California is suffering from a third year of drought, with near-record-low reservoirs, mountain snowpack, soil moisture, and river runoff. As a direct result, far less water than usual is available for cities, farms, and natural ecosystems. There are far-reaching effects that will intensify if dry conditions persist. Several response strategies are available that will provide both near-term relief and long-term benefits. This report from NRDC and the Pacific Institute examines the significant potential contributions available from four priority opportunities: improved urban and agricultural water efficiency, reuse and recycling of water, and increased capture of local rain water.