Patient safety poses serious challenges to the health care system in the United States. Since 2001, nationwide efforts have focused on reducing in-hospital adverse events over the past decade. Extensive nationwide efforts have focused on improving care processes and outcomes, starting with Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in 1992, . The cardiovascular care community, in particular, has embraced quality improvements for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure by launching national registries, developing performance measures and appropriate-use criteria, and initiating national quality-improvement campaigns.
The study included 61,523 patients hospitalized for heart attack (AMI) (19%), congestive heart failure (25%), pneumonia (30%), and conditions requiring surgery (27%). From 2005 through 2011, among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the rate of occurrence of adverse events declined from 5.0% to 3.7%.. Among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) the rate of occurrence of adverse events declined from 3.7% to 2.7%. . Patients with pneumonia and those with conditions requiring surgery had no significant declines in adverse-event rates.From 2005 through 2011, adverse-event rates declined substantially among patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure but not among those hospitalized for pneumonia or conditions requiring surgery.