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The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs produces easy-to-use population charts and graphs (including population pyramids). This image (courtesy of Hans Rosling) shows the impending changes on Brazilian society based on changing fertility rates. How is this chart an example of population momentum and of the Demographic Transition Model?
Tags: population, demographic transition model, declining population, models, Brazil.
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This graph depicts the estimated population growth throughtout the years of 1950-2100. Age has a lot to do with the increasing rate by millions. The people that are 65+ represented in the green are "peaking old" at 2080. As for the 15-64 age braket they are represented in the red and are reaching the "Adult peak" at the year 2030. And lastly, the "Peak Child" is represented in the blue achieves that in 1990. All of these statistics stem from the Brazilian records and are relative to the daily life and climate of the specific group or individual.
Looking at the statistics for South America’s growth rate since 1950, it has grown rapidly. This rapid growth can easily be attributed to modernization, increased stability within the governments(even if corruption is still rampant in some places and the U.S. isn’t fiddling its fingers in politics or funding government overthrows), and increased outside development thanks to increased global globalization. While total population of the region is expected to rise until it peaks in 2050, so is population density and age. This will create sanitation, infrastructure, and healthcare issues that many parts of the continent may not be ready to address or able to. Even though economic strength is typically on the rise, these are still poorer developing nations. The birthrate is already beginning to peak and taper off even if deaths continue to rise. However, there is still predicted to be more births than death. Improved healthcare globally since 1950 has found its way into South America and so has economic output, bringing with it – immigration. Numbers such as South America’s can be used to create a visual representation by using a population pyramid to figure out which phase of the demographic transition model the region, or with more specific numbers, a country was in, is going into, and will predicable be in.
Some countries are getting old. Others are staying young — and getting much bigger.
These time-lapse demographic charts help to visualize the impacts of the demographic transition principles on a society. In the GIFs of the United States and Japan for example, you can clearly see the baby boomer generation and the 'greying' processes respectively.
Tags: population, demographic transition model, declining population, population, demographics, models.
A cool look at the DTM and population pyramids
Read the article and review the GIF image data. Think of these as non-gender specific population pyramids. How would you explain the growth in our older population age ranges 50+? Why such a growth in older people and a decline in younger people?
There are many countries that are growing old. The United States of America isn't as much as Japan. Japan must have a low fertility rate because there are more elders. There are some countries that are not getting older Like Nigeria. Nigeria has a very high fertility rate, and children are a huge share of the people in those countries.
The American birthrate is at a record low. What happens when having it all means not having children?
The demographic transition is an important model in human geography that explains many of the declining birth rates in the more developed parts of the world and the high fertility rates in less developed countries. This is often discussed within a demographic and economic context. This article from TIME Magazine struck quite a nerve recently. While it noted that from 2007 to 2011 the fertility rate dropped 9% in the United States, it wasn't the statistical analysis that got people talking (here is another article on the topic). What did strike a nerve was the discussion of the cultural shifts that are at the roots of this demographic decline, the cover picture that glamorizes a childfree life and a subtitle (when having it all means not having kids) that idealizes not having children. The demographic transition has what some call a 'cultural lag' where a large family size is still culturally preferred even if it no longer makes the same agricultural and economic sense as it did in the past. This piece demonstrates the new secularized 'post-cultural lag' values that see children as obstacles to preferable career paths and a limitation on their freedoms. For one commentator that was opposed to this article's cultural perspective see this article. While these pieces are decidedly not neutral on the subject, that is the point; opinions widely differ on the cultural impact of these demographic shifts.
Tags: USA, declining population, population, demographics, models, popular culture.
In recent research people found that some women are content with not having any children. People might think this way because without a child people are able to do more things like go out or travel. Some may not want children due to expenses. If more people do not want children birth rates could decline over the years.
Not to bulky on information but it gets its point across. why are theyre so many social stigmas around having a kid? A kid cost a little over a million dollars to raise why should it be looked down apon for choosing not to take the finacial and physical hardship. I personally have been on the fence about the subject because Im not a fan of this world is coming to and i wouldnt want to have someone I dearly care about to have to go through it. But thats neither hear nor there.
Essay #3 for the AP Human Geography 2013 exam focused on how railroads and highways impacted the size and form of U.S. cities. Andy Baker, one of the great readers on that question has put together an interactive map filled with tangible examples of how Indianapolis' land use history has been heavily influenced by the railroads and highways. This would be a great resource to prepare students to answer that FRQ.
Tags: transportation, urban, models, APHG.
Ironically, some land use patterns become more visible as the sun goes down. There are some sharp borders in this image of Toronto that was taken by the Canadian astronaut, Chris Hadfield and it is a wonderful teaching image.
Questions to ponder: Why is there such sharp divisions between the illuminated and obscure portions of the image? What does this sharp division say about the land use patterns? Would we see this pattern in the United States? Why or why not? What urban model(s) can help explain the spatial layout of Toronto?
Tags: urban, planning, remote sensing, geospatial, Canada, models, unit 7 cities.
What urban model is this?
The other city that never sleeps
What would John Snow's famous cholera map look like on a modern map of London, using modern mapping tools?
John Snow's cholera map is often noted as a prime example of using spatial thinking to solve a scientific problem. Here are a variety of resources to explore this classic example. Here is an article that highlights the spatial thinking that produced this map, with KML files and in Google Fusion Tables. See also these online GIS layers of Dr. Snow's famous map.
Tags: medical, models, spatial, mapping.
THere is a map of this in your textbook HUGGERS
"The nation's fertility rate has slipped below replacement levels partly because of the recession and a decline in immigration. That's raising concern about the nation's future."
During this recent recession, fertility rates in the United States have dropped with many speculating that the financial investment in child-rearing caused this shift. The big question is this: will birth rates bounce back when the economy fully recovers or is the United States population going to follow the example of Western Europe? What would the impact be for both of these scenarios?
Tags: USA, declining population, population, demographics, models, unit 2 population.
Unicharm Corp.’s sales of adult diapers in Japan exceeded those for babies for the first time last year. At Daiei Inc. supermarkets, customers can feel Japan aging -- literally: It has made shopping carts lighter.
Japan's demographic shifts are well-chronicled: the Japanese are having fewer children and the improvements in healthcare mean that the elderly are living longer than ever. Combined this means that Japan's population pyramid is getting "top heavy." This population change is having huge econmic impacts as the percentage of Japanese people is now over 23%. Retailers and industries are heavily targeting this expanding demographic with financial clout that outspends all other cohorts.
Tags: Japan, declining population, economic, population, demographics, unit 2 population, East Asia, consumption.
Learn more: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=r1ywppAJ1xs Thomas Malthus's views on population. Malthusian limits.
This is a succinct (but not perfect) summary of Malthusian ideas on population. What do you think of his ideas? Any specific parts of his theory that you agree with? Do you disagree with some of his ideas? What did history have to say about it?
Tags: Demographics, population, models, APHG, unit 2 population.
Als wetenschapshistoricus die is afgestudeerd op vroege evolutietheorieen (voor Darwin) één van mijn favorieten!
Malthus is still very relevant.
We will be learning about Malthus in Chapter 2. Take a sneek peek!
Adapted from the book by Professor Susan Hanson...
This is an excellent review/summary of an edited volume that shows the value of geographic thought and its importance in the modern world. This review conveniently gives a one paragraph synopsis of each chapter. It does not need to be read chronologically, so you can pick and choose what you find relevant to your course. The top 10 are (in order of inclusion in the book): the Idea of the Map, the Weather Map, GIS, Human Adjustment, Water Budget Climatology, Human Transformation of the Earth, Spatial Organization and Interdependence, Central Place Theory, Megalopolis and Sense of Place.
Public health crises of the past decade — such as the 2003 SARS outbreak, which spread to 37 countries and caused about 1,000 deaths, and the 2009 H1N1 flu p...
The spread of infectious diseases is inherently connected to the mobility of infected. Airports are important nodes in this complex transportation network. Which airports would have the greatest potential to spread diseases? At MIT, they've gathered data that incorporates variations in travel patterns among individuals, the geographic locations of airports, the disparity in interactions among airports, and waiting times at individual airports to create a tool that could be used to predict where and how fast a disease might spread. To read more, see the associated article.
THE giant American conglomerate General Electric (GE) holds more assets abroad than any other non-financial firm in the world—over $500 billion worth. Its foreign assets make up over 70% of its total.
While we may think of Volkswagen as a "German" company, 78% of their assets are in other countries. What advantages is there for companies to have operations in multiple countries? How do transnational corporations change the geographies of production, consumption and economics?
"Many of the original and innovative contributions to the field of urban sociology came out of the University of Chicago in the early 20th Century. Influenced by the natural sciences, in particular evolutionary biology, members of the Chicago School forwarded an ecological approach to sociology emphasizing the interaction between human behavior, social structures and the built environment. In their view, competition over scarce resources, particularly land, led to the spatial differentiation of urban areas into zones of similar use and similar social groups.
Two of the major proponents of urban ecology were Ernest Burgess and Robert E. Park, professors at the University of Chicago, who together in 1925 published a book entitled The City."
Many students struggle with models when there isn't a corresponding example. The Concentric Zone Model and Chicago are a great marriage.
Hans Rosling explains a very common misunderstanding about the world. CC by www.gapminder.org
Tags: population, demographic transition model, declining population, demographics, models, gapminder, development.
A clear explanation of how saving the poor will slow population growth.
Models in geography, even if they are at times limited in their explanatory power, are excellent pedagogical tools to promote students to think spatially.
We will be studying this model in Chapter 10 HUGGERS
The UN projects Kenya to grow older and healthierSummary:
Tags: population, demographics, models, Africa, Kenya.
These projections given by the UN in regards to Kenya, specifically life expectancy and health, are very interesting and show how Kenya has the potential to grow.
The UN projects that Kenyans will grow older and healthier. Infant deaths will decrease and age expectancy will increase. What will Kenyans have to do to be healthier? Lifestyle changes?
This article provides statistics for the population growth of Kenya and other African nations in relation to the rest of the world. Africa features some of the world's highest birthrates and the world's youngest population. In Kenya, improving healthcare will see the life expectancy rise significantly due to less infant death while the population will become older as birthrates begin to decline, as they tend to do as a nation develops, but not before Kenya becomes one of the more populous nations in the world.
Kenya's growing population and increasing median age could mean good things for its economic prospects. Population growth along with maturation means there is a large and capable workforce available, but Kenya must have the resources and abilities to create jobs for its burgeoning population or face widespread poverty.
What to Expect When No One's Expecting: America's Coming Demographic Disaster [Jonathan V. Last] on Amazon.com. *FREE* super saver shipping on qualifying offers. Look around you and think for a minute: Is America too crowded?
I have yet to read this book, but the title alone says that it could be an intriguing supplemental text for a unit on population (or an 'opposing viewpoint' to consider). For those that have read the book, please comment below.
Tags: USA, declining population, population, demographics, models.
I really wasn't sure where to put this scoop. There may be a time when the GMOs affect our fertility as many think GMOs are affecting herds fed GMOs. The physical environment might affect this as well. The social and economic challenges may impact fertility and plain selfishness and putting industrial needs over human needs could affect it as well. It looks like an interesting book so I thought I would make note of it.
Grant Thrall, Ph.D., pioneered a new field of study — business geography — at the University of Florida.
Business geography involves using sophisticated technologies to interpret and analyze data to help businesses make decisions.
I understand that my readers are not people that I need to convince the geo-literacy is an essential component for a 21st century education; but we are the people that need to convince principals, politicians, school administrators, teachers and parents that teaching geography is fundamental. Consider this an accessible article to use to make the case for geography for someone who sees the educational value from a business perspective.
Tags: edtech, unit 1 GeoPrinciples, geo-inspiration, geography education, models, spatial.
While I find business quite boring, I do understand it's necessity. I think this illustrates very nicely the relevance of studying geography and how it relates to the "real" world.
Central Places:Theory and Applications produced by Ken Keller (email@example.com) adapted from Don Ziegler.
The Central Place Theory is a model that is not used much today in academic geography, but given it's explicitly spatial nature, it is used in many geography curricula (including AP Human Geography) to show systems thinking and spatial patterns. This powerpoint goes over the main ideas of the theory developed by Walter Christaller as well as some examples.
Tags: APHG, models, spatial.
Another way to think about Central Place.
In this age of fast travel and instant digital communications, we tend to forget that not so long ago, distances were subjectively very different.
This series of maps shows the great leaps and bounds that were made during the 19th century in transportation technology in the United States. This impacted population settlement, economic interactions and functionally made the great distances seem smaller. This is what many call the time-space compression; the friction of distance is diminished as communication and transportation technologies improve.
Questions to Ponder: When someone says they live "10 minutes away," what does that say about how we think about distance, transportation infrastructure and time? How is geography still relevant in a world where distance appears to becoming less of a factor?
Tags: transportation, models, globalization, diffusion.
"This series of maps shows the great leaps and bounds that were made during the 19th century in transportation technology in the United States. This impacted population settlement, economic interactions and functionally made the great distances seem smaller. This is what many call the time-space compression; the friction of distance is diminished as communication and transportation technologies improve.
Questions to Ponder: When someone says they live "10 minutes away," what does that say about how we think about distance, transportation infrastructure and time? How is geography still relevant in a world where distance appears to becoming less of a factor? "
It is possible in many cities to identify zones with a particular type of land use - eg a residential zone. Often these zones have developed due to a combination of economic and social factors. In some cases planners may have tried to separate out some land uses, eg an airport is separated from a large housing estate.
The concentric and sector models in one news article? The BBC is showing once again the possibilities available if only the United States taught more geography in the schools.
Tags: urban, models, unit 7 cities, APHG.
Useful to develop understanding of the models of urban landuse zones within cities.
It was just over two centuries ago that the global population was 1 billion — in 1804. But better medicine and improved agriculture resulted in higher life expectancy for children, dramatically increasing the world population, especially in the West.
This is an excellent video for population and demographic units, but also for showing regional and spatial patterns within the global dataset (since terms like 'overpopulation' and 'carrying capacity' inherently have different meanings in distinct places and when analyzed at various scales). It is also a fantastic way to visualize population data and explain the ideas that are foundational for the Demographic Transition Model.
Tags: population, scale, visualization, Demographics, models, unit 2 population, sustainability, regions, spatial.
After watching this short clip, it puts the popluation into perspective. I never knew how quickly the populaiton could grow and this video is a pure example of how it does. Over population is going to be a major problem in the future.
Watching this video made me think how or if it's possible to have that many people on earth and still have enough food, jobs, and shelter for everyone. The carrying capacity seems way too densed. It is possible to fit a high number of people in one area year by year as long as we know how to use the space thats given to us. I dont think many countries have come up with an good logic or plans on how to sustain the overpopulated areas throught the globe. If they did, then there would be enough food, shelter, and jobs. There wouldn't be so many people unemployed, malnourished, and homeless if the government would come up with a plan.
Births have plummeted since their 2007 peak, and the recession is a factor. There's worry that the birthrate will be affected for years.
The graph for this article is an incredible visual that highlights how the economic conditions of a country can impact its demographics. Not surprisingly, Americans have less children during tough times. Questions to ponder: would this phenomenon be expected in all parts of the world? Why or why not? Demographically, what will the long-term impact of the recession be?
Amazon has long enjoyed an unbeatable price advantage over its physical rivals. When I buy a $1,000 laptop from Wal-Mart, the company is required to collect local sales tax from me, so I pay almost $1,100 at checkout.
Just-in-Time production has reshaped the logistics of manufacturing. How does same-day online delivery impact local retail businesses? How might this change urban patterns of retail stores and of areas of warehouses?
How we die (in one chart)...
This infographic shows the main causes of death in 1900 in the United States and compares that with the 2010 figures. The United States, during that time underwent what many call the epidemiological transition (in essence, in developed societies we now die for different reason and generally live longer) What are the geographic factors that influence these shifts in the mortality rates? What is better about society? Has anything worsened? How come?
The thing that is positive about this infograph on how we die, is that our mortality rate has indeed gone down a whole lot since 1900. As the article states, we have become more aware of the bacteria taht surrounds us and have learned to be more clean because of it. This has surely cut down the rate in which people die by infectious diseases. However, it is interesting to see that heart diseases remains in one of the top ways that we die, even to this day. Accident deaths have also significantly dropped, probably due to the safety measures taken in the workplaces, or the technological advances that have made fighting wars, less deadly than during the 1900s.