The most fundamental principle of the Paleo diet is returning to foods that more closely resemble those of our hunter-gatherer ancestors. This means organically grown vegetables, roots, nuts and seeds, fruit in moderation, and meats, fish and poultry. We should also be consuming naturally fermented foods, as the gut microflora so critical to our immune function has taken heavy losses from its assault by the Western diet.
The Paleo diet is naturally low in carbohydrates, especially carbs from sugars and starches. And this is quite beneficial for your health—actually necessary if you wish to restart your fat-burning engine, which for most of us has become quite sluggish from today's constant carbohydrate infusion.