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EVALUATING THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGAL COMMUNITY IN PLANTED AND WILD RUBBER TREES (Hevea brasiliensis)

Abstract: The main objectives of this dissertation project were to characterize and compare the fungal endophytic communities associated with rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) distributed in wild habitats and under plantations. This study recovered an extensive number of isolates (more than 2,500) from a large sample size (190 individual trees) distributed in diverse regions (various locations in Peru, Cameroon, and Mexico). Molecular and classic taxonomic tools were used to identify, quantify, describe, and compare the diversity of the different assemblages. Innovative phylogenetic analyses for species delimitation were superimposed with ecological data to recognize operational taxonomic units (OTUs) or "putative species" within commonly found species complexes, helping in the detection of meaningful differences between tree populations. Sapwood and leaf fragments showed high infection frequency, but sapwood was inhabited by a significantly higher number of species. More than 700 OTUs were recovered, supporting the hypothesis that tropical fungal endophytes are highly diverse. Furthermore, this study shows that not only leaf tissue can harbor a high diversity of endophytes, but also that sapwood can contain an even more diverse assemblage. Wild and managed habitats presented high species richness of comparable complexity (phylogenetic diversity). Nevertheless, main differences were found in the assemblage's taxonomic composition and frequency of specific strains. Trees growing within their native range were dominated by strains belonging to Trichoderma and even though they were also present in managed trees, plantations trees were dominated by strains of Colletotrichum. Species of Trichoderma are known for their biocontrol properties, whereas species of Colletotrichum have been always associated with plant disease.
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Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis - 7thSpace Interactive (press release)

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis 7thSpace Interactive (press release) Conclusions: The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever...
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BMC Genomics | Full text | Transcriptome sequencing and analysis of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) to discover putative genes associated with tapping panel dryness (TPD)

Tapping panel dryness (TPD) involves in the partial or complete cessation of latex flow thus seriously affect latex production in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Numerous studies have been conducted to define its origin and nature, but the molecular nature and mechanism of TPD occurrence remains unknown. This study is committed to de novo sequencing and comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of healthy (H) and TPD-affected (T) rubber trees to identify the genes and pathways related to the TPD.
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AbstractBackground

Tapping panel dryness (TPD) involves in the partial or complete cessation of latex flow thus seriously affect latex production in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Numerous studies have been conducted to define its origin and nature, but the molecular nature and mechanism of TPD occurrence remains unknown. This study is committed to de novo sequencing and comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of healthy (H) and TPD-affected (T) rubber trees to identify the genes and pathways related to the TPD.

Results

Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from H and T library, respectively using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 141,456 and 169,285 contigs, and 96,070 and 112,243 unigenes from H and T library, respectively.

Among 73597 genes, 22577 genes were identified as differential expressed genes between H and T library via comparative transcript profiling. A majority of genes involved in natural rubber biosynthesis and jasmonate synthesis with most potential relevance in TPD occurrence were found to be differentially expressed.

Conclusions

In TPD-affected trees, the expression of most genes related to the latex biosynthesis and jasmonate synthesis was severely inhibited and is probably the direct cause of the TPD. These newde novo transcriptome data sets provide a significant resource for the discovery of genes related to TPD and improve our understanding of the occurrence and maintainace of TPD.

 
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Biocuration at the saccharomyces genome database

Biocuration at the saccharomyces genome database | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Saccharomyces Genome Database is an online resource dedicated to managing information about the biology and genetics of the model organism, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This information is derived primarily from scientific publications through a process of human curation that involves manual extraction of data and their organization into a comprehensive system of knowledge. This system provides a foundation for further analysis of experimental data coming from research on yeast as well as other organisms. In this review we will demonstrate how biocuration and biocurators add a key component, the biological context, to our understanding of how genes, proteins, genomes and cells function and interact. We will explain the role biocurators play in sifting through the wealth of biological data to incorporate and connect key information. We will also discuss the many ways we assist researchers with their various research needs. We hope to convince the reader that manual curation is vital in converting the flood of data into organized and interconnected knowledge, and that biocurators play an essential role in the integration of scientific information into a coherent model of the cell. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Saccharomyces Genome Database is an online resource dedicated to managing information about the biology and genetics of the model organism, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This information is derived primarily from scientific publications through a process of human curation that involves manual extraction of data and their organization into a comprehensive system of knowledge. This system provides a foundation for further analysis of experimental data coming from research on yeast as well as other organisms. In this review we will demonstrate how biocuration and biocurators add a key component, the biological context, to our understanding of how genes, proteins, genomes and cells function and interact. We will explain the role biocurators play in sifting through the wealth of biological data to incorporate and connect key information. We will also discuss the many ways we assist researchers with their various research needs. We hope to convince the reader that manual curation is vital in converting the flood of data into organized and interconnected knowledge, and that biocurators play an essential role in the integration of scientific information into a coherent model of the cell. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 
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Increasing the reaction rate of hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis toward mandelonitrile by copying active site residues from an esterase that accepts aromatic esters

Increasing the reaction rate of hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis toward mandelonitrile by copying active site residues from an esterase that accepts aromatic esters | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Increasing the reaction rate of hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis toward mandelonitrile by copying active site residues from an esterase that accepts aromatic esters.
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The natural substrate of hydroxynitrile lyase from rubber tree (HbHNL, Hevea brasiliensis) is acetone cyanohydrin, but synthetic applications usually involve aromatic cyanohydrins such as mandelonitrile. To increase the activity of HbHNL toward this unnatural substrate, we replaced active site residues in HbHNL with the corresponding ones from esterase SABP2 (salicylic acid binding protein 2). Although this enzyme catalyzes a different reaction (hydrolysis of esters), its natural substrate (methyl salicylate) contains an aromatic ring. Three of the eleven single-amino-acid-substitution variants of HbHNL reacted more rapidly with mandelonitrile. The best was HbHNL-L121Y, with a kcat 4.2 times higher and high enantioselectivity. Site-saturation mutagenesis at position 121 identified three other improved variants. We hypothesize that the smaller active site orients the aromatic substrate more productively.

 
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GMOs of the Future: Two Recent Studies Reveal Potential of Genetic Technologies - Science Sushi

GMOs of the Future: Two Recent Studies Reveal Potential of Genetic Technologies - Science Sushi | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
There’s no doubt that the next generation of GM crops will look very little like the oft-maligned varieties available today. The possibilities are nearly limitless, as are the rewards. And with the world’s climate changing rapidly, there’s no doubt that agriculture will need to change with it, to keep pace with an unpredictable environment. The future of agriculture may very well depend on the ingenuity of geneticists and the GMOs they create. The real question is, will these new varieties be able to do what current ones cannot: win over the hearts and minds of the people they’re designed for.

Via Mary Williams, Jean-Pierre Zryd
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Wood Formation in Trees Is Increased by Manipulating PXY-Regulated Cell Division: Current Biology

Wood Formation in Trees Is Increased by Manipulating PXY-Regulated Cell Division: Current Biology | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it

Via Mary Williams
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Unexpected diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes in sapwood and leaves of Hevea

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Research on fungal endophytes has expanded dramatically in recent years, but little is known about the diversity and ecological roles of endophytic basidiomycetes. Here we report the analysis of 310 basidiomycetous endophytes isolated from wild and planted populations of the rubber tree genus, Hevea. Species accumulation curves were nonasymptotic, as in the majority of endophyte surveys, indicating that more sampling is needed to recover the true diversity of the community. One hundred eighteen OTUs were delimited, representing nine orders of Basidiomycota (Agaricales, Atheliales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, Septobasidiales, Tremellales). The diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes found inhabiting wild populations of Hevea was comparable to that present in plantations. However, when samples were segregated by tissue type, sapwood of wild populations was found to contain a higher number of species than sapwood of planted trees. Seventy-five percent of isolates were members of the Polyporales, the majority in the phlebioid clade. Most of the species belong to clades known to cause a white-rot type of wood decay. Two species in the insect-associated genus Septobasidium were isolated. The most frequently isolated genera included Bjerkandera, Ceriporia, Phanerochaete, Phlebia,Rigidoporus, Tinctoporellus, Trametes (Polyporales), Peniophora, Stereum(Russulales) and Coprinellus (Agaricales), all of which have been reported as endophytes from a variety of hosts, across wide geographic locations. Literature records on the geographic distribution and host association of these genera revealed that their distribution and substrate affinity could be extended if the endophytic niche was investigated as part of fungal biodiversity surveys.

 
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a Mlo gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

Mlo gene encodes a plant-specific seven-transmembrane domain protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, a novel Mlo gene from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), designated HbMlo1, was cloned by RT-PCR in rubber tree. The ORF of HbMlo1 was 1551bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. HbMlo1 was a typical Mlo protein with seven-transmembrane domain. Sequence comparison between HbMlo1 and other Mlo proteins demonstrated that HbMlo1 shared the highest similarity with the Cucumis melo CmMlo1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtMlo1 with 75.1% and 71.3% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMlo1, CmMlo1, AtMlo1, AtMlo13, and AtMlo15 formed into the phylogenetic clade II with 100% bootstrap support value. HbMlo1 transcript exhibited tissue specificity, and it was preferentially expressed in leaf. Furthermore, the amount of HbMlo1 transcript was significantly induced by various phytohormones (including ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellic acid), H2O2, and wounding treatments. Under drought stress, HbMlo1 exhibited a complex pattern of regulation. However, HbMlo1 expression did not significantly change during powdery mildew infection. These results suggested that HbMlo1 might play a role in phytohormone signaling and abiotic stress response processes in rubber tree.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Mlo gene encodes a plant-specific seven-transmembrane domain protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, a novel Mlo gene from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), designated HbMlo1, was cloned by RT-PCR in rubber tree. The ORF of HbMlo1 was 1551bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. HbMlo1 was a typical Mlo protein with seven-transmembrane domain. Sequence comparison between HbMlo1 and other Mlo proteins demonstrated that HbMlo1 shared the highest similarity with the Cucumis melo CmMlo1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtMlo1 with 75.1% and 71.3% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMlo1, CmMlo1, AtMlo1, AtMlo13, and AtMlo15 formed into the phylogenetic clade II with 100% bootstrap support value. HbMlo1 transcript exhibited tissue specificity, and it was preferentially expressed in leaf. Furthermore, the amount of HbMlo1 transcript was significantly induced by various phytohormones (including ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellic acid), H2O2, and wounding treatments. Under drought stress, HbMlo1 exhibited a complex pattern of regulation. However, HbMlo1 expression did not significantly change during powdery mildew infection. These results suggested that HbMlo1 might play a role in phytohormone signaling and abiotic stress response processes in rubber tree.

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Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis.

Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis. | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of stock-scion interaction process in rubber.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor  responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of  stock-scion interaction process in rubber.

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Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate-binding domain - Martínez-Caballero - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library

Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate-binding domain - Martínez-Caballero - FEBS Journal - Wiley Online Library | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Comparative study of two GH19 chitinase-like proteins from Hevea brasiliensis, one exhibiting a novel carbohydrate... http://t.co/qdz8NqgFNI
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Molecular cloning and expression of a novel MYB... [Mol Biol Rep. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization on red yellow podzolic soil

Bataglia, Ondino Cleante; Dos Santos, Wagner Rodrigues; Igue, Toshio; De Souza Goncalves, Paulo, 1998: Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization on red yellow podzolic soil (Responses of rubber tree clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization...
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BMC Genomics | Full text | Genetic diversity of male and female Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) populations and identification of sex-associated markers

Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) is an important subtropical evergreen fruit tree in southern China. Generally dioecious, the female plants are cultivated for fruit and have been studied extensively, but male plants have received very little attention. Knowledge of males may have a major impact on conservation and genetic improvement as well as on breeding. Using 84 polymorphic SSRs, we genotyped 213 M. rubra individuals (99 male individuals, 113 female varieties and 1 monoecious) and compared the difference in genetic diversity between the female and the male populations.
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AbstractBackground

Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. & Zucc.) is an important subtropical evergreen fruit tree in southern China. Generally dioecious, the female plants are cultivated for fruit and have been studied extensively, but male plants have received very little attention. Knowledge of males may have a major impact on conservation and genetic improvement as well as on breeding. Using 84 polymorphic SSRs, we genotyped 213 M. rubra individuals (99 male individuals, 113 female varieties and 1 monoecious) and compared the difference in genetic diversity between the female and the male populations.

Results

Neighbour-joining cluster analysis separated M. rubra from three related species, and the male from female populations within M. rubra. By structure analysis, 178 M. rubra accessions were assigned to two subpopulations: Male dominated (98) and Female dominated (80). The well-known cultivars ‘Biqi’ and ‘Dongkui’, and the landraces ‘Fenhong’ are derived from three different gene pools. Female population had a slightly higher values of genetic diversity parameters (such as number of alleles and heterozygosity) than the male population, but not significantly different. The SSR loci ZJU062 and ZJU130 showed an empirical Fst value of 0.455 and 0.333, respectively, which are significantly above the 95 % confidence level, indicating that they are outlier loci related to sex separation.

Conclusion

The male and female populations of Chinese bayberry have similar genetic diversity in terms of average number of alleles and level of heterozygosity, but were clearly separated by genetic structure analysis due to two markers associated with sex type, ZJU062 and ZJU130. Zhejiang Province China could be the centre of diversity of M. rubra in China, with wide genetic diversity coverage; and the two representative cultivars ‘Biqi’ and ‘Dongkui’, and one landrace ‘Fenhong’ in three female subpopulations. This research provides genetic information on male and female Chinese bayberry and will act as a reference for breeding programs.

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Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Front Plant Sci. 2015 May 27;6:367. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00367. eCollection 2015.
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Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to simultaneously discover and genotype single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in two rubber tree populations. A total of 21,353 single nucleotide substitutions were identified, 55% of which represented transition events. GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1704 and 1719 markers and encompassed 2041 cM and 1874 cM, respectively. The average marker densities of these two maps were one SNP in 1.23-1.25 cM. A total of 1114 shared SNP markers were used to merge the two component maps. An integrated linkage map consisted of 2321 markers and spanned the cumulative length of 2052 cM. The composite map showed a substantial improvement in marker density, with one SNP marker in every 0.89 cM. To our knowledge, this is the most saturated genetic map in rubber tree to date. This integrated map allowed us to anchor 28,965 contigs, covering 135 Mb or 12% of the published rubber tree genome. We demonstrated that GBS is a robust and cost-effective approach for generating a common set of genome-wide SNP data suitable for constructing integrated linkage maps from multiple populations in a highly heterozygous agricultural species.

  
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Molecular characterization of HbCZF1, a Hevea brasiliensis CCCH-type zinc finger protein that regulates hmg1.

Molecular characterization of HbCZF1, a Hevea brasiliensis CCCH-type zinc finger protein that regulates hmg1. | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
The HbCZF1 protein binds to the hmg1 promoter in yeast and this interaction was confirmed in vitro. The hmg1 promoter was activated in transgenic plants by HbCZF1. Biosynthesis of natural rubber is known to be based on the mevalonate pathway in Hevea brasiliensis. The final step in the mevalonate production is catalyzed by the branch point enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which shunts HMG-CoA into the isoprenoid pathway, leading to the synthesis of natural rubber. However, molecular regulation of HMGR expression is not known. To study the transcriptional regulation of HMGR, the yeast one-hybrid experiment was performed to screen the latex cDNA library using the hmg1 (one of the three HMGR in H. brasiliensis) promoter as bait. One cDNA that encodes the CCCH-type zinc finger protein, designated as HbCZF1, was isolated from H. brasiliensis. HbCZF1 interacted with the hmg1 promoter in yeast one-hybrid system and in vitro. HbCZF1 contains a 1110 bp open reading frame that encodes 369 amino acids. The deduced HbCZF1 protein was predicted to possess a typical C-X7-C-X5-C3-H CCCH motif and RNA recognition motif. HbCZF1 was predominant in the latex, but little expression was detected in the leaves, barks, and roots. Furthermore, in transgenic tobacco plants, over-expression of HbCZF1 highly activated the hmg1 promoter. These results suggested that HbCZF1 may participate in the regulation of natural rubber biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis.
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Clonal variability for vulnerability to cavitation and other drought-related traits in Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg

Clonal variability for vulnerability to cavitation and other drought-related traits in Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Abstract: Selection for drought-tolerant clones has become a major challenge in rubber breeding programs undertaken to ensure the sustainability of natural rubber production, as rubber plantations are expanding in drought-prone areas. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a trait related to drought-induced mortality. It can be rapidly evaluated without subjecting plant materials to drought stress, making it useful in large-scale screening for drought tolerance in the near future. We first compared the most widely used techniques for measuring vulnerability to cavitation (air pressurization and Cavitron) on this species, and the effect of sample conditions (size, age and sunlight exposure), in order to ensure reliable analysis. Secondly, ten rubber clones were compared for their xylem vulnerability to cavitation in branches and petioles, and for other traits related to drought response, including stomatal response and leaf shedding occurring during a simulated drought. We also tested the plasticity of vulnerability to cavitation on two clones grown in three locations with contrasting precipitation regimes. We found no clonal variability and a small phenotypic plasticity for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in branches. However, clonal differences in xylem vulnerability to cavitation were found in petioles, and clones also showed differences in stomatal response and in leaf shedding behavior in response to a simulated drought. Our study suggests a genetic canalization for vulnerability to cavitation in organs critical for survival, such as branches, whereas there are clonal differences for traits related to drought avoidance: vulnerability to cavitation of petioles, leaf shedding behavior and stomatal response. The insights gained in this study for screening rubber tree clones for drought tolerance is also discussed.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Abstract: Selection for drought-tolerant clones has become a major challenge in rubber breeding programs undertaken to ensure the sustainability of natural rubber production, as rubber plantations are expanding in drought-prone areas. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a trait related to drought-induced mortality. It can be rapidly evaluated without subjecting plant materials to drought stress, making it useful in large-scale screening for drought tolerance in the near future. We first compared the most widely used techniques for measuring vulnerability to cavitation (air pressurization and Cavitron) on this species, and the effect of sample conditions (size, age and sunlight exposure), in order to ensure reliable analysis. Secondly, ten rubber clones were compared for their xylem vulnerability to cavitation in branches and petioles, and for other traits related to drought response, including stomatal response and leaf shedding occurring during a simulated drought. We also tested the plasticity of vulnerability to cavitation on two clones grown in three locations with contrasting precipitation regimes. We found no clonal variability and a small phenotypic plasticity for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in branches. However, clonal differences in xylem vulnerability to cavitation were found in petioles, and clones also showed differences in stomatal response and in leaf shedding behavior in response to a simulated drought. Our study suggests a genetic canalization for vulnerability to cavitation in organs critical for survival, such as branches, whereas there are clonal differences for traits related to drought avoidance: vulnerability to cavitation of petioles, leaf shedding behavior and stomatal response. The insights gained in this study for screening rubber tree clones for drought tolerance is also discussed.

 

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Battles and hijacks: noncoding transcription in plants

Battles and hijacks: noncoding transcription in plants | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in Hevea brasiliensis

Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in  Hevea brasiliensis | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea.

  
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SNP Identification from RNA Sequencing and Linkage Map Construction of Rubber Tree for Anchoring the Draft Genome

SNP Identification from RNA Sequencing and Linkage Map Construction of Rubber Tree for Anchoring the Draft Genome | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Hevea brasiliensis , or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and In
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  

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Transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis reveal long-term flowing mechanisms in Hevea brasiliensis latex.

Gene. 2014 Nov 26. pii: S0378-1119(14)01325-0. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.11.048. [Epub ahead of print]
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a major commercial source of natural rubber. Increasing the rubber yield of rubber trees is a very serious problem since the demands for high quality rubber materials are great. Establishment of a tapping system is based on an estimate of tapping intensity from the rubber tree. Latex flowing time is one of the most critical factors that determine the rubber yield. Long-term flow is a type of phenomenon of the rubber tree latex with longer flowing time than normal latex flow, and is always caused by intensive tapping. Thus, transcriptome and expression profiling data for long-term flowing latex (LFL) are needed as an important resource to identify genes and to better understand the biological mechanisms of latex flow in rubber trees.

RESULTS:

The transcripts were sequenced using the Illumina sequencing platform. After cleaning, quality checks and sequencing, 98,697 transcripts and 38,584 unigenes were assembled with the mean size of 1437.31bp and 923.86bp, respectively. In BLAST searches of our database against public databases, 65.17% (25,147) of the unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. Functional categorization further revealed 853 individual unigenes related to long-term flow. According to KEGG classification, the clusters for "cysteine and methionine metabolism", "energy", "oxidative phosphorylation", "terpenoid backbone biosynthesis", "plant hormone signal transduction" and "copper, potassium transporter" were significantly enriched metabolic pathways.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conducted high-resolution transcriptome profiling related to LFL in H. brasiliensis. The research facilitates further studies on gene discovery and on the molecular mechanisms related to the estimation of tapping intensity and prolonging latex flowing time. We concluded that it was necessary to improve energy supplies for intensive tapping and the copper ion content of rubber tree latex could be considered as a standard to estimate tapping intensity.

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Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree ...

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree ... | Hevea brasiliensis | Scoop.it
Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic ...
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Prevention of biodeterioration of rubberwood Hevea brasiliensis using K-Otek

Ananthapadmanabha, H. S.; Srinivasan, V.
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Frontiers | Impact of tapping and soil water status on fine root dynamics in a rubber tree plantation in Thailand | Functional Plant Ecology

Fine roots (FR) play a major role in the water and nutrient uptake of plants and contribute significantly to the carbon and nutrient cycles of ecosystems through their annual production and turnove...
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Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone encoding glutamine synthetase from rubber tree latex

Pujade Renaud, Valerie; Perrot Rechenmann, Catherine; Chrestin, Herve; Lacrotte, Regis; Guern, Jean, 1997: Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone encoding glutamine synthetase from rubber tree latex (Characterization of a full-length cDNA clone...
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