Geography Education
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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
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What are El Niño and La Niña?

What are El Niño and La Niña? | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"El Niño and La Niña are complex weather patterns resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific--officially known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. These deviations from normal surface temperatures can have large-scale impacts not only on ocean processes, but also on global weather and climate."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This short video from NOAA is an excellent summary that explains the ENSO cycle.  The video has a particular emphasis on how changing patterns in the Pacific Ocean currents can impact weather patterns in various regions of the United States.  

 

Tagsphysical, weather and climateregions, USA.

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Special Economic Zones

Special Economic Zones | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are the most rapidly spreading kind of city, having catapulted exports and growth from Mauritius and the Dominican Republic to Shenzhen and Dubai -- and now across Africa. Today more than 4000 SEZs dot the planet, a major indication of our transition towards the "supply chain world" explored in Connectography.  See more maps from Connectography and order the book here."

 

Tags: globalizationurban, economicindustry, regions.

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Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, February 6, 5:09 PM

Economic activity

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America's 'Megaregions' using Commuter Data

America's 'Megaregions' using Commuter Data | Geography Education | Scoop.it
New maps use math to define the amorphous term.
Seth Dixon's insight:

By now I'm sure many of you have seen some iteration of this research and data visualization circulating through social media outlets (you can see the article from City Lab, Atlas Obscura or an urban planning program).  We use terms like the greater metropolitan area to express the idea that areas beyond the city boundaries and even beyond the metropolitan statistical areas are linked with cities.  These 'mega-regions' are in part the hinterlands of a city, a functional region where the cities act as hubs of economic regions.   

Tags: regions, urban, transportationeconomicvisualization, mapping, USA, planning.

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Boris Limpopo's curator insight, December 11, 2016 1:43 AM
Le macroregioni americane con i dati del pendolarismo
Tom Cockburn's curator insight, December 13, 2016 3:53 AM
Plenty of space in the middle it seems
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Clinton would have won if the United States looked like the top map

Clinton would have won if the United States looked like the top map | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Can you tell what’s wrong with this map of the United States? I’ll give you a hint: Look near the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. Spot the problem yet? A further hint: Look at the border of Wisconsin and Illinois as well as the Florida Panhandle. See it now? The Wisconsin-Illinois border is slightly more southern and the Florida Panhandle is slightly shorter.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This mapping application is my favorite discovery after the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election.  The election was obviously very contentious and incredibly close, both in regard to the popular vote as well as the Electoral College.  Using this mapping application, you can re-divide the states of the union by shifting the counties around.  Using the voting patterns based on the county-level data, you can see how your proposed divisions would have impacted the 2016 presidential election. 

There have been many plans on how to divide the 50 states into various regional configurations (50 states of equal population, regions of economic interactions, cultural regions, and the Nine Nations of America), and this is another iteration of that age-old theme. While this isn’t an activity in gerrymandering in the strictest sense (this is not reapportioning within the state based on population change but between states), it shows just how gerrymandering works.  It takes 270 electoral votes to win the presidency, but you could make it a landslide (in either direction) if you manipulate the current state borders.  The highest electoral vote I could engineer for Donald Trump was 407, and the highest electoral total I could manufacture for Hillary Clinton was 402.  The point of this is to show that the balance within and among states can be far more delicate than we might presume.  Just a line here or a line there can dramatically alter the balance of power.        

Activity #1: Try to make this a landslide victory for the Republican Party.  How many electoral votes could you garner for the Republicans? Add a screenshot.

Activity #2: Try to make this a landslide victory for the Democratic Party.  How many electoral votes could you garner for the Democrats? Add a screenshot.

Activity #3: Try to tip the election to the Democrats with the most subtle, minor changes that might go under the radar. Explain your changes to the state map.  Add a screenshot.   

 

Tags: gerrymandering, political, mapping, census, unit 4 political, regionsNorth America.

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Tornado Alley

Tornado Alley | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Interested in learning about tornado alley? Then you'll want to read our tornado alley facts and information. Tornado Alley 101
Seth Dixon's insight:

This map nicely shows the particular air requirements needed for a tornado to form and why the part of the United States known as Tornado Alley accounts for the majority of the world's tornadoes.  This nicely shows how physical geographic factors form a major part of how a region might be defined and conceptualized. 

 

Tags: tornado, physical, weather and climate, visualization, regions.

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India watches anxiously as Chinese influence grows

India watches anxiously as Chinese influence grows | Geography Education | Scoop.it
A $46bn economic corridor through disputed territories in Kashmir is causing most concern
Seth Dixon's insight:

The Indian government doesn't want to seem threatened by the fact that China is paying for better transportation infrastructure that is essentially in their backyard.  India's neighbors are excited for the potential economic growth that this can bring, but weary of China's added clout and power throughout Asia.  As Parag Khanna argues is his new book Connectography, infrastructure and economic linkages will become increasingly more important to geopolitics and global economics; within that lens, China is certainly making a power move here. 

 

Tags: regions, transportationeconomic.

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Climate Comparison Maps

Climate Comparison Maps | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Triton1982 makes maps by comparing each of the city's highest and lowest average temperatures against the Koppen classification system."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Many maps are shared on Reddit, and this series of maps help make some far off places easier to relate to.  I think these cross-regional comparisons can also help students also see that countries can have a great degree of internal variety.  

 

Tags: Australia, Oceania, mapping, visualization 

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Profesor Vázquez Rubén Andrés's curator insight, September 13, 2016 3:55 PM
Comparacion climatica
Lee Hancock's curator insight, November 1, 2016 5:46 PM

Australian climate. Note the comparative climates of our future case studies, Kosciuszko Alpine ecosystem and the Great Barrier Reef.

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These Maps Show How Vast New Infrastructure Is Bringing the World Together

These Maps Show How Vast New Infrastructure Is Bringing the World Together | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"If you want to understand the world of tomorrow, why not just look at a good map? For my (Parag Khanna) new book, Connectography, I researched every single significant cross-border infrastructure project linking countries together on every continent. I worked with the world’s leading cartography labs to literally map out what the future actually — physically — will look like.

It turns out that what most defines the emerging world is not fragmentation of countries but integration within regions. The same world that appears to be falling apart is actually coming together in much more concrete ways than today’s political maps suggest. Major world regions are forging dense infrastructural connectivity and reorienting their relations around supply chains rather than borders."

 

Tags: regionsmap.

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How Islam Created Europe

How Islam Created Europe | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"For centuries in early and middle antiquity, Europe meant the world surrounding the Mediterranean. It included North Africa, but the swift advance of Islam across North Africa in the seventh and eighth centuries virtually extinguished Christianity there, thus severing the Mediterranean region into two civilizational halves, with the 'Middle Sea' a hard border between them rather than a unifying force. Islam is now helping to undo what it once helped to create. A classical geography is organically reasserting itself, as the forces of terrorism and human migration reunite the Mediterranean Basin, including North Africa and the Levant, with Europe." 

Seth Dixon's insight:

The title is a bit overstated (aren't they all in this click-bait driven media age?), but the article shows nicely how regions are cultural constructs that change over time. 

 

Tags: op-edregions, Europe, historical, Islamreligionhistorical, culture, Christianity.

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association concert urbain's curator insight, September 22, 2016 9:06 AM

 

The Atlantic

@TheAtlantic

Politics, culture, business, science, technology, health, education, global affairs, more. Tweets by @CaitlinFrazier

Washington, D.C.

 

theatlantic.com

Violaine Maelbrancke's curator insight, December 3, 2016 12:06 PM
Dans sa cartographie, l'Europe a souvent intégré le nord africain qu'elle a pourtant colonisé et soumis. Bien que ce nord africain ait gagné son indépendance il a conservé une relation Nord-Sud privilégiée avec l'Europe. Le terrorisme permet aujourd'hui de reconstruire une Europe bien délimitée en détruisant ce que le nord africain avait dessiné.
L'auteur critique ici une volonté européenne d'intégrer d'autres pays dont la méthode est calquée sur la méthode romaine de constitution d'un empire. L' Europe doit aujourd'hui trouver un autre moyen d'intégrer de nouveaux pays pleinement. Pour l'exemple du nord africain elle doit apprendre à pleinement intégrer l'islam en abandonnant un peu la logique législative catégorisante. Il faudrait alors construire un système où ces grandes lois deviennent des valeurs universelles qui prennent en considération les individus et leurs droits selon une hiérarchie des besoins.
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A New Map for America

A New Map for America | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The 50-state model is holding the country back. It needs a new system, built around urban corridors.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This is a great article to get students thinking about the spatial network of cities, not just the internal structure of particular cities based on some models. In this article, Parag Khanna argues that the United States is stuck in "an antiquated political structure of 50 distinct states" that isn't aligned with growing urban regions that shape our internal and external economic linkages. He proposed that our infrastruture should strengthen these networks that cut across state boundaries more so than it currently does. "Federal policy should refocus on help these nascent [urban] archipelagos prosper, and helping other emerge...collectively forming a lattice of productive metro-regions efficently through better highways, railways, and fiber-optic cables: a United City-States of America." 

 

Questions to Ponder: What political obstacles would this proposal receive?  Demographically, who would support/oppose this type of restructuring?  How would this impact the economic geographies of the United States? 

 

Tagsop-edregions, urban, transportationeconomic, planning.

 

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Jean-Simon Venne's curator insight, April 28, 2016 8:13 AM
We should build a similar map for technology innovaton
Character Minutes's curator insight, July 1, 2016 7:13 PM
Great way to encourage critical thinking in students: what would this impact? Adv & Disadvantages? Compare 50 states vs this model? How would new plan be implemented? 

Alex Smiga's curator insight, August 30, 2016 2:26 PM
...and back to city states?
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Mumbai or Bombay? A British newspaper reverts to a colonial-era name.

Mumbai or Bombay? A British newspaper reverts to a colonial-era name. | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The Independent's concerns over Hindu nationalism led to a change in policy.

 

The city has been officially known as Mumbai since 1995 when it was renamed by the far-right regional party Shiv Sena, an ally of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which currently holds national office in India. Shiv Sena advocates the use of the Marathi language, which is dominant in the state of Maharashtra, of which Mumbai is the capital. Marathi speakers have long referred to the city as Mumbai, after the Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, the city's patron deity.

Shiv Sena had argued that the previous name, Bombay, was an unwanted relic of British colonial rule in India. That name is believed to be an Anglicized version of the city's name from when it was occupied by the Portuguese — "Bom Bahia," which means "good bay." Both Bombay and Mumbai are now used interchangeably by locals during casual conversation.

 

Tags: culture, India, South Asiacolonialism, placeregions, language, toponyms.

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Persian (or Arabian) Gulf Is Caught in the Middle of Regional Rivalries

Persian (or Arabian) Gulf Is Caught in the Middle of Regional Rivalries | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia have been escalating on many fronts — over wars in Syria and Yemen, the Saudis’ execution of a dissident Shiite cleric and the Iran nuclear deal. The dispute runs so deep that the regional rivals — one a Shiite theocracy, the other a Sunni monarchy — even clash over the name of the body of water that separates them.

Iran insists that it be called the Persian Gulf, and has banned publications that fail to use that name. Yet this riles Arab nations, which have succeeded in pushing various parties to use their preferred term — Arabian Gulf."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Is it the Persian Gulf or the Arabian Gulf?  This mini-controversy is part of a broader fight to exert greater regional power and influence (see also this article on GeoCurrents on the same topic). 

 

Tags: placeregions, language, toponyms.

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Place and Self

"We are Dangerdust. We love chalk. We started this project at the beginning of our senior year in college. It all began because we wanted to share a quote that had inspired us, in the hope that it would inspire others. We sneaked into school that weekend to illustrate the quote on an abandoned chalkboard. After that one time we were hooked, and Dangerdust was created."

Seth Dixon's insight:

We are sometimes so obsessively focused on the self in our society, that we discount the communal and the spatial impacts in describing who we are.  So much of our 'selves' that we prize as so highly individualized and unique are a beautiful product of all the places and people who have influenced and shaped our lives. 


Tagsregions, images, art

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Combatting FGM

"The United Nations Development Programme started to advocate against the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) back in 2003 when it was taboo even to speak about it. In 2008, the practice was banned. The government of Egypt has institutionalized the adoption of FGM abandonment; while prevalence rates remain high (namely among older women), the response of younger girls and mothers of new generations to FGM abandonment campaigns is much higher."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This is always a difficult topic for me to talk about in my college classes since it is such a sensitive topic.  However, because it touches on so many taboo topics, that is the very reason that that practice of FGM has continued in many African and Middle Eastern countries.  See the map embedded in this article to know which countries have the highest prevalency rates.  Some are concerned that through relocation diffusion, international migrants can bring this practice to areas such as Europe. Western efforts to eradicate FGM are usually ineffective and sometimes backfire (the author in the linked articles feels that the term mutilation, while accurate, is counterproductive).

 

Tags: culture, gender, media

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China sends first freight train to London

China sends first freight train to London | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Time for a long trip along the new silk road.

 

The train is part of Chinese President Xi Jinping's vision for 'One Belt, One Road' -- dubbed by some as the new silk road. It's China's infrastructure initiative, which Xi hopes will improve China's economic ties with Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

 

Tags: regions, transportationeconomic, globalization, diffusion, industry.

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Nine Nations of North America, 30 Years Later

Nine Nations of North America, 30 Years Later | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Back in the ’70s, almost a hundred reporters around the country – Washington Post bureau chiefs, rovers, freelancers and me, their desk-bound editor – were trying to get our arms around how North America worked, really. Not how it should work. But how it did work. Forget those nice neat rectangles in the middle of the U.S. Let’s be real: The mountains of western Colorado are totally alien from the wheat fields of eastern Colorado. And Miami is part not of Florida, but its own watery Caribbean realm. And what a terrible idea is 'California.' It behaves as if it covers three warring civilizations. The result was my 1981 book, 'The Nine Nations of North America.' The reader reaction was astonishing. This map – drawn to anticipate the news – revealed something much deeper. It turned out to be a map of culture and values, which have nothing to do with our perversely drawn state and national boundaries."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Question to Ponder: How would you divide up North America?  What would be some differences from this map?  What reasons do you have for making these different regional groupings?  What are the main criteria for what constitutes a region?

 

Tags: regionsNorth America.

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Tom Cockburn's curator insight, December 13, 2016 3:54 AM
Useful comparator to the megaregions map
Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, December 17, 2016 11:56 PM

An interesting look at settlement patterns in the USA if using this to compare with spatial patterns in Australia. A deeper examination will reveal reasons for differences in settlement patterns between the two nations. 

 

Syllabus

Students investigate differences in urban settlement patterns between Australia and another country, for example: 

  • examination of urban settlements to determine patterns of concentration 
  • explanation of factors influencing urban concentration eg climate and topography, transportation networks, land use or perceptions of liveability
  • assessment of the consequences of urban concentrations on the characteristics, liveability and sustainability of places

Geoworld 9 NSW

Chapter 7: Urban settlement patterns Australia and the USA

7.1 Population concentrated near coasts

7.2 Urbanisation of indigenous populations

7.3 Is Australia a nation of tribes?

7.4 Nature in control

7.5 Coastal colonial cities and ports

7.6 USA: Settlement, geography and history

7.7 Large cities: Contrasting patterns

7.8 Sprawling suburbs: similar patterns

7.9 Consequences of urban concentration 

Geothink Activities 3 and  4. 

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The Spice Trade's Legacy

The Spice Trade's Legacy | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"In its day, the spice trade was the world’s biggest industry. It established and destroyed empires and helped the Europeans (who were looking for alternate routes to the east) map the globe through their discovery of new continents. What was once tightly controlled by the Arabs for centuries was now available throughout Europe with the establishment of the Ocean Spice Trade route connecting Europe directly to South Asia (India) and South East Asia."

Seth Dixon's insight:

The spice trade changed how we eat forever but it did so much more.  The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire cut off Europe from the vital trade routes to the east and access to the most prized commodities of the day.  What drove European exploration to get around Africa and to cross the Atlantic?  It was to reshape their situation location relative to the economic networks that shaped the emerging global economy.  In essence, the spice trade reshaped the fortunes and trajectories of several major world regions.   

 

Tags: Southeast Asia, food productiondiffusionglobalization, agriculture, economicindustry, economic, historical, regions.

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Liz Caughlin's curator insight, November 21, 2016 7:45 PM
Spice trade and connections with diffusion of Islam
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Who Likes Whom in The Middle East? Key players & Notable relationships

Who Likes Whom in The Middle East? Key players & Notable relationships | Geography Education | Scoop.it
An interactive network visualisation of key players & notable relationships in the Middle East region. Continually updated. Awesome looking.
Seth Dixon's insight:

News flash:the Middle East is complicated.  In a region where the enemy of an enemy can be your friend, keeping track of local, regional, and global interests can be a staggering proposition.  This flow chart is both incredibly complex, but also aids the user in making sense of the relationships that help to define the region.  

 

Tags: MiddleEast, conflict, political, geopoliticsregions.

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How to Say 'Banana' in Spanish

How to Say 'Banana' in Spanish | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Seth Dixon's insight:

I've lived in both the plátano and banano sub-regions of the Spanish-speaking realm and this discrepancy was one I always found curious (likewise, peanut butter is called crema de cacahuate in Mexico, but mantequilla de maní in Costa Rica). I've had many humorous encounters with friends from throughout the Spanish-speaking world when words that mean one thing in a particular country have VERY different connotations in another.

 

Questions to Ponder: Why do languages have different vocabularies in distinct places?  Why makes a language especially prone to a varied set of regionalized terms?

 

Tags: language, colonialismdiffusion, culture, mapping, regions.

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Fertility Rates-Differences Within Countries

"An important aspect about country level data of fertility to keep in mind is that there can be considerable heterogeneity within countries, which are hidden in the mean fertility which were discussed in this entry. The mean Total Fertility Rate for India in 2010 was 2.8 (UN Data): But this average hides the fact that the fertility in many Southern Indian regions was below 1.5 (which is similar to the mean fertility in many European countries), while the fertility in Northern India was still higher than 5 children per woman (which is as high as the mean of the African countries with the highest fertility)."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This is a stunning example of uneven development and regional differences within countries.  Too often we discuss countries as if the situation inside the borders of one country is the same throughout it, even if the geographic contexts can be wildly different. 

 

Questions to Ponder: Why are the fertility rates in so different in northern and southern India?  How does this regional imbalance impact the country?  What are other examples of major differences within a country? 

 

Tags: regions, population, demographic transition model, declining populationmodelsunit 2 population, India, South Asia. 

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Why Ukraine needs Russia more than ever

Why Ukraine needs Russia more than ever | Geography Education | Scoop.it
As the country risks becoming a failed state, Kiev must recognise that economic survival depends on Moscow not the west
Seth Dixon's insight:

This is a politically inflammatory title for an op-ed article, given the recent Russia's seizure of the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine.  Regions and economic regional linkages form and continually reform.  Our most likely business partners aren't necessarily our best friends.      

 

Tags: op-ed, economic, regions, UkraineRussia.  

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Anyone who wants to be president needs to understand these 5 maps

Anyone who wants to be president needs to understand these 5 maps | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Parag Khanna argues that these five maps are critical to understand the world we live in.

 

Maps shape how we see the world.  But most of the maps hanging on our walls are dangerously incomplete because they emphasize political borders rather than functional connections.

Seth Dixon's insight:

These 5 maps in this article are a sneak peek preview from the new book Connectography by Parag Khanna.  These maps all highlight interactions across political borders which is Khanna's big thesis.  For example, the map above emphasizes political, economic, and environmental linkages of NAFTA and minimizes the national divisions.    

 

Tags: regionsNorth Americamap, map archive.

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Similarities Between Spanish And Arabic

Spanish and Arabic have more in common than you think, and it's not a coincidence.
Seth Dixon's insight:

These two languages are not in the same language family yet there are many similiarities (article with more connections that in the video).   I would like to challenge you educators to not just say to your students "these similarities are neat!"  Make the geographic connections to explain the 'why' behind this cultural pattern and the implications of it. 

 

Questions to Ponder: What past political factors led to this cultural convergence?  How were global regions different in the past?  What are the were the impacts of this convergence, both in the past and lingering results today?   

 

Tagsdiffusion, languagetoponyms, culture, colonialism, regions.

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ismokuhanen's curator insight, March 27, 2016 7:29 AM

These two languages are not in the same language family yet there are many similiarities (article with more connections that in the video).   I would like to challenge you educators to not just say to your students "these similarities are neat!"  Make the geographic connections to explain the 'why' behind this cultural pattern and the implications of it. 

 

Questions to Ponder: What past political factors led to this cultural convergence?  How were global regions different in the past?  What are the were the impacts of this convergence, both in the past and lingering results today?   

 

Tags: diffusion, language, toponyms, culture, colonialism, regions.

Jeremy Hansen's curator insight, March 28, 2016 10:55 AM

These two languages are not in the same language family yet there are many similiarities (article with more connections that in the video).   I would like to challenge you educators to not just say to your students "these similarities are neat!"  Make the geographic connections to explain the 'why' behind this cultural pattern and the implications of it. 

 

Questions to Ponder: What past political factors led to this cultural convergence?  How were global regions different in the past?  What are the were the impacts of this convergence, both in the past and lingering results today?   

 

Tags: diffusion, language, toponyms, culture, colonialism, regions.

MsPerry's curator insight, March 31, 2016 12:56 PM

These two languages are not in the same language family yet there are many similiarities (article with more connections that in the video).   I would like to challenge you educators to not just say to your students "these similarities are neat!"  Make the geographic connections to explain the 'why' behind this cultural pattern and the implications of it. 

 

Questions to Ponder: What past political factors led to this cultural convergence?  How were global regions different in the past?  What are the were the impacts of this convergence, both in the past and lingering results today?   

 

Tags: diffusion, language, toponyms, culture, colonialism, regions.

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There’s a Philly Sign Language Accent

There’s a Philly Sign Language Accent | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Speech with a drawl, twang, clipped consonants, broad vowels, slurred words or extra diphthongs might give away that the speaker is from the American South, Boston, the Midwest or elsewhere. The spice that a certain region may lend to spoken language can even be strong enough to flavor non-audible language as well. Indeed, American Sign Language (ASL) has its own accents. And like its audible counterpart, one of the strongest regional accents in ASL is that of Philadelphia residents, reports Nina Porzucki for PRI."

 

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Abdulsalam Al-Mukradi's curator insight, February 14, 2016 7:16 PM

Accents are varies but we really have to care about the language itself. Universities play a major role in avoiding accents in languages. They try to use one accent that follow the dictionary phonetics.

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xkcd: Terminology

xkcd: Terminology | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Seth Dixon's insight:

I use this classic xkcd image every semester that I teach world regional geography.  The explanation of this image is helpful if the students fail to understand the context or the point of this comic strip.  The very idea of 'western' and 'eastern' is very much an idea that comes from 'the west' (Greek and Roman civilizations anciently, and a broadly European more recently). The Euro-centric view of the world from a single 'starting point' is one reason some geographers don't like the term 'Middle East,' but prefer Southwest Asia and North Africa.  The Middle East implies a European starting point as does the Far East.     

 

Tagsregions, perspective.

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