Google is the most valuable brand in the world, according to the annual BrandZ study by marketing firm Millward Brown. The firm calculates Google's brand value at more than $158 billion, a 40% rise from last year. That tops the brand value of Apple, which the study found has a brand value of over $147 billion, falling by 20% and landing it in second place. The calculations are based on how much of a company's value comes from customers' views of it and how likely they are to remain loyal. Other notables include McDonald's, the highest-ranking non-tech company, Visa and Amazon, which both saw 41% increases in brand value, and Twitter and LinkedIn, which entered the top 100 brands for the first time.