Source: Vineyards and Wineries in Minnesota: A Status and economic Contribution Report by Brigid Tuck and William Gartner

St. Paul, Minn.—Cold-climate grapegrowing is based primarily on four varietals—Frontenac, Frontenac Gris, La Crescent and Marquette—that are products of the grape-breeding program at the University of Minnesota. The first of the four, Frontenac, was released in 1996, and the last, Marquette, was introduced 10 years later, in 2006. Because these grapes can grow in places where winter temperatures regularly drop below -20°F, a new farm winery industry developed in northern states where growers cannot reliably grow vinifera or even French hybrid grapes. A new study, based on data from 2011, shows that the economic impact of the cold-climate wine industry on the United States economy has reached $401 million.