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Graphene And The EmergingTechnology of Neural Prostheses | MIT Technology Review

Graphene And The EmergingTechnology of Neural Prostheses | MIT Technology Review | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Neural implants are set to be revolutionised by a new type of graphene transistor with a liquid gate, say bio-engineers
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Despite numerous trials of electronic devices implanted into the human body, most of these devices are based on silicon substrates which are hard, rigid and sharp,qualities that don't sit well with soft tissue.

Consequently, any small movement of these devices can damage nearby tissue and in the worst cases, form scar tissue. What’s more, the hot, wet and salty environment inside the body can damage electronic components, limiting their lifespan. 

What’s needed, of course, is a flexible substrate that is also biocompatible with human tissue.

 

Now Lucas Hess and pals at the Technische Universität München in Germany say they’ve found the ideal material–graphene. Today, they outline their plans for graphene-based neural prostheses and the experiments they’ve already done to test its biocompatibility.

 

These guys have begun to test graphene interfaces with various cells such as retinal ganglion cells, reporting that graphene has excellent biocompatibility.

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Length-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended single-layer graphene

Length-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended single-layer graphene | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
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Here we report experimental measurements and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in suspended single-layer graphene as a function of both temperature and sample length. Interestingly and in contrast to bulk materials, at 300 K, thermal conductivity keeps increasing and remains logarithmically divergent with sample length even for sample lengths much larger than the average phonon mean free path. This result is a consequence of the two-dimensional nature of phonons in graphene, and provides fundamental understanding of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials.

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Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro

Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
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 In a new open-access paper published in Stem Cell Reports, the authors explored the developmental cues governing articular cartilage geneartion in-vivo

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Graphene faces its stiffest challenge yet - in condoms

Graphene faces its stiffest challenge yet - in condoms | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Graphene faces its stiffest challenge yet - in condoms
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“Since its isolation in 2004, people have wondered when graphene will be used in our daily life. Currently, people imagine using graphene in mobile-phone screens, food packaging, chemical sensors, etc.
“If this project is successful, we might have a use for graphene which will literally touch our every-day life in the most intimate way.”

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The Global Market for Graphene 2013: Forecasts from 2010 to 2020

The Global Market for Graphene 2013: Forecasts from 2010 to 2020 | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Presented in magazine format this fully updated to August 2013 report provides and easily readable and succinct guide to this wonder material Driven by demand...
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The European Union is funding a 10 year 1,000 million euro coordination action on graphene. South Korea is spending $350 million plus on commercialization initiatives and the United Kingdom is investing over £70 million on various initiatives. Applications are coming onto the market for polymer composites and EMI shielding coatings. Graphene-based conducting inks are also finding their way into smart cards and radio-frequency identification tags.


TechNavio's analysts forecast the Global Graphene market to grow at a CAGR of 60.4 percent over the period 2012-2016. 

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Strategies for engineering controls in NANOMATERIAL production and handling processes

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Another initiative into health safety in the workplace, related to the use and handling of nanomaterials.

 

The focus of this document is to identify and describe strategies for the engineering control of worker exposure during the production or use of engineered nanomaterials. Nanomaterials may have properties different from those of larger particles of the same material, making them unique and desirable for specific product applications. The consumer products market currently has more than 1,000 nanomaterial-containing products including makeup, sunscreen, food storage products, appliances, clothing, electronics, computers, sporting goods, and coatings. As more nanomaterials are introduced into the workplace and nano-enabled products enter the market, it is essential that producers and users of engineered nanomaterials ensure a safe and healthy work environment.

 

Engineered nanomaterials are materials that are intentionally produced and have at least one primary dimension less than 100 nanometers (nm). 

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Consortium of GRAPHENE Flagship will be expanded with another 20 – 30 groups through the open call

Consortium of GRAPHENE Flagship will be expanded with another 20 – 30 groups through the open call | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
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he Consortium of Graphene Flagship will be extended with another 20-30 groups through an open call to be issued in November 2013. This open call is intended to further strengthen the engineering aspects of the flagship.

The total volume of the call is over 9 M€ EC funding, which will have to be spent during the CP-CSA period, i.e. before March 31, 2016. The call is divided into 12 scientific and technological (S&T) topics:

Materials,

Health & environment,

Fundamental science,

High-frequency electronics,

Optoelectronics,

Spintronics,

Sensors,

Flexible electronics,

Energy applications,

Nanocomposites,

Production

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Unexpected finding: Water makes nanoribbon development easy

Unexpected finding: Water makes nanoribbon development easy | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
A tiny meniscus of water makes it practical to form long graphene nanoribbons less than 10 nanometers wide.
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Full paper: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn403057t

 

Tour said water’s tendency to adhere to surfaces is often annoying, but in this case it’s essential to the process. “There are big machines that are used in electronics research that are often heated to hundreds of degrees under ultrahigh vacuum to drive off all the water that adheres to the inside surfaces,” he said. “Otherwise there’s always going to be a layer of water. In our experiments, water accumulates at the edge of the structure and protects the graphene from the reactive ion etching (RIE). So in our case, that residual water is the key to success.

“Nobody’s ever thought of this before, and it’s nothing we thought of,” Tour said. “This was fortuitous.”

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Using graphene to investigate how light interacts with nano-antennas

Using graphene to investigate how light interacts with nano-antennas | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Using graphene to investigate how light interacts with nano-antennas
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When light shines on a metal particle smaller than the wavelength of the light, the electrons in the particle start to move back and forth along with the light wave. This causes an increase in the electric field at the surface of the particle.
When two such particles are brought close to each other, the oscillating electrons in the two particles interact with each other, forming an even higher electric field between the two particles, resulting in a coupling between the two particles.

 

Dr Vijayaraghavan’s team and collaborators have shown that graphene can be placed on top of such coupled gold antennas of different shapes, and by performing Raman spectroscopy on the graphene, this coupled plasmonic system can be observed and measured.

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Graphene Frontiers Awarded $745,000 NSF Grant for Roll-to-Roll Graphene Production

Graphene Frontiers Awarded $745,000 NSF Grant for Roll-to-Roll Graphene Production | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

Graphene Frontiers, a company developed through the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Technology Transfer, has been awarded a $744,600 grant from the National Science Foundation to develop roll-to-roll production of graphene.

“The new project is to advance the approach to the point where it works like newspaper printing,” said Johnson, who is also the chair of Graphene Frontiers' scientific advisory board. “A roll of copper foil goes in to the growth system, and a roll of graphene on a suitable backing comes out. This sort of ‘roll-to-roll’ process would enable large-scale production of graphene with high quality at low cost.”

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Three studies highlighting the exciting potential of graphene for optoelectronic devices

Three studies highlighting the exciting potential of graphene for optoelectronic devices | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Three studies highlighting the exciting potential of graphene for optoelectronic devices
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Using Graphene in Carbon Fiber

Using Graphene in Carbon Fiber | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Carbon fiber is a material that is used in a host of applications across many industries. It’s demand and popularity is due to its strength and lightweight characteristics.
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Large flakes of graphene oxide are the essential ingredient in a new recipe for robust carbon fiber created at Rice University. The surprising strength of knots in the fiber should make it suitable for advanced fabrics.

  

http://news.rice.edu/2013/07/08/not-weak-knots-bolster-carbon-fiber/

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201301065/full

Abstract of the full paper

 

Two types of graphene oxide fibers are spun from high concentration aqueous dopes. Fibers extruded from large flake graphene oxide dope without drawing show unconventional 100% knot efficiency. Fibers spun from small sized graphene oxide dope with stable and continuous drawing yield in good intrinsic alignment with a record high tensile modulus of 47 GPa.

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The Graphene Opportunity Report

The Graphene Opportunity Report | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
This report examines the claims for graphene applications, considers their validity and evaluates the market sizes, barriers and chances of success.
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Welcome to Graphene Valley: High-tech future plan for former BBC site in Manchester city centre

Welcome to Graphene Valley: High-tech future plan for former BBC site in Manchester city centre | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
A new high-tech hub could cash in on the discovery of graphene, believe town hall bosses – while acting as a gateway between the city centre and universities
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Graphene-Based Nano-Antennas May Enable Networks of Tiny Machines

Graphene-Based Nano-Antennas May Enable Networks of Tiny Machines | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

“We are exploiting the peculiar propagation of electrons in graphene to make a very small antenna that can radiate at much lower frequencies than classical metallic antennas of the same size,”

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Known technically as a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wave, the effect will allow the nano-antennas to operate at the low end of the terahertz frequency range, between 0.1 and 10 terahertz – instead of at 150 terahertz required by traditional copper antennas at nanoscale sizes. For transmitting, the SPP waves can be created by injecting electrons into the dielectric layer beneath the graphene sheet.

The full paper (free)

http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/papers/2013/j17.pdf



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Mexico Technology Graphene production line completed production (300 ton/year)

Mexico Technology Graphene production line completed production (300 ton/year) | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

December 20, 2013, Ningbo Mexico Technology Limited (hereinafter referred to as Mexico Technology) kiloton graphene first phase of the production line with an annual output 300 tons of graphene-scale production line was completed commissioning ceremony located (Ningbo) Cidong held in the coastal area of corporate campus. Company investors graphene Beijing Enterprises Group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo materials technology partners, local government leaders attended the ceremony and cut the ribbon together for the completion of the production line

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Archer Exploration extracts graphene from Campoona graphite, South Australia - Proactiveinvestors (AU)

Archer Exploration extracts graphene from Campoona graphite, South Australia - Proactiveinvestors (AU) | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

The ability of Campoona graphite to deliver a wide spectrum of graphene and graphene-related products enhances Archer's opportunity to deliver two long term business arms.

Archer aims to produce high grade to ultra-pure fine natural flake graphite; and manufacture high tech, high-value graphene products.

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Graphene is getting into consumer market

Graphene is getting into consumer market | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

The editors of Popular Science, the world’s largest science and technology magazine, have named HEAD’s Graphene™ Speed Pro tennis racquet a 2013 recipient of the publication’s "Best of What’s New Award" in the recreation category.

http://www.popsci.com/bown/2013/product/head-youtek-graphene-speed-pro

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The HEAD Graphene™ Speed Pro is constructed with Graphene™, the world’s strongest and lightest material, which enables a redistribution of weight from the racquet shaft to the grip and head. The optimized redistribution of weight in the racquet allows players to generate more kinetic energy when they hit the ball. This means players of every level can generate more power with less effort, thanks to the integration of Graphene™ in the HEAD Graphene™ Speed Pro.

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Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials

Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

Danish Ministry of the Environment

Environmental protection Agency

 

Part of the ”Better control of nano” initiative 2012-2015
Environmental Project No. 1504, 2013

 

The project “Dermal absorption of nanomaterials” was carried out during the period January to May 2013.  This report and the accompanying database (see appendix 4) are intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the knowledge base regarding the dermal absorption/penetration of nanomaterials based on the currently available scientific literature. These results regarding skin as an exposure route for nanomaterials are part of the “Better control of nano” initiative conducted by the Danish EPA with the aim of further clarifying possible risks to consumers and the environment.
The project was carried out by the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) with COWI A/S as
subcontractor.

Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

Some recommendations about safety while working, using or just consuming products with nanomaterials.

 

Not talking about graphene, but....

 

Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS:

 

There is a diverse literature base surrounding the issue of dermal penetration/ absorption of nanomaterials. However despite the relative abundance of publications, there is a limitation on the
reporting of physicochemical data and/or the alteration of multiple experimental parameters in a non-systematic way that hampers true comparisons of nanomaterials or their physicochemical
properties and the drawing of robust conclusions. Indeed, similar to this conclusion, it has been noted in a previous review article that “experimental data do not allow clear cut conclusions because
experimental conditions lack consistency”. This is a common issue within nanotoxicology and more recently, in terms of undertaking and reporting of rigorous physicochemical data, there have been significant improvements in this area as journals increasingly consider such characterisation a prerequisite for consideration of publication.

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Graphene nanoribbons help to create a better barrier to gas

Graphene nanoribbons help to create a better barrier to gas | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Researchers have combined graphene nanoribbons with thermoplastic polyurethane to create a material that is more impermeable to pressurised gas, a development that has applications in the automotive sector.
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Full paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn404843n

Abstract

A thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite film containing hexadecyl-functionalized low-defect graphene nanoribbons (HD-GNRs) was produced by solution casting. The HD-GNRs were well distributed within the polyurethane matrix, leading to phase separation of the TPU. Nitrogen gas effective diffusivity of TPU was decreased by three orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt% HD-GNRs. The incorporation of HD-GNRs also improved the mechanical properties of the composite films, as predicted by the phase separation and indicated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analyses. The improved properties of the composite film could lead to potential applications in food packaging and light-weight mobile gas storage containers.

 

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Manufacturing graphene from Aromatic Monolayers.

Manufacturing graphene from Aromatic Monolayers. | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

Self-assembled monolayers of aromatic molecules on copper substrates can be converted into high-quality single-layer graphene using low-energy electron irradiation and subsequent annealing. This two-dimensional solid state transformation is characterized on the atomic scale and the physical and chemical properties of the formed graphene sheets are studied by complementary microscopic and spectroscopic techniques and by electrical transport measurements. As substrates, Cu(111) single crystals and the technologically relevant polycrystalline copper foils are successfully used.

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Additional advantages result from the versatility of the method of self-organized coating. It can be performed with different aromatic molecules which could, for example, also contain doping atoms for electronic doping of the final product. Applied in multiple layers, so-called bi-layer or multi-layer graphene could be manufactured, whose changed electronic band structure expands the potential applications of single-layer graphene. Likewise, other substrates than the copper used here (for example other metals, semiconductors, isolators) can be used. In addition, it should also be possible to manufacture graphene on any three-dimensional surfaces, as molecular self-organization also takes place on curved surfaces. The new manufacturing method broadens the perspectives for an improved use of the "magic material" in such an impressive way that the respective publication was emphasized on the cover sheet of the August issue of the scientific journal "Advanced Materials".

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The thinnest membrane ever constructed: 1.8nm thick graphene readily sorts hydrogen and carbon dioxide

The thinnest membrane ever constructed: 1.8nm thick graphene readily sorts hydrogen and carbon dioxide | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it

One of the thinnest membranes ever made is also highly discriminating when it comes to the molecules going through it. Engineers at the University of South Carolina have constructed a graphene oxide membrane less than 2 nanometers thick with high permeation selectivity between hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas molecules.

 

The selectivity is based on molecular size, the team reported in the journal Science. Hydrogen and helium pass relatively easily through the membrane, but carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and methane move much more slowly.

 

“The hydrogen kinetic diameter is 0.289 nm, and carbon dioxide is 0.33 nm. The difference in size is very small, only 0.04 nm, but the difference in permeation is quite large” said Miao Yu, a chemical engineer in USC’s College of Engineering and Computingwho led the research team. “The membrane behaves like a sieve. Bigger molecules cannot go through, but smaller molecules can.”

 

In addition to selectivity, what’s remarkable about the USC team’s result is the quality of the membrane they were able to craft on such a small scale. The membrane is constructed on the surface of a porous aluminum oxide support. Flakes of graphene oxide, with widths on the order of 500 nm but just one carbon atom thick, were deposited on the support to create a circular membrane about 2 square centimeters in area.

 

The membrane is something of an overlapping mosaic of graphene oxide flakes. It’s like covering the surface of a table with playing cards. And doing that on a molecular scale is very hard if you want uniform coverage and no places where you might get “leaks.” Gas molecules are looking for holes anywhere they can be found, and in a membrane made up of graphene oxide flakes, there would be two likely places: holes within the flakes, or holes between the flakes.

 

It’s the spaces between flakes that have been a real obstacle to progress in light gas separations. That’s why microporous membranes designed to distinguish in this molecular range have typically been very thick. “At least 20 nm, and usually thicker,” said Miao. Anything thinner and the gas molecules could readily find their way between non-uniform spaces between flakes.

 

Miao’s team devised a method of preparing a membrane without those “inter-flake” leaks. They dispersed graphene oxide flakes, which are highly heterogeneous mixtures when prepared with current methods, in water and used sonication and centrifugation techniques to prepare a dilute, homogeneous slurry. These flakes were then laid down on the support by simple filtration.

 

Their thinnest result was a 1.8-nm-thick membrane that only allowed gas molecules to pass through holes in the graphene oxide flakes themselves, the team reported. They found by atomic force microscopy that a single graphene oxide flake had a thickness of approximately 0.7 nm. Thus, the 1.8-nm-thick membrane on aluminum oxide is only a few molecular layers thick, with molecular defects within the graphene oxide that are essentially uniform and just a little too small to let carbon dioxide through easily.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Nanotechnology manufacturers: Graphene

An increasing number of companies is involved in commercializing graphene on an industrial scale although the high cost of graphene is one of the major obstacles to its widespread adoption for commercial applications.
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In our Nanomaterial Database we also list commercial graphene products and we keep a list of graphene manufacturers and suppliers that is constantly updated. Currently, this list contains 40 companies:ACS MaterialAdnano TechnologiesAnderlab TechnologiesAngstron MaterialsAVANSA Technology & ServicesBluestone Global TechCheap TubesCVD Materials CorpoprationDurham Graphene ScienceGarmorGrafen Chemical IndustriesGrafentekGrafoidGRAnPH NanotechGraphenanoGraphene FrontiersGraphene IndustriesGraphene LaboratoriesGraphene PlatformGraphene SquareGraphene TechnologiesGraphene WorksGraphenea NanomaterialsGraphensicHarbin Mulan Foreign Economic And Trade CompanyHaydaleNanoIntegrisNational NanoMaterialsNingbo Morsh TechnologyplanarTECHPlatinum NanochemQuantum CorporationRedex Nano LabsSaivensTW Nano MaterialsVorbeck MaterialsXG SciencesXiamen Knano Graphene TechnologyXolveXP Nano Material
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Spanish company Graphenano produces graphene at industrial scale

NIce video about the possible uses of graphene. Graphenano manufactures different products: plates, powder, gel, ink, wire, cables, or transferred onto other substrates.

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 NIce video about the possible uses of graphene.

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Twisted Graphene Discovery May Solve Development Mystery

Twisted Graphene Discovery May Solve Development Mystery | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
It has long been thought that ‘wonder material’ graphene will eventually herald a manufacturing revolution in the electronics and photonics industries. Yet these hopes are currently still purely theoretical.
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Graphene can disrupt cell function

Graphene can disrupt cell function | Graphene and its applications | Scoop.it
Graphene has been hailed as a wonder material in the electronics world but it warrants a closer look based on new research.
Carlos Garcia Pando's insight:

This is the first time I read about toxicity of graphene and its interaction with human cells. The sentence “This is about the safe design of nanomaterials; They’re man-made materials, so we should be able to be clever and make them safer" is very explicative.

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