Using non-nutritive sweeteners could cut down on added sugars and so have beneficial effects, but there are caveats.
Beneficial effects could be undone if people "compensate" for the calorie cuts by eating more high-calorie foods – drinking a diet soda, for example, then having an extra piece of cake later.
A high intake of dietary sugars has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular disease and obesity, which can lead to the development of diabetes. The researchers looked at studies of the non-nutritive sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame-K, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, and stevia.
At this time, there are insufficient data to determine conclusively
whether the use of NNS to displace caloric sweeteners
in beverages & foods reduces added sugars or carbohydrate
intakes, or benefits appetite, energy balance, body weight, or
cardiometabolic risk factors.