor protein in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a novel translationally controlled tumor protein in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a multi-functioning protein that carries out vital roles in various life processes. In this study, a new TCTP gene, designated as HbTCTP1, was isolated in Hevea brasiliensis. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of HbTCTP1 contained a maximum open reading frame (ORF) of 507 base pair (bp) encoding 168 amino acids. The sequence comparison showed that the deduced HbTCTP1 indicated high identities to plant TCTP proteins, and clustered in the dicot cluster of plant TCTPs. Although HbTCTP1 and human TCTP proteins did not parallel in overall sequence similarity, they indicated highly similar 3D structures with a nearly identical spatial organization of α-helices, β-sheets, and coil regions. Real time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses showed that HbTCTP1 was expressed throughout different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being related to tapping panel dryness (TPD), the HbTCTP1 transcripts were regulated by various treatments, including drought, low temperature, high salt, ethrel (ET), wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) treatments. The recombinant HbTCTP1 fusion protein was shown to protect supercoiled plasmid DNA from damages induced by metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species. The 45Ca2+-overlay assay showed that HbTCTP1 was a calcium-binding protein. Our results are greatly helpful in understanding the molecular characterization and expression profiles of HbTCTP1, and lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbTCTP1 in rubber tree.

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ScienceDirect.com - Journal of King Saud University - Science - Characterization of Kaolin intercalates of Oleochemicals derived from Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis) and Tea Seed (Camelia sinensis...

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Abstract

Kaolin intercalates were prepared by employing derivatives of oleochemicals namely rubber seed oil (SRSO) and tea seed oil (STSO) and characterized by employing powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption (NAD) techniques. Intercalation was achieved in the presence of hydrazine hydrate as co-intercalate. The PXRD patterns showed an increase in the interlayer basal spacing d-001 for the SRSO treated and STSO treated kaolins confirming intercalation process. The FTIR studies indicated that the fatty acid salts of rubber seed oil and tea seed oil were effectively intercalated in the kaolinite layers as per the bands at 1564cm-1 and 1553 cm-1 for SRSO treated and STSO treated kaolinites respectively. The SEM revealed intercalation of organic materials in the kaolinite layers. The NAD results showed that intercalation of kaolin resulted in an overall decrease in the specific surface area as well as pore volume. Specific surface area decreased in the following order: untreated (pristine) kaolin > STSO treated kaolin > SRSO treated kaolin and pore size in the order: untreated (pristine) kaolin > SRSO treated kaolin > STSO treated kaolin.

 
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Mitochondrial/Cytosolic Acetyl CoA and Rubber Biosynthesi Genes Expression in Hevea brasiliensis Latex and Rubber Yield

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PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ISOPRENOL FROM MEVALONATE EMPLOYING A DIPHOSPHO-MEVOLONATE DECARBOXYLASE - SCIENTIST OF FORTUNE SA

Described is a method for the enzymatic production of isoprenol using mevalonate as a substrate and enzymatically converting it by a decarboxylation step into isoprenol as well as the use of an enzyme...
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Described is a method for the enzymatic production of isoprenol using mevalonate as a substrate and enzymatically converting it by a decarboxylation step into isoprenol as well as the use of an enzyme which is capable of catalyzing the decarboxylation of mevalonate for the production of isoprenol from mevalonate. Furthermore described is the use of mevalonate as a starting material for the production of isoprenol in an enzymatically catalysed reaction. Also disclosed is a method for the production of isoprene comprising the method for the production of isoprenol using mevalonate as a substrate and enzymatically converting it by a decarboxylation step into isoprenol and further comprising the step of converting the produced isoprenol into isoprene as well as a method for the production of isoamyl alcohol comprising the method for the production of isoprenol using mevalonate as a substrate and enzymatically converting it by a decarboxylation step into isoprenol and further comprising the step of converting the produced isoprenol into isoamyl alcohol.

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Rubber tree early selection for yield stability in time and among locations - Online First - Springer

Rubber tree early selection for yield stability in time and among locations - Online First - Springer | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Rubber production in the rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] can be expressed differently in different environments. Thus the objective of the present study was to select productive progenies, stable and responsive in time and among locations. Thirty progenies were assessed by early yield tests at three ages and in three locations. A randomized block design was used with three replications and ten plants per plot, in 3 × 3 m spacing. The procedure of the mixed linear Reml/Blup model—restricted maximum likelihood/best non-biased linear prediction was used in the genetic statistical analyses. In all the individual analyses, the values observed for the progeny average heritability ( hˆ2pa ) were greater than those of the additive effect based on single individuals ( hˆ2a ) and within plot additive ( hˆ2ad ). In the joint analyses in time, there was genotype × test interaction in the three locations. When 20 % of the best progenies were selected the predicted genetic gains were: Colina GG = 24.63 %, Selvíria GG = 13.63 %, and Votuporanga GG = 25.39 %. Two progenies were among the best in the analyses in the time and between locations. In the joint analysis among locations there was only genotype × location interaction in the first early test. In this test, selecting 20 %, the general predicted genetic gain was GG = 25.10 %. Identifying progenies with high and stable yield over time and among locations contributes to the efficiency of the genetic breeding program. The relative performance of the progenies varies depending of the age of early selection test.

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Tapping into the rubber plant genome

Scientists have sequenced the draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, the major commercial source of natural rubber. Review: Tapping into the rubber plant genome ...
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A Study on the Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil (Hevea Brasiliensis) | Law firms, drafts, and legal documents

A Study on the Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil (Hevea Brasiliensis) | Law firms, drafts, and legal documents | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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A Study on the Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil (Hevea Brasiliensis)
The demand for energy around the world is continuously increasing, specifically the deman
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No messing with genes to produce dandelion rubber - Tire Business

No messing with genes to produce dandelion rubber - Tire Business | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Greener Ideal
No messing with genes to produce dandelion rubber
Tire Business
ENSCHEDE, Netherlands (Feb. 21, 2013) — Dutch biotech firm KeyGene has joined tire manufacturer Apollo-Vredestein Banden N.V.
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Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis 7thSpace Interactive (press release) Conclusions: The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever...
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Effects of White Root Rot Diseas o Hevea brasiliensi (Muell. Arg. – Challenges and Control Approach

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JP2012064780 METHOD FOR PRODUCING PARA RUBBER TREE POLYPLOID

JP2012064780 METHOD FOR PRODUCING PARA RUBBER TREE POLYPLOID | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
METHOD FOR PRODUCING PARA RUBBER TREE POLYPLOID
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BMC Genomics | Abstract | Identification of the hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon).
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Abstract (provisional)Background

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree.

Results

The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts.

Conclusions

Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation.

 
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Abstract: Analysis of Bark Transcriptome from Two Contrasting Clones of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) (Plant and Animal Genome XXI Conference)

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The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a native tree from Amazon region that has great economic importance for being the largest source of natural rubber in the world.  Natural rubber is used in many sectors because it is flexible, resistant, impermeable to liquids and abrasion resistant. Moreover there is no synthetic substitute with these physical properties nowadays. Rubber tree bark contains the laticifers where latex is synthesized and stored. There are two rubber biosysthesis pathways: mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP). MVA pathway has 6 enzymes and MEP has 8 enzymes involved in rubber pathway biosynthesis. Here we analyzed rubber tree bark transcriptome using Illumina platform for functional characterization and molecular marker development for breeding programs. Two different rubber tree clones were used for paired-end sequencing. We performed de novo assembly with 144 million reads using CLC Genomics Workbench generated 152 thousand contigs and N50=1.414 pb.  Contigs longer than 400 pb were selected with a total of 50374 contigs without contaminants sequences. Approximately 32 thousand contigs had similarity with nr protein database and 21725 sequences were annotated in 37781 Gene Ontology terms. Also, an analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway was made with the annotated sequences. Among the 5 main categories, metabolism was the most represented. A total of 25 and 40 sequences are involved in MVA and MEP rubber biosynthesis pathways, respectively. These data are important to develop functional single nucleotide polymorphisms markers (SNPs) for rubber tree breeding programs.
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Replacing traditional half spiral cut by a quarter cut with Ethephon; a simple approach to solve current issues related to latex harvesting in rubber industry | Rodrigo | Journal of the National Sc...

Replacing traditional half spiral cut by a quarter cut with Ethephon; a simple approach to solve current issues related to latex harvesting in rubber industry | Rodrigo | Journal of the National Sc... | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Replacing traditional half spiral cut by a quarter cut with Ethephon; a simple approach to solve current issues related to latex harvesting in rubber industry
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1059 views About The Authors

Vasanthy Arasaratnam
University of Jaffna
Sri Lanka

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna, Kokuvil 

S. Balakumar
University of Jaffna
Sri Lanka

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna, Kokuvil

A. Senthuran
University of Jaffna
Sri Lanka

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna, Kokuvil

R. Rajendraprasad
University of Jaffna
Sri Lanka

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna, Kokuvil.

Related Items Show allArticle Tools Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Finding References Review policy Email this article (Login required) Email the author (Login required)InformationFor ReadersFor AuthorsFor LibrariansHome > Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka > Vol 40, No 4 (2012) > Arasaratnam Replacing traditional half spiral cut by a quarter cut with Ethephon; a simple approach to solve current issues related to latex harvesting in rubber industryV.H.L. Rodrigo, K.V.V.S. Kudaligama, K.M.E.P. Fernando, P.A.J. YapaAbstract

Harvesting rubber latex is rather labour intensive since trees are traditionally tapped half spiral, once in two days (S/2 d2) resulting in unnecessary waste of tree bark. High cost of production, shortage of harvesters and reduced economic lifespan are the key issues in rubber plantations related to harvesting. Low intensity harvesting (LIH) systems (i.e. either reduction in harvesting frequency and/or tapping cut length) of rubber appear to be a practical solution to these issues by bringing down the labour requirement and the cost of production. Of these, only the reduction in harvesting frequency has been tried in Sri Lanka. Hence, the present study was aimed to develop new LIH systems with shorter tapping cuts.

This study comprised two stage stimulant (Ethephon) based field trials to evaluate a wide range of LIH systems. The overall yield given by traditional S/2 d2 was used as the standard in evaluation. Stimulation protocols of different harvesting systems were adjusted from time to time to achieve this standard. In addition, growth and physiological parameters of latex and the financial viability of the principal system were also assessed.

Among the LIH systems tested, S/4 d3 (tapping quarter spiral once in three days) was successful in providing benefits, such as increase in both overall profits and harvesters' income and reduction in harvesting cost and overall cost of production. The overall bark consumption was also greatly reduced. Above all, it allows tapping the virgin bark of base panels for over 24 years. Popularization of this approach is proposed after large scale commercial testing.

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ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a novel translationally controlled tumor protein in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a novel translationally controlled tumor protein in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a multi-functioning protein that carries out vital roles in various life processes. In this study, a new TCTP gene, designated as HbTCTP1, was isolated in Hevea brasiliensis. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of HbTCTP1 contained a maximum open reading frame (ORF) of 507 base pair (bp) encoding 168 amino acids. The sequence comparison showed that the deduced HbTCTP1 indicated high identities to plant TCTP proteins, and clustered in the dicot cluster of plant TCTPs. Although HbTCTP1 and human TCTP proteins did not parallel in overall sequence similarity, they indicated highly similar 3D structures with a nearly identical spatial organization of α-helices, β-sheets, and coil regions. Real time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses showed that HbTCTP1 was expressed throughout different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being related to tapping panel dryness (TPD), the HbTCTP1 transcripts were regulated by various treatments, including drought, low temperature, high salt, ethrel (ET), wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) treatments. The recombinant HbTCTP1 fusion protein was shown to protect supercoiled plasmid DNA from damages induced by metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species. The 45Ca2+-overlay assay showed that HbTCTP1 was a calcium-binding protein. Our results are greatly helpful in understanding the molecular characterization and expression profiles of HbTCTP1, and lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbTCTP1 in rubber tree.

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