Hevea brasiliensis
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EVALUATING THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITY IN PLANTED AND WILD RUBBER TREES (Hevea brasiliensis)

Abstract: The main objectives of this dissertation project were to characterize and compare the fungal endophytic communities associated with rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) distributed in wild habitats and under plantations. This study recovered an extensive number of isolates (more than 2,500) from a large sample size (190 individual trees) distributed in diverse regions (various locations in Peru, Cameroon, and Mexico). Molecular and classic taxonomic tools were used to identify, quantify, describe, and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Innovative phylogenetic analyses for species delimitation were superimposed with ecological data to recognize operational taxonomic units (OTUs) or "putative species" within commonly found species complexes, helping in the detection of meaningful differences between tree populations. Sapwood and leaf fragments showed high infection frequency, but sapwood was inhabited by a significantly higher number of species. More than 700 OTUs were recovered, supporting the hypothesis that tropical fungal endophytes are highly diverse. Furthermore, this study shows that not only leaf tissue can harbor a high diversity of endophytes, but also that sapwood can contain an even more diverse assemblage. Wild and managed habitats presented high species richness of comparable complexity (phylogenetic diversity). Nevertheless, main differences were found in the assemblage's taxonomic composition and frequency of specific strains. Trees growing within their native range were dominated by strains belonging to Trichoderma and even though they were also present in managed trees, plantations trees were dominated by strains of Colletotrichum. Species of Trichoderma are known for their biocontrol properties, whereas species of Colletotrichum have been always associated with plant disease.
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Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis 7thSpace Interactive (press release) Conclusions: The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever...
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Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree ...

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree ... | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic ...
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Prevention of biodeterioration of rubberwood Hevea brasiliensis using K-Otek

Ananthapadmanabha, H. S.; Srinivasan, V.
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Frontiers | Impact of tapping and soil water status on fine root dynamics in a rubber tree plantation in Thailand | Functional Plant Ecology

Fine roots (FR) play a major role in the water and nutrient uptake of plants and contribute significantly to the carbon and nutrient cycles of ecosystems through their annual production and turnove...
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Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone encoding glutamine synthetase from rubber tree latex

Pujade Renaud, Valerie; Perrot Rechenmann, Catherine; Chrestin, Herve; Lacrotte, Regis; Guern, Jean, 1997: Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone encoding glutamine synthetase from rubber tree latex (Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone...
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Trunk Injection Method for Introducing Chemical Formulations in to Rubber Trees

Trunk Injection Method for Introducing Chemical Formulations in to Rubber Trees
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Production and characterization of natural rubber-Ca/P blends for biomedical purposes

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Abstract

This study presents the development of natural rubber-Ca/P blends, as promising candidates for biomedical purposes. The specific objective was the incorporation of Ca/P into a natural rubber polymeric matrix. Ca/P crystalline phases were synthesized by the sol-gel method and the polymeric matrices were produced using natural rubber extracted from latex of the Hevea brasiliensis. The shape and size of natural rubber particles present in the NR membrane, as well as, the way the Ca/P powder grains aggregate in the polymeric matrix was investigated, giving information about the interactions between the Ca/P and the natural rubber particles. Confocal fluorescence scanning microscopy measurements allowed us to propose a structure where the Ca/P grains are surrounded by natural rubber particles. This structure may mediate Ca2 + release for tissue regeneration. The system investigated may open new horizons for development of a bandage which provides the controlled-release of biomaterials.

 
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RNA sequencing read depth requirement for optimal transcriptome ...

RNA sequencing read depth requirement for optimal transcriptome ... | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
In this report, we describe the use of Illumina paired-end RNA-Seq (PE RNA-Seq) reads from Hevea… Source:RNA sequencing read depth requirement for optimal transcriptome coverage in Hevea brasiliensis ...
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Yulex, SGB collaborate on genomics platform - RubberNews.com

Yulex, SGB collaborate on genomics platform RubberNews.com SGB's work on guayule will combine breeding and germplasm selection with genomic technologies, including high-throughout genotyping, genome-wide trait association studies, genomic selection...
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Global Natural-Rubber Consumption Growth Seen Reducing Surplus - Bloomberg

Global Natural-Rubber Consumption Growth Seen Reducing Surplus - Bloomberg | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Global Natural-Rubber Consumption Growth Seen Reducing Surplus Bloomberg World natural-rubber consumption is set to increases this year and the next, reducing a glut and boosting prices of the commodity used in tires, according to The Rubber...
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Comparative Proteomics of Primary and Secondary Lutoids Reveals that Chitinase and Glucanase Play a Crucial Combined Role in Rubber Particle Aggregation in Hevea brasiliensis

Comparative Proteomics of Primary and Secondary Lutoids Reveals that Chitinase and Glucanase Play a Crucial Combined Role in Rubber Particle Aggregation in Hevea brasiliensis | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
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Lutoids are specific vacuole-based organelles within the latex-producing laticifers in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Primary and secondary lutoids are found in the primary and secondary laticifers, respectively. Although both lutoid types perform similar roles in rubber particle aggregation (RPA) and latex coagulation, they vary greatly at the morphological and proteomic levels. To compare the differential proteins and determine the shared proteins of the two lutoid types, a proteomic analysis of lutoid membranes and inclusions was performed, revealing 169 proteins that were functionally classified into 14 families. Biological function analysis revealed that most of the proteins are involved in pathogen defense, chitin catabolism, and proton transport. Comparison of the gene and protein changed patterns and determination of the specific roles of several main lutoid proteins, such as glucanase, hevamine and hevein, demonstrated that chitinase and glucanase appeared to play crucial synergistic roles in RPA. Integrative analysis revealed a protein-based metabolic network mediating pH and ion homeostasis, defense response, and RPA in lutoids. From these findings, we developed a modified regulation model for lutoid-mediated RPA that will deepen our understanding of potential mechanisms involved in lutoid-mediated RPA and consequent latex coagulation.

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Effect of Lethal Concentrations of Rubber Extract (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Survival on Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus under Laboratory Condition.

Effect of Lethal Concentrations of Rubber Extract (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Survival on Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus under Laboratory Condition.
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Abstract

 

The water soluble fraction (WSF) of Hevea brasiliensis was tested against Clarias garienpinus, at 0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70mg/l in glass aquaria stocked with ten animals for 96 hours under observation for changes. Moribund swimming, restlessness, respiratory difficulties, depigmentation and mortalities were observed in the WSF exposure groups, but not in the controls. LC50 values were estimated at 50.12mg/l. There was no significant difference in mortalities between the replicate group (P>0.05), leading to the conclusion that the WSF of Hevea brasiliensis had same toxic effects on both batches of the test organism.

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Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis.

Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis. | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of stock-scion interaction process in rubber.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor  responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of  stock-scion interaction process in rubber.

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Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate-binding domain - Martínez-Caballero - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library

Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate-binding domain - Martínez-Caballero - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate... http://t.co/qdz8NqgFNI
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Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB... [Mol Biol Rep. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization on red yellow podzolic soil

Bataglia, Ondino Cleante; Dos Santos, Wagner Rodrigues; Igue, Toshio; De Souza Goncalves, Paulo, 1998: Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization on red yellow podzolic soil (Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization...
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De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers

The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world's natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition.
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Background

The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world's natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition.

Results

Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs.

Conclusions

This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield.

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Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Root Rhizosphere, Their Biofilm Formation and Phosphate Solubilizing Abilities | Hettiarachchi

Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Root Rhizosphere, Their Biofilm Formation and Phosphate Solubilizing Abilities
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Assembly and analysis of a male sterile rubber tree mitochondrial genome reveals DNA rearrangement events and a novel transcript

Assembly and analysis of a male sterile rubber tree mitochondrial genome reveals DNA rearrangement events and a novel transcript - up-to-the-minute news and headlines.
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(IUCr) Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 ...

Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo- [beta] -1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 ...
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Rubber farmers in Mappi struggle to cope with falling - Jakarta Post

Jakarta Post
Rubber farmers in Mappi struggle to cope with falling
Jakarta Post
Latex has dropped to Rp 6,000 (50 US cents) per kilogram from as high as Rp 25,000 per kilogram previously.
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Lanxess launches new EdPBR rubber grades - RubberNews.com

Lanxess launches new EdPBR rubber grades - RubberNews.com | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Lanxess launches new EdPBR rubber grades
RubberNews.com
COLOGNE, Germany—Lanzess A.G. has launched two neodymium polybutadiene rubber grades to ease the production of fuel-efficient tires.
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A Laboratory Bioassay of the Potential Effect of Rubber Extract (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Survival of Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus

A Laboratory Bioassay of the Potential Effect of Rubber Extract (Hevea brasiliensis) on the Survival of Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus
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Abstract

The potential effects of Hevea brasiliensis on the survival of fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in duplicate (A and B) using the water soluble fraction of the latex under laboratory conditions for 96 hours. The WSF of Hevea brasiliensis was tested against Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40mg/l in glass aquaria stocked with ten animals for 96 hours under observation for changes. Behavioural pattern exhibited by the fish include, loss of balance, restlessness, attempt at jumping out and hemorrhaged gills, respiratory difficulties and mortalities were observed in the WSF exposure groups, but not in the controls. LC50 values were estimated at 28. 50 ± 0.2mg/l. There was significant difference in mortalities between the replicate group (p < 0.05), leading to conclusion that the organism in each batch responded differently to the toxic effect of WSF of Hevea brasiliensis latex.

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