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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
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"Green" Iceland gets greener

"Green" Iceland gets greener | Geography Education |

Country that is 100 percent powered by renewable energy taps into new natural resource.


Tags: Iceland, energy.

Mike Oehme's curator insight, January 26, 2:50 AM

geothermal energy for the future

Scooped by Seth Dixon!

Why are we so reliant on air conditioning? (It's not just climate change, it's bad design)

Why are we so reliant on air conditioning? (It's not just climate change, it's bad design) | Geography Education |
Air conditioners have made architects lazy, and we've forgotten how to design houses that might work without it.

A hundred years ago, a house in Florida looked different than a house in New England. The northern house might be boxy, have relatively small windows, almost always two stories with low ceilings, and a big fireplace in the middle. 

In Florida, the house might have high ceilings, tall double-hung windows, and deep porches. Trees would be planted around the house to block the sun. 

Today, houses pretty much look the same wherever you go in North America, and one thing made this possible: central air conditioning. Now, the United States uses more energy for air conditioning than 1 billion people in Africa use for everything.

Tags: planning, architecture, housingurban, place, environment adaptenergyconsumption.

Seth Dixon's insight:

The recent demographic shift to the "Sun Belt" in the U.S.  coincides with the mass availability of air conditioning (among other factors).  Our homes are less regionally distinct and in terms of the human/environmental interactions, our answer is greater modifications as opposed to regional adaptations...this article is a call for more architectural improvements instead of more energy consumption to beat the heat.  In Europe however, they see the United States as "over air-conditioned" in the summer.

Stephen Zimmett's curator insight, July 23, 2015 1:12 PM


Corine Ramos's curator insight, December 8, 2015 8:18 PM

The recent demographic shift to the "Sun Belt" in the U.S.  coincides with the mass availability of air conditioning (among other factors).  Our homes are less regionally distinct and in terms of the human/environmental interactions, our answer is greater modifications as opposed to regional adaptations...this article is a call for more architectural improvements instead of more energy consumption to beat the heat.  In Europe however, they see the United States as "over air-conditioned" in the summer.

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North Dakota Town Evacuated Following Fiery Oil Train Derailment

North Dakota Town Evacuated Following Fiery Oil Train Derailment | Geography Education |
The entire population of  Heimdal, North Dakota has been evacuated Wednesday morning after a train carrying crude oil derailed and exploded. A BNSF Railway oil train derailed around 7:30 am, setting at least 10 oil tanker cars on fire. The Bismarck Tribune spoke with emergency responders who "said the the sky was black with smoke near the derailment site."
Seth Dixon's insight:

Many hoping to stop environmental degradation of Canada's Tar Sands and the Dakotas "Kuwait on the Prairie" have opposed the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline.  It's been decades since crude oil has been shipped by rail in the United States but fracking technologies have opened up areas without oil pipelines to become major producers.  As demonstrated in this NPR podcast, the railroad industry has seized on this vacuum and since 2009 has been supplying the oil industry the means to get their product to the market.  Trains, however, are not the safest way to transport oil, even if they are efficient in the short run.    

Tagstransportationpollution, industry, economic, energy, resources, environment, environment modify.

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Topaz Solar Farm, California

Topaz Solar Farm, California | Geography Education |
The new 550 megawatt facility in California produces enough electricity to power 180,000 homes.

The modules are part of Topaz Solar Farm, one of the largest photovoltaic power plants in the world. At 9.5 square miles (25.6 square kilometers), the facility is about one-third the size of Manhattan island, or the equivalent of 4,600 football fields.

Construction at Topaz began in 2011. The plant was mostly complete by November 2014, when it was turned on and began to generate electricity.

Tagsenergy, resources, unit 6 industry, California, images, remote sensing.

Maricarmen Husson's curator insight, March 24, 2015 4:01 PM



María del Sol Guerra martín's curator insight, April 4, 2015 7:23 AM

In this text you will find information about a photovoltaic power  plant. Could you find information about photovoltaic plants in Spain?
Send the report before ....

Aleena Reyes's curator insight, April 8, 2015 7:20 PM

Seeing America taking steps in use solar power makes me incredibly happy. The US, in my opinion, needs to adopt multiple ways of utlizing various types of energy sources. The quote, "BHE estimates, that is enough to displace about 407,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year, the equivalent of taking 77,000 cars off the road" is impressive. However, I do feel that the auto industry is the environmental scape goat. The textile industry produces much more waste, especially with all of the advancements the auto industry has gone through.

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In Burma (Myanmar), China's Scramble for Energy Threatens Livelihoods of Villagers

In Burma (Myanmar), China's Scramble for Energy Threatens Livelihoods of Villagers | Geography Education |
In western Myanmar a Chinese-backed energy and trading hub is taking shape on a remote island.

Tags: Burma, Southeast Asia, energy.

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 14, 2015 1:16 PM

While reading this article I found it quite shocking to see that Myanmar is scrambling for energy, such as selling oil, this money is used in lanterns as a cheaper alternative to kerosene. People will do anything just to receive money and use it to help out their families. Money is not something easily  accessible and neither is energy.Yet, even though Myanmar is struggling right now, places such as Beijing still see Myanmar and Ramree Island as the main way to have safe and fast trade. 

The article also states that there are promising signs to China, and Southeast Asia to come back into the picture such as they are likely to have development that will focus on manufacturing in textiles and construction materials to help the country to gain power and energy back. 

The photographs in this article give for a good example of how China is striving for energy such as the women holding up the teapot that is considered to be a lamp with the use of oil. People in China are working hard and using different resources to serve as energy. Shouldn't people even out of China use up what they have and not be wasteful? 

Places in Southeast Asia can think of ways to gain energy, power and comfort because their whole motto on life is different than that of the United States of America.

Gene Gagne's curator insight, December 1, 2015 9:05 PM

this is where china grows at the expense of others. How are these people going to fight back? China is forced to do this because it wants to be the strongest nation in the world and as long as they are importing oil it relies on someone that can cut them off. And as long as they now are allowing the birth of two children the population growth in china is forcing china to expand and will do whatever means necessary to do so.

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 19, 2015 4:28 AM

An interesting article that highlights important geographic disparities. The problem for Burma is that it has lagged behind in the world from its isolation. As a result when globalization such as the proposed trade zone in the article come about there is disastrous consequences. Unlike the west they are catching up and didn't have an adjusting period. Furthermore in China's race to keep its economy superior and out due America they have been going on wild spending sprees such as this deal to give them a global edge. Unfortunately this will leave many of the poor in Burma worse off than before. Plus their government will not likely help them because of their oppressive nature. Maybe all of this will create of revolution to give the Burmese freedom so that they can make these decisions for themselves as they enter the global community(also so they are not exploited as companies everywhere will likely be looking at its cheap labor and resources).

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Scandinavian Energy Usage

Scandinavian Energy Usage | Geography Education |

Which countries consume the most electricity per person? You might guess the United States would top the World Bank’s list, but the Nordic countries of Iceland, Norway, Finland, and Sweden are actually at or near the top. Icelanders consume an average of 52,374 kilowatt hours per person per year, Norwegians 23,174 kilowatt hours, Finns 15,738 kilowatt hours, and Swedes 14,030 kilowatt hours. Americans are not far behind, with an average consumption of 13,246 kilowatt hours per person. The Japanese consume 7,848 kilowatt hours.

This image is part of a global composite assembled from data acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite in 2012. The nighttime view of Earth was made possible by the “day-night band” of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe dim signals such as city lights, wildfires, and gas flares. The city lights of several major Nordic cities are visible in the imagery, including Stockholm, Sweden (population 905,184); Oslo, Norway (634,463); Helsinki, Finland (614,074), and Reykjavik, Iceland (121,490).

Tags: Europeenergyremote sensing, development, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Norway.

Jared Medeiros's curator insight, February 18, 2015 5:59 PM

It is not surprising to me that these countries, or any country that resides in a high latitude area, have high usage of electricity.  The combination of extreme cold temperatures and times of meager amounts of daylight equal high uses of energy.  High populations of these areas tend to be around the coast as well, so these areas have to work extra hard to keep people warm, fed, etc.  If people were more spread out, the usage might not be as high. 

Lena Minassian's curator insight, February 18, 2015 7:17 PM

This articles discusses which countries use the most electricity and believe it or not, the Nordic countries are at the top of the list. It shows two satellite images in the nighttime for you to get a better visual as to which areas of these countries use the most electricity. There are multiple factors that go into these countries consuming this much energy. One factor that is interesting is the high demand for electricity because of the long winters in these countries. 

Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 9:34 AM

These images are really interesting and expose just how much electricity the Scandinavian countries actually use. It is surprising to think of these nations as large energy consumers because of their general reputation as progressive, clean, and liberal places. This brief article is an excellent example of how maps and satellite images can be misleading, though. As opposed to places like the U.S. or China, energy consumption in the Scandinavian countries actually produces only small amounts of greenhouse gases and is based on renewable energy sources. 


This shows an interesting and not immediately apparent geographic distinction between the Scandinavian countries and places such as China and the U.S. Chinese and United States energy consumption is enormous because of those countries' ability and desire to produce large amounts of goods quickly. Household energy use is also high because of the widespread use of electronics such as televisions, computers, and appliances. The Scandinavian countries, on the other hand, have a need for increased energy use because of their geographic location: long, dark winters mean an increased need for electricity and for longer periods. Also, Scandinavia is able to produce energy at lower costs due to its use of renewable energy sources. So though those countries may consume much more energy than their non-Scandinavian counterparts, they are doing so responsibly and for a reason. 

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Brazil's ethanol revolution

"United Nations, June 2008 - The bio-fuel, ethanol, is generating a revolution in renewable energy that could help reduce the world's thirst for oil. In Brazil, the production of ethanol from sugarcane is booming, but what is not clear is the impact it is having on the industry's sugarcane cutters."  Transcript of video available here.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Although ethanol is working well for Brazil, there is a growing literature supporting the idea that wide-scale ethanol production is not sustainable or environmentally beneficial.  This is a great example to demonstrate that economic and environmental policies are locally dependent on geographic factors and are not universally transferable.  Click here for a simple explanation of the differences in the economic and environmental differences in the production of sugar and corn-based ethanol.  

Tagsenergy, resourcespolitical ecologyagriculture, food production, land use, Brazil, South America.

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, October 1, 2015 6:16 AM

Ethanol is leading a bio-fuel revolution in Brazil. By any measure, the economy of Brazil has benefited from rise of Ethanol. This video is arguing that the Brazilian model may be transferable to other parts of the globe. I am somewhat skeptical of that claim. Many parts of the globe, do not have the rich abundance of resources nessacary to produce Ethanol. For years now, we continue to hear about the coming renewable energy revolution. This revolution has yet to come, and I have a feeling that it will probably never occur. The World is just to dependent on oil to turn back at this point. As Thomas Jefferson once said, " we have the wolf by the ear, and we can neither hold him nor safely let him go". We are stuck in an impossible spot. The developing nations of the world especially can not turn back. China and India's economies would collapse without the use of oil.

Patty B's curator insight, November 10, 2015 5:19 PM


The 'ethanol revolution' occurring in Brazil is a critical topic to examine in terms of global geography. With it's ethanol export rising 70% as of 2007-08, and with an abundance of sugarcane, Brazil is now beginning to offer an alternative to tradition fuels (especially for cars). Brazil is exporting a great deal of ethanol which is stimulating its economy, but there is a negative side to this energy boom. It's causing a great deal of unemployment in Brazil due to the mechanization of the process of sugarcane cultivation. The effects of a country or region's main commodity always goes under this mechanization process, it just depends on when the need for that commodity arises (this kind of relates to "Guns, Germs, and Steel" and the idea of determinism).

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 7, 2015 1:01 PM
This sounds like something that people need to learn from, making fuel from sugar and alcohol. It is said that because of this Brazil is a world leader in in this sector. Doing so reduces emissions making a cleaner environment. This is future. .Doing things such as this and making machine mechanized cutters is good too, because now humans do not have to do it. When humans by hand get the sugar they have to burn plants, and burning plants pollutes the air because of the fire and the fire can cause severe destruction if it gets out of hand. With hand picking going out, it will be better overall. Delivering ethanol to the rest of the world is believed to lift the developing world out of poverty. .
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Ethiopia's Dam Problems

Ethiopia's Dam Problems | Geography Education |

"Ethiopia is three years from completing a dam to control its headwaters, and while Egypt points to colonial-era treaties to claim the water and to stop the project, the question remains as to who own the Blue Nile."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This 7-minute Geography News Network podcast (written by Julie and Seth Dixon) touches on some key geographic concepts.  85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located  near the border with Sudan.  Egypt is adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan and is actively lobbying the international community to stop construction on the dam, fearing their water supply with be threatened. 

Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, development. environment, water, energy, borders, political.

Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, July 20, 2014 8:00 PM

Option: Inland water 

dilaycock's curator insight, July 21, 2014 9:09 PM

Useful example to illustrate the interactions and tensions between natural resources and political systems.

Kate Buckland's curator insight, July 26, 2014 10:38 PM

At least the Murray-Darling Basin is within one country - even if it covers 4 states!

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Solar Roadways

Seth Dixon's insight:

I'm sure a few of you have already seen this viral video and it should be intriguing to geographers for a variety of reasons (and not just because we love hexagons). Solar Roadways is a project in its infancy, but they have broad ambitions that would be revolutionary.  Roads that would produce energy?  The idea would have staggering results, but there are some practical reasons why this hasn't already been implemented.  A geographic perspective is critical as we plan for the future.   


Questions to Ponder: How would the full implementation of this idea restructure the cultural landscape, urban environments and our cultural ecology?  What would some advantages be?  This video is a promotional video that emphasizes the positive; what drawbacks, limitations and obstacles are there to solar roadways in the future?  

Tags: transportation, technologyenergysustainability, planning, video.

Gabriel Pizarro Dasso's curator insight, June 11, 2014 3:15 PM

creo que es al menos el mejor invento de diseño hasta hoy en día 

Nancy Watson's curator insight, June 13, 2014 9:26 AM

What an interesting idea. Power of the future?

Michelle Fulton's curator insight, June 17, 2014 8:20 PM

Some really interesting discussions could be held around this video-Geographically, Scientifically, Technologically, Environmentally, Creatively and Critically. 

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Will Ethiopian dam dry up the Nile?

Will Ethiopian dam dry up the Nile? | Geography Education |

"Construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (known as Gerd) is now about 30% complete.  Once completed, in three years, it will be Africa's largest hydropower dam, standing some 170m (558ft) tall."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps), Ethiopia plans to dam the Blue Nile before the water heads to Sudan and eventually into Egypt.  As stated in this BBC article (with a nice 1-minute video clip), Egypt and Sudan currently get the majority of the Nile's waters because of colonial-era treaties and Egypt is opposed to Ethiopia's plan, fearing their water supply with be threatened. 

Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, development. environment, water, environment modify, energy, borders, political.

Albert Jordan's curator insight, April 1, 2014 3:06 PM

In an area fraught with political instability, non state actors, and rebel groups all too willing to fight for power and the wealth that comes from it - it will be interesting to see how the conflicts shift over time as this dam gets closer to completion. Will Egypt attempt to sabotage it or will they take a more diplomatic approach and try to work with the Ethiopian government diplomatically again?  Perhaps Egypt will whisper in to the ear of Sudan or the various "rebel" groups in the region, considering diplomatic means have apparently failed so far. With Sudan's use of the Blue River also going to be affected by Ethiopia's damming, it will be interesting to see if a cooperation between Egypt and Sudan occurs. Perhaps Ethiopia would like to see a deeper conflict between Sudan and South Sudan, keeping their affected neighbor off balance.

Tracy Galvin's curator insight, April 16, 2014 6:47 PM

It is extremely difficult to divide a river. The Ethiopians will benefit immensely from this project but the Egyptians could lose everything if the Nile dries up. This is going to be a difficult problem to solve.

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 4, 2014 3:45 PM

There is no way the whole Nile river is going to be dried up because of this damn. Ethiopia won't let that happen. To say that the river is going to have the same amount of water in it, thats not going to happen. Obviously the Gerd is going to have a huge impact on the water supply of the Nile but it definitely isn't going to dry up the whole thing!

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Europe gas level high as prices rise

Europe gas level high as prices rise | Geography Education |

Gas and oil prices have risen amid fears the Ukraine crisis could have a damaging effect on one of Europe's main energy supply routes.  But analysts say high European gas stocks will limit the turbulence.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Russia is Europe's biggest supplier of natural gas, but Ukraine is the key to their distribution network.  Here is a great analysis of the energy implications.    

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, March 5, 2014 4:24 PM

There is a distinct fact that Gas travels into the Ukraine from Russia and Belarus and leaves for Europe. Where as the gas fields are towards the east and they dont venture toward Belarus but more towards Russia and Hungry and Crimea.Gas and oil prices have risen so that it can be distrubuted and taken care of that way where as the transportation costs money. Fears about the Ukraine crisis could have a huge effect on one of Europe's main energy supply routes. But the command will even out the chaos.

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 2, 2014 5:50 PM

Gas prices are rising all over the world. The demand for gas is incredibly high as well since most people are driving their own vehicles to work and such. Cutting transportation down to traveling together and on public systems would help immensely with the gas rising problems.

Alyssa Dorr's curator insight, December 17, 2014 10:21 PM

Russia provides about a quarter of Europe's gas, half of it through Ukraine. Gas and oil prices have risen amid fears the Ukraine crisis could have a damaging effect on one of Europe's main energy supply routes. But analysts say high European gas stocks will limit the turbulence. Gas futures climbed by up to 10% in early trading, while the benchmark price for oil rose by more than 2%. Traders are worried about the stability of supplies from Russia, which provides a quarter of Europe's natural gas, half of it through Ukraine. However, a relatively mild winter has reduced demand for heating fuel, with storage levels at the main gas hubs about 20% greater than last year. In Germany, Europe's biggest gas consumer and Russia's largest customer, stocks are at more than 60% of capacity, capable of satisfying 60 days of demand.

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This Map Shows Why The Battle For 'Ukraine's Soul' Is So Pivotal

This Map Shows Why The Battle For 'Ukraine's Soul' Is So Pivotal | Geography Education |
The tug-of-war for Ukraine.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Strategically, Ukraine matters much more to Russia than it doesn't the EU, which is why Russia is flexing there muscles.  Russia's major market for their natural gas are linked through these key pipelines.  

Nathan Chasse's curator insight, March 1, 2014 12:26 AM

This infographic gives an idea of why Russia is so invested in Ukraine. The energy infrastructure built during the Soviet era runs almost entirely through Ukraine. A significant amount of gasoline consumed in Europe comes from Russia via Ukraine, while over 2/3rds of all the gas Russia exports to the EU goes through Ukraine. This puts Ukraine in a position of power, but the country itself is divided between the East and West making siding with the EU or Russia difficult. These are lasting effects of the Soviet era.

Paige Therien's curator insight, May 4, 2014 11:28 AM

Besides the very intense cultural and political split that exists in Ukraine and the conflict as a whole, one of the key factors in this situation is gas.  This infographic shows that both Ukraine and the EU gets their gas from Russia, and Ukraine is the area which the gas lines flow through.  As soon as many people in Ukraine showed interest in joining the EU, Russia reminded Ukrainians and the world of this fact

Tanya Townsend's curator insight, November 20, 2015 2:51 PM

The tug-of-war over Ukraine's gas lines not only creates political and cultural divides but also a lot of tension. Ukraine has power in its gas lines because it has a resource that is valuable and others need.

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Political Ecology: Mapping the Shale Gas Boom

Political Ecology: Mapping the Shale Gas Boom | Geography Education |
Where in the United States is fracking unlocking natural gas from shale rock?

Seth Dixon's insight:

New to the APHG course content is term political ecology.  Briefly, the Political Ecology Society defines it as the study of the political and economic principles controlling the relations of human beings to one another and to the environment.  Anytime people are managing the environment in a way that is politically contentious (such as fracking in the USA), that topic can be analyzed using political ecology.


Tags: political ecology, fracking, energy, resources, environment, environment modify.

Matthew DiLuglio's curator insight, November 29, 2013 9:53 PM

In class we studied "fracking," or the fracturing of shale deep in the Earth with blasts of fluid, which produces a harvestable oil yield and much pollution to aquifers in the area.  I live at a house sometimes, where the water is rusty- and it really prevents me from doing much of anything with the water.  I can't cook with it, I can't shower in it, I can't drink it, I have to use bottled water to even brush my teeth because the simple rust content is so vile.  I cannot even imagine what the industrial acid- hydrochloric acid, as well as other contaminants in the water- would do to the water someone relies on...  I think of situations where neighbors trees are dangling over someone else's property, and how branches may be required to be cut down because of their interference with neighboring property, and I would hope that something can be done about protection of aquifers, along the same times... If there is something negative or unwanted affecting someone's water, something really should be done about it.  Knowing that there are negative consequences that come along with fracking, I really can't fathom why people do it!  I live in a protected watershed area in Scituate that does not allow development of any kind on one side of the road because of the Scituate Reservoir.  People are not allowed in the Reservoir Property at all, let alone not allowed to dump waste or cause any sort of harm to the environment, because a huge portion of the state of RI gets their water from that reservoir.  I am not an absolute tree-hugger, but I also don't think that such problematic activites should be 'stirred up' in areas that affect something that humans rely on and need to survive.  While I see that I am not affected by these shale fracking ops as are indicated on the map, I also DO care about the peope in those areas! Why should they be subjected to such putrification of their water resources?  I am once again perplexed by the darkness of humanity.

Liam Michelsohn's curator insight, December 10, 2013 3:48 PM

This was a very interesting topic to read about,  its clear the issue of fracking has so many cracks to it(haha). While whats occuring is completly unnatural, the economic forces behind it are clear, this is a big way to help give amercans cheeper gas. However the effects it has locally are increadibly destuctive and will likely have futher consiquences as fracking continues. I noticed by looking at this map that policialy it seem like fracking is occuring in the red states, seems they want to use there land for the resouces even though it might destroy. While politicaly librals want to protect there enviorments of there blue states. This really adds anouther levle to it and how the placment of these new gas companys is panning out arcosss america.

Kyle Kampe's curator insight, May 28, 2014 11:06 PM

In AP Human Geo., this relates to the concept of the ecological perspective of geography because it describes the relationship between political geography and the ecological makeup of a region.

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The Periodic Table of Elements Scaled to Show The Elements’ Actual Abundance on Earth

The Periodic Table of Elements Scaled to Show The Elements’ Actual Abundance on Earth | Geography Education |
When you learned about The Periodic Table of Elements in high school, it probably didn’t look like this. Above, we have a different way of visualizing the elements. Created by Professor William F. Sheehan at Santa Clara University in 1970, this chart takes the elements (usually shown like this) and scales them relative to their abundance on the Earth’s surface.
Seth Dixon's insight:

The Periodic Table of Elements shows each element as a box, but that doesn’t help us understand which elements are the most scarce and abundant.  The “rare earths” are crucial ingredients in cell phones, laptops and magnets that create clean energy; China controls 95% of the rare earths production and are no longer exporting these materials to other countries (some consider the availability of rare earths a risk to U.S. national security).   This image is not a mathematically accurate representation of the true proportions, but an artist's rendition with the given limitations.  For an article on WHY the image above isn't (and can't be) mathematically accurate, read this article.    


Tagspollution, industry, economic, energy, resources, environment, environment modify, sustainability.

Jacques Lebègue's curator insight, November 13, 2015 1:42 PM

Morphisme du tableau périodique des éléments en fonction de leur abondance

Luis Cesar Nunes's curator insight, November 19, 2015 7:57 AM

elements abundance

16s3d's curator insight, November 23, 2015 7:16 AM

Morphisme du tableau périodique des éléments en fonction de leur abondance

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Why the Saudis Are Going Solar

Why the Saudis Are Going Solar | Geography Education |
Saudi Arabia produces much of its electricity by burning oil, a practice that most countries abandoned long ago, reasoning that they could use coal and natural gas instead and save oil for transportation, an application for which there is no mainstream alternative. Most of Saudi Arabia’s power plants are colossally inefficient, as are its air conditioners, which consumed 70 percent of the kingdom’s electricity in 2013. Although the kingdom has just 30 million people, it is the world’s sixth-largest consumer of oil.Now, Saudi rulers say, things must change. Their motivation isn’t concern about global warming; the last thing they want is an end to the fossil-fuel era. Quite the contrary: they see investing in solar energy as a way to remain a global oil power. The Saudis burn about a quarter of the oil they produce—and their domestic consumption has been rising at an alarming 7 percent a year, nearly three times the rate of population growth.

TagsSaudi Arabiaenergy, resourcesconsumption, Middle East, sustainability.

Dustin Fowler's curator insight, July 14, 2015 12:13 PM

A great article discussing energy reform in Saudi Arabia.  Another good source of information about some of the reforms being implemented in the kingdom can be found at this link:


Interesting to see how this change in energy consumption will effect Saudi politics and the economy. 

Stephen Zimmett's curator insight, July 23, 2015 11:15 AM

Good for Saudi Arabia

Chris Costa's curator insight, October 21, 2015 2:29 PM

The irony here is palpable- if the Saudis overtake the US in terms of solar power, I think I'd lose hope for our future. The most infamous oil-state on the planet has recognized that its costly domestic consumption of its vast oil supplies is hurting its profits, and it would rather seek an alternative energy supply to fuel its own nation so that it can sell more oil to foreign investors. The logic here is actually very sound- Saudi Arabia knows that there is money to be made by cutting down their own oil consumption, and even if the world sees how successful they are in their own adoption of solar power as their main source of electricity, most of the West won't be willing to make the same transition when there's so much Saudi oil to buy. Everyone wins- except American consumers, of course. Oh, and the planet- the burning of fossil fuels is a serious problem our generation must tackle if we are to minimize the damages created by man-made global warming. In the short-term, nothing is set in stone, as we have no idea how successful the Saudis will be in their attempt to harvest solar power on such a large scale. However, the implications of this move is huge- I can only imagine what an influx of Saudi oil on the market would do for US gas prices. 

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Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute

Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal to end Nile dispute | Geography Education |
Three African leaders sign an initial deal to end a long-running dispute over the sharing of Nile waters and the building of Africa's biggest hydroelectric dam.
Seth Dixon's insight:

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  Prior to this trilateral agreement, Egypt and Sudan received the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why in the past, Egypt was so adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan fearing that their water supply with be threatened.  Today though, the Egyptian President said, "We have chosen cooperation, and to trust one another for the sake of development."  

Tags: Ethiopia, Africasupranationalism, political, development, environment, water, energy, borders.

Lena Minassian's curator insight, April 8, 2015 12:45 PM

This was an interesting read because I was not too familiar with this dispute. Three leaders have officially signed a deal to end a long dispute over sharing the Nile waters and beginning to build Africa's largest hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia. The three leaders are from Sudan, Ethiopia, and Egypt and signed the agreement in Sudan's capital city. Many feared that previous Dam's would worsen the water supply but this new Dam will give a more fairer share for everyone. These leaders assured that this new Dam will not cause any harm to the downstream countries but this project is still a ooncern for Egypt. The nile is the only source of water for some. Ethiopia has stated the the river will be diverted a little but will still follow it's natural course. Ethiopia is being backed up by many other countries as well.

David Lizotte's curator insight, April 10, 2015 3:29 PM

The key of this article is that there has been an initial treaty signed. This agreement overturns a colonial era treaty which stated any countries upstream (south of Egypt) essentially had no right to touch the Nile in any way that would effect Egypt. They had veto power over everything. 

The reason behind this is that Ethiopia had overthrown there colonial power-Italy, in the 1890's-and was henceforth its own country. Another attempt to seize Ethiopia took place in the 1930's under Benito Mussolini's rule. Him being a fascist and wanting to be like Hitler and take everything certainly contributed to Mussolini wanting to take Ethiopia. Another contributing factor is the fact that Italy tried and failed in claiming/colonizing Ethiopia. They had lost in the battle field. Mussolini wanted to improve and prove Eastern Italian Africa's dominance. Ethiopia would be freed of Italy's rule during WWII and become its own country once again. In any case the article states the treaty designed by the British was set forth in 1929. Ethiopia was not part of British Africa, or a protectorate (in regards to what Egypt would become in relation to the UK), so Britain would not care about the Nile in Ethiopia, rather the Nile in Sudan and especially in Egypt. Any country upstream is to not obstruct or deter the natural flow of the Nile-a pivotal source for Egyptian civilization. 90 percent of Egyptians live within 20km of the Nile while a little over 50 percent live within 1km. It is clear Egypt needs the Nile in order to function.

Ethiopia is able to create jobs through the building of the dam and will also be able to employ people through dam maintenance, inspections, etc... for years to come (if the dam is built). The dam will also provide an immense amount of power/energy, truly benefiting the country. The article states Ethiopia just wants to take a more fair share of the Nile. Everybody feels entitled to the Nile. This concept I understand. With that being said I also understand the concept of Egypt being concerned. There country functions though the Nile and its existing. 

I would like to see more of Ethiopia's plans and the statistics they've gathered throughout the duration of this project. I'm sure they have comprised some projected statistics, not just focusing on the positive aspects (for them) but also the negative aspects for Sudan and Egypt. The article states Sudan is on board but Egypt-although taking part in the new agreement thus putting aside the colonial era treaty- is very hesitant when discussing the existence of the dam. Obviously there are fair reasons for the concern...but then again exactly what are the reasons? How would the Nile be affected by the dam and also how would countries downstream (Egypt, Sudan) be affected? 

Its a concern amongst African countries but is it also a concern amongst the world? Will professionals from other countries "put their two cents in?" 

With all this being said, I suppose it does not Ethiopia. They have already begun the process of building and are about 30% completed. As stated in this bbc article: Another interesting factor is how other sub Saharan countries are in favor of the dam. Why? Being in favor means they probably benefit from the dam as well, however this is something that may come to my light at the dam progresses. Until the dams construction is arrested, the dam is certainly being built. Ethiopia is making ground, excuse me energy, to better its country as a whole.  

Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, May 6, 2015 7:22 PM

This article discusses the dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the construction of a dam that would provide Ethiopia with a larger share of the Nile's water. Egypt is wholly opposed to this dam because it would mean less water for the country, which so desperately needs it. With 95% of the population of Egypt living within 20km of the Nile River, a reduction in the amount of water supplied to these tens of millions could potentially spell slow disaster. At the same time, however, Ethiopia desperately needs water from the Nile in order to provide sustainable energy for its citizens. 


The Nile has been a source of life and energy for thousands of years in an oppressively hot, dry place. The ancient Egyptians counted on the Nile to flood every year so that they would have arable land and used the large river to irrigate their farmland. It is almost ironic, therefore, that Egyptians are once again counting on the water of the Nile to help them survive in such a harsh climate. It seems that the Nile is one of those natural geographic features that is pivotal to political, economic, and social wellbeing. It represents the nexus between natural landforms and the political and economic goals of human beings and nations. Dispute over use of the Nile as a natural and life-giving resource is not the first instance of human debate over possession or use of natural geography and it likely won't be the last. 

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Gas Price Map

Gas Price Map | Geography Education |

"Now you can see what gas prices are around the U.S. at a glance. Areas are color coded according to their price for the average price for regular unleaded gasoline. Click here for the Canada National Gas Price Heat Map."

Seth Dixon's insight:

In 2012, this visualization of gas prices by county in the United States was important because high gas prices were hitting Americans hard in the pocketbooks and became a major political hot-button topic.  Today, this map still shows the regional variations in prices (so sorry to my California friends), but the recent drop in prices makes most consumers give a sigh of relief.  Supply and demand works beautifully on a two-axis graph, but supply and demand happen somewhere, giving a simple chart added complexity since it's spatially contingent and we must make the assumption and caveat explicit.   

Questions to Ponder: Why are the prices for a certain commodity higher in one region than another?  What factors lead to the spatial differences in the relative economic value in one region over another? 

Tagsenergy, resources, unit 6 industry.

LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, February 17, 2015 10:57 AM

The willingness to pay more jacks up prices ...

Kyle Freeman's curator insight, March 24, 2015 4:27 AM

We can think about maps like these in order to understand the usage and application as well as the patterns and distributions into areas. This map is used to show consumers where the highest and lowest gas prices are by colors. There is a pattern of high cost in the south western and north eastern areas, while there is a pattern of low cost in the southern and north western areas.

Susan King Locklear's curator insight, October 20, 2015 5:56 PM

Looks like the Houston area is doing pretty well compared to the national average.

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The Strategic Importance of the Caspian Sea

"Stratfor Eurasia Analyst Eugene Chausovsky examines the Caspian Sea's large energy reserves and its conflicting maritime boundaries."

Seth Dixon's insight:

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the world's largest lake went from having just two countries on its shores to five. Dividing the maritime borders has been especially difficult since the Caspian Sea has rich energy reserves and this lake will remain a place of strategic interest for many regional powers.  This video has been added to my ESRI StoryMap that spatially organizes place-based videos for the geography classroom.    

Tags: borders, political, geopolitics, Central Asia, energy, resources, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Russiaeconomic, water.

Anneliese Sjogren's curator insight, December 10, 2015 9:41 PM

I think that this video was interesting, because I really have not heard that much about the Caspian Sea before. I didn't know that it had those energy reserves, and that there were boundary conflicts.

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 14, 2015 2:09 PM

The Caspian Sea which is bordered by five countries, Russia, Turkmenistan, Iran, Kazakstan and Azerbaijan. The seas importance come from its abundance of resources. It contains large volumes of oil and gas, an estimated 48 billion barrels of oil lies within and 8.7 trillion cubic meters of gas. Much of offshore oil has not been tapped because of disputes over maritime borders. Europe is interested in energy sources as well in the southern corner as a release from Russia's grip. Both Iran and Russia seem to disagree because of the idea of a TransCaspian pipeline.    

Nicholas A. Whitmore's curator insight, December 17, 2015 12:44 PM

The Caspian Sea is an intriguing geopolitical situation. The region was once dominated by the Soviet Union but  after the collapse is shared by multiple countries. Further complicating matters is the sea is full of untapped oil deposits. Territory disputes in such a situation are almost inevitable raising tensions in the region. Azerbaijan also wants to make a deal with Turkmenistan and Europe to move gas through a pipeline to diversify their income and provide Europe and alternative to Russian fuel. Naturally the Russians with the help of Iranians are making this difficult because it would threaten their profits. It seems that  the whole area likely needs a neutral party to try and arrange fair economic usage zones in the area. The Ukrainian conflict has further exasperated this since Europe is sanctioning their key fuel provider which in turn leads to more tension over pipelines. Hopefully all the oil exploitation doesn't also lead to poor environmental consequences such as the Aral sea economic usage. It is clear that central Asia while free from communist rule is still very much tied to Russia and its past decisions.

Scooped by Seth Dixon!

Peak Oil: The End of the Oil Age

Peak Oil: The End of the Oil Age | Geography Education |

"It has taken between 50-300 million years to form, and yet we have managed to burn roughly half of all global oil reserves in merely 125 years or so."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Many who research natural resources and their production believe in peak oil.  Peak oil is defined as the maximum rate of the production of oil in any area under consideration, recognizing that it is a finite natural resource, subject to depletion.  In essence, oil will run out some day because it is a non-renewable resources; so oil production will peak, and then permanently decline.  Some are skeptical of these claims and feel that the oil industry is in a much stronger position than peak oil proponents suggest.

Tagsenergy, resources, environment, environment modifyclimate change, political ecology.

Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, October 14, 2014 4:28 AM

Peak Oil: The End of the Oil Age

Jacob Crowell's curator insight, October 27, 2014 11:40 AM

Resources shape the behavior of people living in a given geographical region. On Earth, the abundance and efficiency of oil has caused our societies to be built and operated with the use of oil. Human's needed fuel and found oil to be a natural resource that could fit their needs. But all good things must come to an end. Even though oil and gas are cheap and efficient ways of fueling our society, there are disastrous consequences like environmental degregation and over dependence on foreign oil that leads countries to be entangled in conflict that cost lives everyday. Now that we have the analytically tools to project when oil will run out it allows people to reevaluate their use of oil and gas and weigh the cost of using a resources that will eventually run out and leave the earth in ecological distress. The global oil reserves have been cut in half in just 125 years, although this use of oil led to many technological and medical advances that propelled society into an age of advancement unprecedented it is time to pull back the reigns and calibrate our expectations on how much oil and gas we should keep using.

Molly McComb's curator insight, May 27, 2015 11:11 AM

Talking how the global oil and gas output has decreased and how it will decrease in the future with the creation and use of other forms of energy. 

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Natural gas leaking from faulty wells, not fracked shale

Natural gas leaking from faulty wells, not fracked shale | Geography Education |

"A new study adds to growing evidence that the risk of fracking contaminating drinking water wells is to due to problems with the lining of the gas wells, not the high-pressure fracturing of deep shale to release natural gas. In a new study, scientists examined isotopes of helium and two other noble gases to identify the source of methane found in drinking water wells in the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania and the Barnett Shale of Texas, areas where a lot of fracking has taken place. The pattern of isotopes suggested that the stray gas had leaked out of the well casing near the surface, rather than escaping from the fracked deep shale, according to a story in The Dallas Morning News. The findings will be published online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences."

Tagsenergypollution, resources, environment, environment modify, ecology.

YEC Geo's curator insight, September 30, 2014 8:43 AM

Interesting to see if this is a one-off, or if other researchers can duplicate the work elsewhere.  It will also be interesting to see what the reaction will be from those opposed to fracking.

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Welcome to Baku, the Fiercely Modern, Millennia-Old, Capitalist-Socialist, Filthy-Rich Capital of Azerbaijan

Welcome to Baku, the Fiercely Modern, Millennia-Old, Capitalist-Socialist, Filthy-Rich Capital of Azerbaijan | Geography Education |

"Since 2006, when the opening of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline prompted a surge in crude oil exports -- up to a million barrels a day travel through neighboring Georgia and on to Turkey and the West -- there’s been no shortage of cash in Baku. Now, the city is eager for the prestige that goes with it."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Baku is described in this article as an East-West, socialist-capitalist, Muslim-secular, ancient-modern mishmash due to the numerous cultural and political interactions that it has had.  This makes for a fascinating cultural landscape emerging in a city that has been dubbed "the Dubai of the Caucasus" but still has a rich Silk Road history.  Caspian Sea oil lies at the heart of Azerbaijan's geopolitical importance and cultural aspirations. 

Tags: Azerbaijan, political, Central Asia.

Edelin Espino's curator insight, December 15, 2014 5:21 PM

I'm not on the oil or gas business, or a follower of the Eurovision Song Contest, so it's unlikely that Baku is top in my mind. The pictures of the building looks classic. The Russian taxi looks like if was built in 1940, but it was recently. Russia because the embargo, along side cuba, has the oldest looks cars.

Bob Beaven's curator insight, March 19, 2015 1:20 PM

Baku is a very interesting city, because of how much of a mish-mash the city is.  What always interests me as an American, is the fact that how varied the old world can be.  In the article it shows the modern, opulent Four Seasons hotel, behind an old government building that looks like it belongs in 18th Century Europe.  It is also crazy how the Maiden Tower from the 6th Century sits right across from Designer Clothes retailers.  Once again, as an American this is very hard for me to visulize, our oldest buildings still standing in cities date back to the 1800s, maybe 1700s, if you are in a city like Newport, RI.  The fact that an ancient tower still stands in a modern city is absolutely fascinating.  Also described in the article is a Bentley dealership (a British Luxury car).  This shows that the city is growing in wealth and changing.  The country of Azerbaijan is certainly on the path (as mentioned in my scoop about Azerbaijan wanting to be famous) to become a world destination.  I think it will be interesting to keep following what is going on in this region, as the country continues to transition.   

Kristin Mandsager San Bento's curator insight, April 8, 2015 9:40 AM

People will come if there is something exciting to see.  Also if they feel there is relatively little danger.  I'd say they need to keep on developing and make it glitter.  Once the wealthy are attracted and the celebrities then maybe more tourism might happen.  

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Egypt to 'escalate' Ethiopian dam dispute

Egypt to 'escalate' Ethiopian dam dispute | Geography Education |

While construction of Africa's largest hydroelectric dam continues apace, downstream neighbour Egypt is crying foul.  Egypt's main concern is water security, as the country faces a future of increasing scarcity. Nearly all of Egypt's water comes from the Nile, and its population of 83 million is growing at nearly two percent annually."

Seth Dixon's insight:

85% of the Nile's water comes from the Blue Nile that originates in the Ethiopian highlands--it is the Blue Nile that Ethiopia has been working on damming since 2011.  The Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) will be located ocated near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps).  As stated in this BBC article (with a nice 1-minute video clip), Egypt and Sudan currently get the majority of the Nile's waters because of outdated colonial-era treaties that ignored upstream riparian states.  This explains why Egypt is adamantly opposed to Ethiopia's plan and is actively lobbying the international community to stop construction on the dam, fearing their water supply with be threatened.  Oil might be the most economically valuable liquid resource in North Africa, but water is the most critical for human habitation.   

Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, development. environment, water, energy, borders, political.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, October 31, 2014 12:30 AM

This is interesting, and I found it tough to decide what side I want to take.  For Egypt I could see this as being a very real scare.  Ethiopia is building a dam for a resource for power which will cause less water to get to the people of your country.  This is scary considering the Nile is the only source of water.  Ethiopia on the other hand is just pushing through with the project insisting they will work with Egypt on when they fill the reservoir.  They argue that the loss of water to Egypt will not be a huge loss and people will still be able to go about their business as normal.  I think that production of the dam should be paused for the time being and research should be done as to the effects this dam will have on both countries.  With this if the dam is going to cause too many issues, all the time, effort, and money that went into it wouldn't be wasted.

Chris Costa's curator insight, October 26, 2015 2:32 PM

In a complicated geographical issue, both Egypt and Ethiopia have ample reason to oppose the plans of the other concerning the damming of the Blue Nile. The damming of the Nile could prove devastating for Egypt, which draws 85% of its water supply from the river. With an increasing population and issues with water scarcity already abundant, it is clear why Egypt is fearful of the proposed plan, as the ecological effects could be devastating. For Ethiopia, the damming of the Nile could prove incredibly fruitful, allowing the nation to more easily engage in trade and could encourage some serious international investment in the region- a move that would not only benefit Ethiopia, but Egypt as well. It is for that reason that Egypt is willing to compromise on the issue, but until its water supply can be protected and secure, tensions over the dam are going to continue to escalate.

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Global Oil Reserves

Global Oil Reserves | Geography Education |

Who has the oil?

Seth Dixon's insight:

Natural resources are not evenly distributed...this distribution pattern impacts global economics, industrialization, development and politics tremendously.  

Tags: industry, economic, energy, resources.

Jason Schneider's curator insight, March 19, 2015 8:20 PM

Even though Russia and North America has more natural gas than any other country, Saudi Arabia has the most oil resources than any other country in the world. People who work in the oil industry migrate to Qatar and Kuwait at ages 40-44 because it is closer to Saudi Arabia. Even Kuwait is just as big as Iraq in this map but in reality, it's 20 times smaller. Saudi Arabia's popularity for oil resources spreads throughout the smaller countries that border it such as Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates because most oil resources are not only in Saudi Arabia but also along the Persian Gulf. Iran is also known for oil resources but because Saudi Arabia has a higher population, it borders more countries and its size is more dominant, Saudi Arabia is more popular for its amount of oil resources.

Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, December 13, 2015 7:37 PM

it is the distribution of resources which has made the middle east as important as it is. it is interesting to note that this is also one of the most politically backwards places on the globe.

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 14, 2015 5:40 PM
This use of oil world wide is highly uneven. Maybe there are a lot of wars because of this. We are consuming twenty million barrels of oil a year, that is a lot. The middle east hosts over sixty percent of what oil is left remaining and with countries setting the prices of oil, of course some countries will definitely have more or less. those countries with money will have the oil, those without will not. Developed countries will be able to afford and undeveloped countries will not get what they want or need.
Suggested by Thomas Schmeling!

The London Array

The London Array | Geography Education |

Twenty kilometers (12 miles) from England’s Kent and Essex coasts, the world’s largest offshore wind farm has started harvesting the breezes over the sea. Located in the Thames Estuary, where the River Thames meets the North Sea, the London Array has a maximum generating power of 630 megawatts (MW), enough to supply as many as 500,000 homes.

The wind farm became fully operational on April 8, 2013. Twenty days later, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat 8 satellite captured this image of the area. The second image is a closeup of the area marked by the white box in the top image. White points in the second image are the wind turbines; a few boat wakes are also visible. The sea is discolored by light tan sediment—spring runoff washed out by the Thames.

Albert Jordan's curator insight, January 29, 2014 8:16 PM

England is in a peculiar situation due to their geographic location limiting their ability to expand outward and collect homegrown resources. As the first world nations push towards a “greener” and more sustainable energy producing ability, the effects of trying to help the Earth, both positive and negative need to be taken into effect. As some opponents to the wind farm have brought up, it can negatively affect the bird species in the area. What matters most? England’s attempt to wean themselves off of unsustainable resource dependence in order to enhance the future generations may be seen as a positive but with every action, there is a reaction.

 The issue that comes up as we humans try to better our relationship with the Earth in an effort not to destroy our home, paired with our lust for a healthy and non-apocalyptic future that we can still absorb ourselves into social media – do we negatively impact local animal species for our greater cause or do we limit our footprint even if it takes a viable option for the enhancement of our own resource dependence off the table. I guess if the long term effect on the birds and the resulting issues of their no longer presence was fully and responsibly researched and the pros and cons were compared to each other, then time will tell if the wind farm does more harm or good.

Shiva Prakash's curator insight, February 3, 2014 11:21 PM

Technology is changing the shopping habits of buyers. Compete recently conducted a survey that reported a rapid increase in the number of people using their mobile devices for shopping Online shopping which u can buy from home easily with lots of designs of cloths and new technology mobile phones without going out for shopping just click here to go eaZy

Tracy Galvin's curator insight, May 5, 2014 3:08 PM

It is very nice to see alternative forms of energy being explored. The conscious effort to cut carbon emissions is a benefit for the entire planet.

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Pipeline On Wheels: Trains Are Winning Big Off U.S. Oil

Pipeline On Wheels: Trains Are Winning Big Off U.S. Oil | Geography Education |
The railroad industry is eager to be the go-to oil shipper, but some worry it's moving too fast.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Many hoping to stop environmental degradation of Canada's Tar Sands and the Dakotas "Kuwait on the Prairie" have opposed the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline.  It's been decades since crude oil has been shipped by rail in the United States but fracking technologies have opened up areas without oil pipelines to become major producers.  As demonstrated in this NPR podcast, the railroad industry has seized on this vacuum and since 2009 has been supplying the oil industry the means to get their product to the market.  Trains, however, are not the safest way to transport oil, even if they are efficient in the short run.    

Tagstransportation, industry, economic, energy, resources, environment, environment modify.

Tony Aguilar's curator insight, December 8, 2013 3:46 AM

The idea of using trains instead of oil pipelines in the North Dakota regions is smart, over the idea of the time and energy it takes to transport oil through pipes. Big industry always causes parts of the enviornment to suffer but the lesser of the evils must be chosen. In the area of shipping oil on trains it is the sandy prarie like areas that can suffer physically. With oil business fracking has also been a big issue were rocks deep beneath the ground are broken up to release oil up to the surface. Yes this brings companies lots of money, but causes harm to homes, leaking oil, causing explosions and even earthquakes. This can be tricky especially when these kinds of companies are supported by the federal government

Connie Anderson's curator insight, December 8, 2013 3:01 PM

"Forward on climate?" This news is backwards and at least 40,000 people who attended "Forward on Climate" rallies throughout our nation in February 2013 will continue to question, protest peacefully, and convince others that we MUST reduce our dependence on oil no matter how it is transported!

ManuMan's curator insight, December 8, 2013 10:55 PM

As steel and rail built this county, oil and rail will rebuild it.