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Human DNA shows traces of 40-million-year battle for survival between primate and pathogen | BIOENGINEER.ORG

Human DNA shows traces of 40-million-year battle for survival between primate and pathogen | BIOENGINEER.ORG | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Examination of DNA from 21 primate species – from squirrel monkeys to humans – exposes an evolutionary war against infectious bacteria over iron that circulates in the bloodstream.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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I love this stuff

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Gilbert C FAURE's curator insight, December 15, 2014 12:06 PM

illustrating a previous spot and nutrtional immunology

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Frontiers | Whole-genome comparative analysis of virulence genes unveils similarities and differences between endophytes and other symbiotic bacteria | Plant-Microbe Interaction

Plant pathogens and endophytes co-exist and often interact with the host plant and within its microbial community. The outcome of these interactions may lead to healthy plants through beneficial in...
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Understanding the Clinical Trial Process

Understanding the Clinical Trial Process | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Today’s guest post is authored by Timothy J. Garnett, M.D., Lilly’s Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Medicines Development Unit and Lilly Research Laboratories.Have you ever thought closely about the contents of your medicine cabinet?

Via Krishan Maggon
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Inflammatory Muscle Diseases

Inflammatory Muscle Diseases | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
The four main types of inflammatory muscle disease — dermatomyositis, polymyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myositis, and inclusion-body myositis — are summarized in a new review article.

Via Krishan Maggon
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Ulcer-causing Helicobacter bacteria induce stomach stem cell to grow

Ulcer-causing Helicobacter bacteria induce stomach stem cell to grow | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
The ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori can directly interact with stomach stem cells, causing the cells to divide more rapidly, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

The increased cell division was observed in mice, but the findings could explain why H. pylori is a risk factor for gastric cancer in humans, the researchers said.

They used 3-D microscopy to identified colonies of the bacteria deep within human stomach glands, where stem cells and precursor cells that replenish the stomach's lining reside.

One of every two people has H. pylori in their stomachs. It's one of the few organisms capable of surviving the harsh acidic environment. While the majority of people remain asymptomatic, in about 15 percent of those infected the bacteria causes painful ulcers, and in another 1 percent the bacteria contribute to stomach cancer, the third-most lethal cancer worldwide.

Although the infection can be successfully treated with antibiotics, those who develop cancer are often unaware of their condition until the tumor is large enough to interfere with stomach functions. "The bacteria will be brewing for many years, and when the cancer starts to cause symptoms it may be too late," said Manuel Amieva, MD, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics and of microbiology and immunology.


The researchers came up with the idea of sampling stomach tissues removed during weight-loss surgery. These samples came from healthy stomachs, in which H. pylori was not actively causing ulcers or cancer. After identifying tissue infected with particular strains of H. pylori, they used confocal microscopy to reconstruct 3-D images of the glands from four stomachs with H. pylori. All four showed colonies of the spiral-shaped bacteria clustered about two-thirds of the way into the gland, where fast-dividing precursor cells reside.


Unexpectedly, the researchers found a smaller number of bacterial colonies at the base of the glands, where the stem cells reside. When they went back to their mouse models, they discovered about 30 percent of the glands colonized by H. pylori had bacteria at the base of the glands.

H. pylori affects stem cells.


This unanticipated finding shed light on how H. pylori could influence cells to turn cancerous. Cancer is thought to develop slowly as the cell acquires mutations in the DNA that override cellular controls and increase cell proliferation. Even though H. pylori had been shown to manipulate cellular controls, the mature stomach's epithelial cells don't live long enough to acquire mutations.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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When Mutation Counters Infection: From Sickle Cell to Ebola - DNA Science Blog

When Mutation Counters Infection: From Sickle Cell to Ebola - DNA Science Blog | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
 While pharmaceutical companies focus on drug discovery for Ebola virus disease, a powerful clue is coming from a rare “Jewish genetic disease” that destro
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Top 10 Medical Breakthroughs for 2014

Top 10 Medical Breakthroughs for 2014 | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

#1 Retinal Prosthesis:

In a healthy eye, the rods and cones of the retina are specialized cells that convert light into tiny electrochemical impulses that are sent via the optic nerve into the brain, where they are decoded into images. However, if these delicate photoreceptors are ever damaged, the initial step in the process is disrupted and the visual system cannot transform light into images, leading to blindness...


#2 Genome-Guided Solid Tumor Diagnostics:

Too often, men and women hear the words "prostate cancer," "breast cancer," and "colorectal cancer" from their doctors and they immediately think the worst. Many times the aggressive therapies are unnecessary that are offered or demanded. However, there are now genomic-based tests that can make these treatment decisions much easier and more reliable.


#3 Responsive Neurostimulator for Intractable Epilepsy:

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that produces seizures—brief disturbances in the normal electrical activity of the brain—that affect various mental and physical functions. Seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells in the brain signal abnormally, which may briefly alter a person’s consciousness or movements. When a person has two or more unprovoked seizures, he or she is considered to have epilepsy.


#4 New Era in Hepatitis C Treatment:

Hepatitis C infection, a common liver disease that affects an estimated four million people in the United States, is transmitted through exposure to infected blood (blood was not screened effectively for hepatitis C until 1992) or sexual contact with an infected person. The majority of people with the ailment don’t realize that they have the disease because of a lack of symptoms.


#5 Perioperative Decision Support System:

Anesthesia is given to patients to inhibit pain, sedate the body, and also regulate various bodily functions in surgery. Today, there are 51 million hospital surgical procedures performed annually in the United States, most which are not possible without anesthesia. Before the discovery of anesthesia and the first painless surgery in 1842, surgical patients had their pain dulled with opium or copious amounts of alcohol. With the advent of many new medications and surgical monitoring equipment, we are now in the modern era of anesthesia and optimal surgical care.


#6 Fecal Microbiota Transplantation:

Many hospitalized patients develop hospital-acquired infections, oftentimes due, paradoxically, to broad-spectrum and fluoroquinolone antibiotic therapy used for medical treatment. Antibiotics, which are supposed to kill bacteria, can also increase the odds of some people developing a dangerous and potentially lethal infection from rod-shaped bacteria called Clostridium difficile, or C. diff.


#7 Relaxin for Acute Heart Failure:

Heart failure is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply the body. Symptoms of fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention are caused by a weakened or stiffened heart, significantly diminishing its ability to fill normally or effectively distribute blood. According to the American Heart Association, approximately five million people experience heart failure in the United States and more than half a million new cases are diagnosed annually in this country.


#8 Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation Station:

A colonoscopy is an exam that lets a gastroenterologist look closely at the inside of the entire colon and rectum for polyps, the small growths that over time can become cancerous. Using a colonoscope, a thin, flexible, hollow, lighted tube that has a tiny video camera on the end, the doctor sends pictures to a TV screen. The exam itself takes about 30 minutes. Patients are usually given light sedation to help them relax and sleep while the procedure is performed.


#9 TMAO ASSAY: Novel Biomaker for the Microbiome:

There is a global hunt in progress using a variety of cardiovascular fingerprints—scientists call them biomarkers—that have been discovered or created to help identify the initiation, development, and ongoing cascade of damage caused by heart disease.


#10 B-Cell Receptor Pathway Inhibitors:

Chemotherapy is a blunt instrument designed to indiscriminately kill rapidly dividing cells in the hope that the cancer cells die more and grow back less than healthy cells. That normal cells are routinely damaged in this destructive procedure accounts for the side effects and toxicity of traditional chemotherapy.

 

Read more: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/innovations/summit/topten/2014.html#.Ur7HSPQW0kQ


Via Parag Vora
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Probably the best cowntdown online #medicalbreakthrough #goodbye2014 #iwannabeadoctor

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Scientists find new botulinum toxin, withhold genetic details

Scientists find new botulinum toxin, withhold genetic details | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

Scientists have discovered the first new type of botulinum toxin in 40 years, and in a highly unusual move, they are keeping the toxin's genetic sequence data secret for now so that no one can make it in a lab before an effective antitoxin can be developed.

Until now, Clostridium botulinum was known to produce seven types of toxins, all of which cause paralysis by blocking neurotransmitters in humans and animals. The last one was discovered in 1970.


Via Ed Rybicki
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, October 12, 2013 9:51 AM

What equine excreta!?  Really??  "We found a new botulinum toxin, but we won't tell you what it is - but it can't be neutralised by CDC antitoxins"??  Isn't THAT enough information for your dedicated cave-dwelling biotechnologist to go out and look, via next-gen sequencing, for novel Clostridium strains??  Oh no - does what I've just written constitute a dangerous disclosure?  Should I censor myself??

Seriously, this pious "we have this cool new discovovery but can't tell you what it is because nasty people may make it" mentality is just ridiculous.  What makes it MORE ridiculous is telling people about it at all in that case: no-one ever hear about reverse engineering, or simply going looking for something becaue you now know it's there?

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A new genome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans provides insights into adaptation to a bioleaching environment

A new genome of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans provides insights into adaptation to a bioleaching environment http://t.co/TVl3gi42Fa
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Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy

Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy
http://t.co/X9tNY85xRy

Via María L. Burgos-Garay
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Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus pentosus IG1, a Strain Isolated from Spanish-Style Green Olive Fermentations

Lactobacillus pentosus is the most prevalent lactic acid bacterium in Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Here we present the draft genome sequence of L. pentosus IG1, a bacteriocin-producing strain with biotechnological and probiotic properties isolated from this food fermentations.


Via Manuel Sánchez
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ExpR coordinates the expression of symbiotically important, bundle-forming Flp pili with quorum sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti

Type IVb pili in enteropathogenic bacteria function as a host-colonization factor by mediating tight adherence to host cells, but their role in bacteria-plant symbiosis is currently unknown. The genome of the symbiotic soil bacteriumSinorhizobium meliloti contains two clusters encoding proteins for Type IVb pili of the Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) subfamily. To establish the role of Flp pili in the symbiotic interaction of S. meliloti and its host Medicago sativa, we deleted pilA1 that encodes the putative pilin subunit in the chromosomal flp1 cluster and conducted competitive nodulation assays. ThepilA1 deletion strain formed 27% fewer nodules than wild type. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of bundle-forming pili protruding from the polar and lateral region of S. meliloti wild-type cells. The putative pilus assembly ATPase, CpaE1, fused to mCherry showed a predominantly unilateral localization. Transcriptional reporter gene assays demonstrated that expression of pilA1 peaks in early stationary phase and is repressed by the quorum sensing regulator ExpR, which also controls production of exopolysaccharides and motility. Binding of acyl homoserine lactone-activated ExpR to the pilA1 promoter was confirmed with electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A 17-bp consensus sequence for ExpR binding was identified within the 28-bp protected region by DNase I detected by footprinting analyses. Our results show that Flp pili are important for efficient symbiosis of S. meliloti with its plant host. The temporal inverse regulation of exopolysaccharides and pili by ExpR enables S. meliloti to achieve a coordinated expression of cellular processes during early stages of host interaction.

 Zatakia HM, Nelson CE, Syed UJ, Scharf BE. (2014). Appl Environ Microbiol. Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]


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Barberry, rust's other host, and source of new virulence

The Borluag Global Rust Initiative Presents...

 

Wheat stem rust has two hosts, wheat and barberry. Barberry, the "alternate" host, is needed for the fungus to complete it sexual cycle and geneticly diversify. Without barberry, the fungus only reproduces vegetatively. Therefore, the presence of the alternate host is good for the fungus, but bad for wheat. Barberry eradication programs succeeded in eliminating most barberry plants from wheat growing regions, but continued monitoring is important. This video describes the contribution of barberry to the spread of stem rust, and shows how to identify barberry plants and examine them for the presence of the rust.

 

More videos and presentations from BGRI here: http://www.globalrust.org/traction/project/bgriworkshop


Via Mary Williams
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Grapevine colonization by endophytic bacteria shifts secondary metabolism and suggests activation of defense pathways

Grapevine colonization by endophytic bacteria shifts secondary metabolism and suggests activation of defense pathways | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Aims
The colonization pattern of three grapevine endophytes (families Sphingomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) and their putative metabolic signature in plants were analyzed on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir to determine the behavior of endophytic strains inside plants as well as how plants respond to such microsymbionts.
Methods
Strains Enterobacter ludwigii EnVs6, Pantoea vagans PaVv7 and Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae SpVs6, were root inoculated on micropropagated grapevine plantlets and colonization was determined by double labeling of oligonucleotide probes-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DOPE-FISH) coupled with confocal microscopy. After inoculation, the metabolic signature in plants colonized by Enterobacter ludwigii EnVs6 was further studied using UPLC//tandem mass spectrometry analysis.
Results
E. ludwigii EnVs6 and P. vagans PaVv7 colonized the plantlets and were both observed on the root surfaces and as endophytes in the cortex and inside the central cylinder up to xylem vessels, but not in the systemic plant parts. Strain SpVs6 also efficiently colonized the root surface, but not the endorhiza and was therefore not detected as an endophyte. A metabolic signature in plants inoculated with E. ludwigii EnVs6 was depicted, resulting in a significant increase in vanillic acid and a decrease in the concentration of catechin, esculin, arbutin, astringin, pallidol, ampelopsin, D-quadrangularin and isohopeaphenol. Changes in the concentration of epicatechin, procyanidin 1, taxifolin and the sum of quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-3-galactoside, in roots and stems were also detected, showing that the effect of colonization of plants is most prominent in the stems.
Conclusions
Colonization patterns in endophytes are divergent according to the strains used. A metabolic signature suggests the activation of pathways involved in plant defense but also modulation of the production of metabolites that are keys for colonization.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Opiate-producing yeast raises spectre of 'home-brewed heroin' | Chemistry World

Opiate-producing yeast raises spectre of 'home-brewed heroin' | Chemistry World | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Warnings that completion of final steps in opiate biosynthesis could be a double-edged sword

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Researchers captured the first 3-D video of a living algal embryo turning itself inside out

Researchers captured the first 3-D video of a living algal embryo turning itself inside out | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

Researchers have captured the first 3D video of a living algal embryo (Volvox sp.) turning itself inside out, from a sphere to a mushroom shape and back again. The results could help unravel the mechanical processes at work during a similar process in animals, which has been called the "most important time in your life."

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have captured the first three-dimensional images of a live embryo turning itself inside out. The images, of embryos of a green alga called Volvox, make an ideal test case to understand how a remarkably similar process works in early animal development.


Using fluorescence microscopy to observe the Volvox embryos, the researchers were able to test a mathematical model of morphogenesis - the origin and development of an organism's structure and form - and understand how the shape of cells drives the process of inversion, when the embryo turns itself from a sphere to a mushroom shape and back again. Their findings are published today (27 April) in the journal Physical Review Letters.


The processes observed in the Volvox embryo are similar to the process of gastrulation in animal embryos - which biologist Lewis Wolpert called "the most important event in your life." During gastrulation, the embryo folds inwards into a cup-like shape, forming the primary germ layers which give rise to all the organs in the body. Volvox embryos undergo a similar process, but with an additional twist: the embryos literally turn themselves right-side out during the process.


Gastrulation in animals results from a complex interplay of cell shape changes, cell division and migration, making it difficult to develop a quantitative understanding of the process. However, Volvox embryos complete their shape change only by changing cell shapes and the location of the connections between cells, and this simplicity makes them an ideal model for understanding cell sheet folding.


In Volvox embryos, the process of inversion begins when the embryos start to fold inward, or invaginate, around their middle, forming two hemispheres. Next, one hemisphere moves inside the other, an opening at the top widens, and the outer hemisphere glides over the inner hemisphere, until the embryo regains its spherical shape. This remarkable process takes place over approximately one hour.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Metabolic dependencies drive species co-occurrence in diverse microbial communities

Metabolic dependencies drive species co-occurrence in diverse microbial communities | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

Although metabolic interactions have long been implicated in the assembly of microbial communities, their general prevalence has remained largely unknown. In this study, we systematically survey, by using a metabolic modeling approach, the extent of resource competition and metabolic cross-feeding in over 800 microbial communities from diverse habitats. We show that interspecies metabolic exchanges are widespread in natural communities, and that such exchanges can provide group advantage under nutrient-poor conditions. Our results highlight metabolic dependencies as a major driver of species co-occurrence. The presented methodology and mechanistic insights have broad implications for understanding compositional variation in natural communities as well as for facilitating the design of synthetic microbial communities.


Via Kemen Lab, Stéphane Hacquard, Francis Martin, Jean-Michel Ané
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Hsiao-Han Lin's curator insight, May 5, 2015 9:51 PM

microbe are not the same, and they communicate and exchange

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New strategy to protect healthy gut microbes from antibiotics - Phys.Org

New strategy to protect healthy gut microbes from antibiotics - Phys.Org | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Gut microbes promote human health by fighting off pathogens, but they also contribute to diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

Via María L. Burgos-Garay
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Functional Diversity of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes Enabling a Bacterium to Ferment Plant Biomass

Functional Diversity of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes Enabling a Bacterium to Ferment Plant Biomass | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

Via Francis Martin
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C’est difficile: Researchers develop cocktail of bacteria that eradicates Clostridium difficile infection in mice

C’est difficile: Researchers develop cocktail of bacteria that eradicates Clostridium difficile infection in mice | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
In a new study, researchers used mice to identify a combination six naturally occurring bacteria that eradicate a highly contagious form of Clostridium difficile, an infectious bacterium associated with many hospital deaths.

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Un breve repaso a la historia, la taxonomía y el proceso de nodulación en Rhizobacterias.

Un breve repaso a la historia, la taxonomía y el proceso de nodulación en Rhizobacterias. | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Sin embargo apenas si hemos hablado de Rhizobium... Las Rhizobios son seguramente el grupo de bacterias, con interés agrónomo positivo, más famosas y estudiadas de la historia. Es importante aclarar que la mayoría de ellas son PGPRs, pues fomenta el crecimiento de las plantas, mediante la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico aportando una fuente de proteínas.  Sin embargo no todas las PGPRs son rhizobios, ya que no todas tienen una relación tan estrecha y personal con la planta.

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Colombian capital hosts Biotech 2025 - Fox News Latino

Colombian capital hosts Biotech 2025 - Fox News Latino | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Experts from Argentina, Australia, Chile, Finland, Mexico, Switzerland and Colombia are gathered in Bogota for the Biotech 2025 conference.
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Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies

Bacterial tricks for turning plants into zombies | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

Many parasites commandeer the bodies of their hosts in order to spread. Examples of this include horsehair worms that reach water by forcing their cricket hosts to drown themselves, and liver flukes that drive infected ants to climb blades of grass, where cows can eat the insects, and so the flukes. But parasites can turn plants into zombies, too — and a team of scientists from the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK, has now discovered how they do it.

 

When plants are infected by parasitic bacteria called phytoplasmas, their flowers turn into leafy shoots, their petals turn green and they develop a mass of shoots called ‘witches’ brooms’. This transformation sterilizes the plant, while attracting the sap-sucking insects that carry the bacteria to new hosts. “The plant appears alive, but it’s only there for the good of the pathogen,” says plant pathologist Saskia Hogenhout from the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK. “In an evolutionary sense, the plant is dead and will not produce offspring.” “Many might baulk at the concept of a zombie plant because the idea of plants behaving is strange,” says David Hughes, a parasitologist at Pennsylvania State University in University Park. “But they do, and since they do, why wouldn't parasites have evolved to take over their behaviour, as they do for ants and crickets?”


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Cesar Sanchez
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Interkingdom transfer of the acne causing agent, Propionibacterium acnes, from human to grapevine

Interkingdom transfer of the acne causing agent, Propionibacterium acnes, from human to grapevine | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it

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New Approach to Fighting Staph Infections: Blocking RNA degradation

New Approach to Fighting Staph Infections: Blocking RNA degradation | Good bacteria bad bacteria | Scoop.it
Researchers have identified a small molecule that can inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a growing public health problem. The discovery may open the door to a new class of antibiotics to combat MRSA.

 

Decades ago, doctors used penicillin to treat infections with the S. aureus bacterium, commonly known as staph. When S. aureus developed resistance to the antibiotic, doctors turned to methicillin. In 1961, scientists identified the first strains of S. aureus bacteria that resisted methicillin.

 

A research team led by Dr. Paul Dunman at the University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, set out to develop a new approach for combating MRSA. Their work was partly supported by NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The researchers focused on messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules—transient copies of genes that cells use to carry instructions to the cells' protein-making machinery. MRSA cells must make different mRNA molecules at different stages of growth and virulence, the scientists reasoned. Therefore, the bacteria's equipment for RNA processing and degradation machinery might be vulnerable to attack.

 

The researchers screened almost 30,000 compounds looking for one that interfered with RnpA’s ability to degrade RNA in the laboratory. They found 14 molecules that cut the enzyme's activity by at least 50%. One of the compounds, called RNPA1000, didn’t inhibit other commercially available RNA-degrading enzymes, which suggested that RNPA1000 might be specific to RnpA.

 

Further experiments showed that RNPA1000 inhibits S. aureus growth in the laboratory. It also proved effective against S. aureus in biofilms—complex, multi-layered microbial communities that are resistant to antimicrobial agents and notoriously difficult to treat.

 

When tested in infected mice, RNPA1000 saved the lives of up to half the animals. Tests with human cells, however, suggested that the compound might be toxic to people. The researchers are now working to develop related compounds that are more effective and less toxic to human cells.

 

"This is a great starting point," Dunman says. "We've identified a compound that is very active against RnpA, and now we can use chemistry to try to increase its potency, as well as make it less toxic to human cells. We've gotten a lead from the drug screen, and now we’re building a better molecule."

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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