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Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution | Global Brain | Scoop.it

Over the past few decades, a growing body of research has emerged from a variety of disciplines to highlight the importance of cultural evolution in understanding human behavior. Wider application of these insights, however, has been hampered by traditional disciplinary boundaries. To remedy this, in this volume leading researchers from theoretical biology, developmental and cognitive psychology, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, history, and economics come together to explore the central role of cultural evolution in different aspects of human endeavor.

 

Richerson, P.J. & Christiansen, M.H. (Eds.) (2013). Cultural evolution: Society, technology, language and religion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/cultural-evolution


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Global Brain
The prospects of an emerging global intelligence on the internet and elsewhere
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The Internet of Things Is Far Bigger Than Anyone Realizes (Part 2)

The Internet of Things Is Far Bigger Than Anyone Realizes (Part 2) | Global Brain | Scoop.it
Last week I talked about how people are thinking too small when they think about the Internet of Things (See Part 1).
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Emergence: A unifying theme for 21st century science

Emergence: A unifying theme for 21st century science | Global Brain | Scoop.it

When electrons or atoms or individuals or societies interact with one another or their environment, the collective behavior of the whole is different from that of its parts. We call this resulting behavior emergent. Emergence thus refers to collective phenomena or behaviors in complex adaptive systems that are not present in their individual parts.

 

By David Pines, Co-Founder in Residence, Santa Fe Institute

https://medium.com/sfi-30-foundations-frontiers/emergence-a-unifying-theme-for-21st-century-science-4324ac0f951e


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Book Review: The State of the Future 2013-14

Book Review: The State of the Future 2013-14 | Global Brain | Scoop.it
The State of the Future 2013-14 by Jerome C. Glenn, Theodore J. Gordon, and Elizabeth Florescu; The Millennium Project, Washington, D.C.; $39.95 US + shipping (soft cover) and 29.95 (download) ; 2014.
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Lost in the City: Revisiting Milgram's Experiment in the Age of Social Networks

Lost in the City: Revisiting Milgram's Experiment in the Age of Social Networks | Global Brain | Scoop.it
As more and more users access social network services from smart devices with GPS receivers, the available amount of geo-tagged information makes repeating classical experiments possible on global scales and with unprecedented precision.
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Scaling: The surprising mathematics of life and civilization

Scaling: The surprising mathematics of life and civilization | Global Brain | Scoop.it
So what is “scaling”? In its most elemental form, it simply refers to how systems respond when their sizes change. What happens to cities or companies if their sizes are doubled?
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Software Created That Self-Repairs to Thwart Cyber Attacks

Software Created That Self-Repairs to Thwart Cyber Attacks | Global Brain | Scoop.it
 Cyber Security Computer scientists have developed software that not only detects and eradicates never-before-seen viruses and other malware, but also automatically repairs damage caused by them....
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Report: Internet of Things To Hit 25 Billion Units, $264 Billion by 2020 - T.H.E. Journal

The number of things connected to the Internet and in use will grow 30 percent from this year to next, for a total of 4.9 billion, according to a new report from market research firm Gartner, and will hit 25 billion by 2020.
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Book Discussion on [Superintelligence]

Book Discussion on [Superintelligence] | Global Brain | Scoop.it

Nick Bostrom talked about his book, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, in which he posits a future in which machines are more intelligent than humans and questions whether intelligent machines will try to save or destroy us. He spoke at an event hosted by the Machine Intelligence Research Institute in Berkeley, California.

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Obama Prods the FCC to Fight for Strong Net Neutrality

Obama Prods the FCC to Fight for Strong Net Neutrality | Global Brain | Scoop.it
The president says the FCC should "implement the strongest possible rules to protect net neutrality," picking a fight with Republicans less than a week after the midterm elections
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Finally!

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IBM Reboots Its Research to Focus on Cognitive Computing - MIT Technology Review

IBM Reboots Its Research to Focus on Cognitive Computing - MIT Technology Review | Global Brain | Scoop.it
IBM is betting that research on more human-like artificial intelligence will help it turn things around.
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Digital Life in 2025

Digital Life in 2025 | Global Brain | Scoop.it
Asked to predict the future of the internet and how technology/the Web will change over the next decade, hundreds of experts agree that trends now underway will make the internet more important even as it becomes less visible in daily life.
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An important read

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[1410.7326] Neuroevolution in Games: State of the Art and Open Challenges

This paper surveys research on applying neuroevolution (NE) to games. In neuroevolution, artificial neural networks are trained through evolutionary algorithms, taking inspiration from the way biological brains evolved. We analyse the application of NE in games along five different axes, which are the role NE is chosen to play in a game, the different types of neural networks used, the way these networks are evolved, how the fitness is determined and what type of input the network receives. The article also highlights important open research challenges in the field.

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The Three Breakthroughs That Have Finally Unleashed AI on the World | WIRED

The Three Breakthroughs That Have Finally Unleashed AI on the World | WIRED | Global Brain | Scoop.it
The AI on the horizon looks more like Amazon Web Services—cheap, reliable, industrial-grade digital smartness running behind everything, and almost invisible except when it blinks off. This is a big deal, and now it's here.
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What's Missing from the Industrial Internet of Things Conversation? Software - Wired

What's Missing from the Industrial Internet of Things Conversation? Software - Wired | Global Brain | Scoop.it
These days, you can hardly have a technology conversation without talking about the Internet of Things (IoT).
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Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier

Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier | Global Brain | Scoop.it

Context: Many recent research areas such as human cognition and quantum physics call the observer-independence of traditional science into question. Also, there is a growing need for self-reflexivity in science, i.e., a science that reflects on its own outcomes and products. Problem: We introduce the concept of second-order science that is based on the operation of re-entry. Our goal is to provide an overview of this largely unexplored science domain and of potential approaches in second-order fields. Method: We provide the necessary conceptual groundwork for explorations in second-order science, in which we discuss the differences between first- and second-order science and where we present a roadmap for second-order science. The article operates mainly with conceptual differentiations such as the separation between three seemingly identical concepts such as Science II, Science 2.0 and second-order science. Results: Compared with first-order science, the potential of second-order science lies in 1. higher levels of novelty and innovations, 2. higher levels of robustness and 3. wider integration as well as higher generality. As first-order science advances, second-order science, with re-entry as its basic operation, provides three vital functions for first-order science, namely a rich source of novelty and innovation, the necessary quality control and greater integration and generality. Implications: Second-order science should be viewed as a major expansion of traditional scientific fields and as a scientific breakthrough towards a new wave of innovative research. Constructivist content: Second-order science has strong ties with radical constructivism, which can be qualified as the most important root/origin of second-order science. Moreover, it will be argued that a new form of cybernetics is needed to cope with the new problems and challenges of second-order science.

 

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2014) Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 7–15. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/10/1/007.introduction


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Why 'Six Degrees of Separation' Breaks Down Inside Cities - CityLab

Why 'Six Degrees of Separation' Breaks Down Inside Cities - CityLab | Global Brain | Scoop.it
Inspired by Milgram's famous experiment, an analysis of Twitter networks and geography reveals how personal connections get lost at the city level.
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How Baidu Recorded The Largest Migration on Earth Using A Mapping App

How Baidu Recorded The Largest Migration on Earth Using A Mapping App | Global Brain | Scoop.it
During the Chinese New Year, people traditionally return to their families in villages all over China. 30 years ago, this event triggered the migration of about a million people over just a few days.
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5 Hard Questions about Emerging Technologies We Can't Afford Not to Ask - Scientific American

5 Hard Questions about Emerging Technologies We Can't Afford Not to Ask - Scientific American | Global Brain | Scoop.it
In the near future access to information and new technology may make profits and privacy obsolete, and force us to redefine the boundaries between humanity and machines
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An Introduction to Natural Computation (Complex Adaptive Systems): Dana H. Ballard: 9780262024204: Amazon.com: Books

An Introduction to Natural Computation (Complex Adaptive Systems) [Dana H. Ballard] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. It is now clear that the brain is unlikely to be understood without recourse to computational theories.
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Smart Connected Products: Killing Industries, Boosting Innovation

Smart Connected Products: Killing Industries, Boosting Innovation | Global Brain | Scoop.it
“I work in the automobile industry.” “I work in the pet products industry.” “I work in the small appliance industry.” We make statements like these all the time.
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DARPA funds $11 million tool that will make coding a lot easier

DARPA is funding a new project by Rice University called PLINY, and it's neither a killer robot nor a high-tech weapon. PLINY, named after Pliny the Elder who wrote one of the earliest encyclopedias ever, will actually be a tool that can automatically complete a programmer's draft -- and yes, it will work somewhat like the autocomplete on your smartphones. Its developers describe it as a repository of terabytes upon terabytes of all the open-source code they'll find, which people will be able to query in order to easily create complex software or quickly finish a simple one. Rice University assistant professor Swarat Chaudhuri says he and his co-developers "envision a system where the programmer writes a few of lines of code, hits a button and the rest of the code appears." Also, the parts PLINY conjures up "should work seamlessly with the code that's already been written."

 

 

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Brain-to-brain interface via Internet replicated, improved | KurzweilAI

Brain-to-brain interface via Internet replicated, improved | KurzweilAI | Global Brain | Scoop.it

University of Washington researchers have successfully replicated a direct brain-to-brain connection between pairs of people as part of a scientific study following the team’s initial demonstration a year ago, reported on KurzweilAI.

In the newly published study, which involved six people (instead of two), researchers were able to transmit the signals from one person’s brain over the Internet and use these signals to control the hand motions of another person within a split second of sending that signal.

 

 

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Collective Intelligence 2015

The annual interdisciplinary conference that brings together researchers from the academy, businesses, non profits, governments and the world at large to share insights and ideas from a variety of fields relevant to understanding and designing collective intelligence in its many forms.

 

May 31 – June 2, 2015 @ the Marriott Santa Clara in Santa Clara, CA

http://sites.lsa.umich.edu/collectiveintelligence/


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Google DeepMind acquisition researchers working on a Neural Turing Machine

Google DeepMind acquisition researchers working on a Neural Turing Machine | Global Brain | Scoop.it
Officials with Google have revealed that researchers working on a start-up recently purchased by the tech giant are working on building what they call a Neural Turing Machine—an artificial intelligence based computer system that seeks to fulfill the idea of a Turing Machine. Teams with the project ...
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