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20 years after the genocide in Rwanda, these perpetrators and survivors are standing for forgiveness.
The idea behind these images is incredibly powerful and heartbreaking. The horrific genocide turned neighbor against neighbor and tore communities and a country apart. I can only imagine the pain for the individuals, but also the trauma inflicted on the national psyche. See also the White House's official statement on the 20th anniversary of the genocide.
Tags: Rwanda, political, conflict, refugees, Africa.
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Yesterday was a national holiday here in Burundi, commemorating the shooting down of the plane containing the presidents of Burundi and Rwanda, and the beginning of the awful genocide in Rwanda. I was in Nairobi at the time, and have graphic visions of what took place, which I will blog about this week.
These pictures and the stories behind them are very emotional. The Rwandan Genocide was made possible by powerful propaganda which further pushed Hutu and Tutsi interests and perceptions of one another to opposite extremes. As they are all Rwandans who live amongst each other, the genocide spread like wildfire from within and turned the country on its head. I think the fact that victim/forgivers and perpetrators can stand side by side and be civil is very important. It shows the persistence of humanity to work together in reciprocal relationships and the importance of a "clear conscience" when doing so. This project of reconciliation fosters support for those who lost so much, as well as unity through communication. When these people are compared with the United States, I think it is very telling of the United State's moral and ethical character; the lack of political and economic interests in Rwanda was their reasoning behind our country not getting involved.
"The Main Languages of Business in Africa."
While this is not a perfect map, it is still a powerful one to convey several points. One, the impact of colonialism is still felt in the the cultural, economic and political institutions of Africa. Two, given that most of African countries have many indigenous languages spoken by the population, the old colonial language remains as a de facto Lingua Franca in most places, especially among the elite.
Tags: language, Africa, colonialism.
This graph shows the African continent as a whole and which locations make up each language. As you can see along with English being the most prominent French and Arabic are also large influencial languages. It is important to understand from this depiction that their is no "African" type of language which I think our culture today would think that they have to speak a specific launguage to reflect their nationalism- this is not the case, because of the territories that were taken over in Africa the regions demonstrate the conquered places and what languages depict it.
Unit III - Non American
Well, so - now we are to call languages that were introduced in the 19th century *and some earlier * by colonialists - BUSINESS LANGUAGES. ...
"Forget Somalia, the world's new epicenter of piracy is on the other side of Africa."
Some experts believe that the uptick in the number and geographical reach of pirate attacks is due in part precisely to the 2009 government amnesty for the Nigerian militants in the Niger Delta who had justified their attacks on oil infrastructure and their widespread theft of crude oil as a political protest. "With the political pretense lost, there is no longer any need for oil thieves to limit themselves to targets in the Delta," a United Nations study said.
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This article points to the little known problem of piracy off the western coast of Africa. When one thinks of African piracy, one thinks of the Somali pirates it is important to know that piracy is not just limited to eastern Africa.
"A baby born today in Ethiopia is three times more likely to survive to age 5 than one born in 1990. This progress isn't a result of expensive international aid or the recruitment of foreign doctors into Ethiopia. Instead, the country has invested in simple, bare-bone clinics scattered around the country, which are run by minimally-educated community health workers."
This NPR podcast shows how local programs that target rural health can have a massive impact on key demographic and development statistics. This is great news-- infant mortality rates around the world have dropped from 46 deaths/1000 to 35 deaths/1000 in the last 8 years and local programs such as this one have been a major reason why.
Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, medical, development.
This topic goes with our study of HDI HUGGERS
It is good to see Ethiopians are taking small steps to becoming a better and healthier country, such as opening simple clinics in more areas. When a child has a greater chance to survive it can only put a smile on your face. More countries in Africa should follow this simple step in order to have a healthier population.
Despite the gains, more Africans still die from Malaria even as the spotlight remains firmly fixed on HIV/AIDS.
This is just the map portion of a very detailed infographic on the medical geographic situation in Africa. Click here to see the full infographic.
Tags: Africa, medical, development, infographic, diffusion.
As funding in Africa benefits its health system, Africans are still dying every day from Malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS. Hopefully as this funding continues Africans will see a change in their health and lifestyles.
This infographic shows how pervasive disease is in Africa. Though HIV gets a lot of attention, malaria and tuberculosis are just as prevalent as HIV/AIDS. The attention given to HIV/AIDS is reflected in the amount of aid sent to Africa, with a significant amount more being spent to halt the spread of HIV. These efforts are not entirely in vain as there have been decreases for all three diseases, but the funding necessary to make serious progress not on its way.
Though there is an even greater need to fight malaria, more international aid for HIV/AIDS is likely because most of the countries sending aid are not as familiar with malaria and HIV/AIDS has become sensationalized.
A billion people worldwide live in slums, largely invisible to city services and governments — but not to satellites.
Most slums are systematically ignored by politicians and public utilities; squatter settlements are not built legally and they are treated as though they did not exist. Mapping these communities makes them visible, literally putting them on the map can be an important step to legitimize the needs and requests of these poor residents and grant them greater access to public, municipal resources.
Tags: mapping, GPS, podcast, GIS, poverty, squatter settlements, development, Africa, Kenya.
Great how tech and globalization can help represed people in other countries.
The slum-mapping movement began in India almost a decade ago and migrated to africa, the idea of this is to make slums a reality to people who have never set foot in one before. The maps can be used in court to stop evictions or simply to raise awarance. I think this idea is on the right track of what needs to be done. These people need help and so many people incuding the governement pretend they arent their but with these maps as proof they can no longer do that.
Slums and squatter settlements are a problem that a lot of the developing world has to deal with. The unsafe and unsanitary buildings cause headaches and problems for the leaders of the cities they surround. This story is hopeful in that the city did manage to bring a water line out to get clean water to the people living in this area. Perhaps this will lead to a better quality of life of the inhabitants of this particular slum. Also the project of mapping such areas can be a useful tool for city planners to better regulate these areas and help the people that live there.,
"For millions of refugees across Africa life is a daily struggle. Many dream of one day returning to their homeland while others have spent decades building a new life. On World Refugee Day, BBC Focus on Africa's Anne Soy visits a Somali family in Nairobi, Kenya, who cannot imagine returning to their roots."
In addition to this video, see this photo gallery of refugees around the world for some additional context of 'regular life' for refugees.
Questions to Ponder: Is it the duty of a refugee to return to their home country as soon as it is safe? If you were a refugee, what geographic factors (economic, cultural, political, environmental) would shape you decisions to stay or return?
Tags: refugees, migration, Somalia, Africa,
I do not feel that Is the duty of refuge to return to their home if they don’t want to, even if is safe. If I were a refuge I would learn about the present situation of my home, if is safe or not or I would take in consideration, where would my family and I have a better future; like school, work and if I can practice my beliefs without any fear of being arrested or worst kill.
I don't believe its a refugee's duty to return to their country. I think after some time people start their lives over, for a reason. Most refugees leave their country because it is so bad. This family in the video went to another country and he was there for almost twenty years, that is a long time. when your in a place for that long going back would mean starting over again.
No matter where you grow up, you form roots to your native land. Times are tough across the globe, especially for those living in Africa. While families plant their roots and look for ways to make things better, sometimes the best way is to leave. What makes people stay when their hometown roots are at rock bottom?
Africa may have achieved independence, but the old colonial ties are still important as France’s decision to send troops to Mali to fight Islamist extremists shows.
This is a very intriguing infographic (download high-resolution image here). How are old colonial patterns a thing of the past? How do old colonial patterns continue to affect the African continent?
Tags: Africa, states, language, infographic, historical, colonialism.
In the literall sense these colonial powers are no more. All theses countries have theire own form of indepenece and many have o officall ties to their mother countries. But what theses mother countries did to many of their colonies was cut them down at the knees where ther would need to continually rely on the mother for help or face damnation. These mother countries make alot of the commercial decsions for their previous colonial states and with that they hold the power to affect the whole nation.
This infographic was very interesting. By using color coding it highlights the areas of influence the colonel powers still maintain over their old possessions. This map is helpful in understanding how this affects the politics of theses regions today.
Colonial ties are still very prevalent due to Europe's dependence upon the resources of Africa. European countries like England and France invest billions in Africa, not to help those African nations, but to build infrastructure for resource extraction or to keep governments stable. Though the true exploitation of Africa has ended, the current situation certainly has the ring of exploitation as the people of Europe enjoy the diamonds and chocolate harvested by the multitudes of impoverished people of Africa.
"The tiny black-eyed pea is about to wage battle in Malawi. The small country in southeast Africa is the site of a project to help with food security, nutrition and income. Western University researchers are among those who will work with 30,000 farmers to help diversify crops into protein-rich legumes, such as the black-eyed pea, a popular type of cow pea in Malawi."
Tags: food, agriculture, Africa, Malawi, unit 5 agriculture.
Review for you!
This fabulous collection of African maps from 1535-1897 represents an historical geographic vision of both Africa and colonial visions of an imagined Africa. I chose this particular map to display because it beautifully highlights the Mountains of Kong. For generations, European cartographers erroneously believed that this long mountain range extended north of the West African coast and across the continent. Currently this map collection is at Plymouth State, NH, but much of it is archive online here.
Tags: Africa, cartography, colonialism, map.
It is always informative to look at old maps. They show how the cartographers saw the world and how the passage of the map makers revealed the passage of settlements in this case of colonel Europeans.
This collection of maps are interesting as they show how mysterious the African continent was to Europeans. With deep expeditions into the continent expensive, difficult, and dangerous, central Africa remained very much a mystery into the 20th century. The Mountains of the Moon and the Mountains of Kong, the supposed sources of the Niger and Nile river, were completely fabricated guesswork which remained on maps until the 20th century. For central Africa, rather than make guesses as to the terrain, cartographers frequently left the area blank or with scant details.
January 19, 2013—The West African nation of Mali is making headlines after a wave of French military actions on Islamic extremist groups now controlling the northern part of the country. National Geographic Senior Writer Peter Gwin has...
This 6-minute video clip is a good way to help students understand the ethnic and geopolitical context of the Mali conflict. What impact did the superimposed borders of colonialism have in creating the conflict?
Tags: Mali, Africa, borders, political, conflict, war, colonialism, National Geographic.
La crisi propera no es deixa fer prou atenció als canvis geopolítics a l' Africa.
"The map [above] sorts the countries of the world into three groups based on their relative coup risk for 2013: highest (red), moderate (orange), and lowest (beige)."
While this is not predicting a coup in any of these places, this map is a visualization of data that was used to assess the factors that would make a coup likely (to see an alternate map, here is the Washington Post's review of the same data that mapped the 30 countries most likely to have a coup).
Questions to Ponder: What factors do you think would be important in compilling data of this nature? What makes a country susceptible to this type of governmental overthrow? What creates governmental stability?
Tags: political, conflict, unit 4 political, governance, Africa.
Factoren die meespelen zijn hieronder genoemd.
The algorithm for successful coups uses just four risk factors, one of which is really just an adjustment to the intercept.
The algorithm for any coup attempts, successful or failed, uses the following ten risk factors, including all four of the ones used to forecast successful coups.
Eighteen months ago, central Mogadishu was like an African Stalingrad.
Somalia's political troubles are not over, but it is no longer the drought-ridden country overrun by Islamist extremist that it was two years ago. For years it held the dubious title of "the world's most failed state." Al Shabbab, the militant group linked to Al Qaeda, left the capital of Mogadishu in 2011 and in 2012 lost their last stronghold. Piracy still exists off the Somali coast, but it has lessened as a semblance of political order is being restored to the Horn of Africa.
Tags: Somalia, Africa, political, conflict, war.
Many other countries complain about the US getting into things that aren't our business, but what I've noticed, if we don't intervene, it does become our problem because of all the ties we have around the world. One place fights another because they think something isn't going their way. But if one place goes down, there is other places that rely on the place that just fell. Then it becomes a butterfly effect and more people are affected than intended.
Somalia has been the go-to criticism example for anarchy and lawlessness in my generation, but with the times our metaphors must also change. I'm interesting in seeing how Somalia gains control after a time of such factionalism.
This article describes the stabilizing political situation in Somalia. The country was long without a central government and the instability made Somalia a haven for Islamic extremists and piracy. In 2012, Somalia held successful elections and the new government, located in the Puntland region, has been taking territory from Al Shabaab and reducing piracy. The increasing stability could improve Somalia's economy as interest in its oil could see significant foreign investment into the former "failed state."
"Construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (known as Gerd) is now about 30% complete. Once completed, in three years, it will be Africa's largest hydropower dam, standing some 170m (558ft) tall."
Located near the border with Sudan (see in Google Maps), Ethiopia plans to dam the Blue Nile before the water heads to Sudan and eventually into Egypt. As stated in this BBC article (with a nice 1-minute video clip), Egypt and Sudan currently get the majority of the Nile's waters because of colonial-era treaties and Egypt is opposed to Ethiopia's plan, fearing their water supply with be threatened.
Tags: Ethiopia, Africa, development. environment, water, environment modify, energy, borders, political.
How will people who have survived for eons living of the abundance of the river waters survive and adjust to a loss of the source of life? They are being forced to become agrarian. The introduction of GMO growing is part of that process. This is not a solution. We need to find healthy solutions. Those who benefit from the dams and resulting hydroelectric power should be accountable (directly or indirectly) to the people who are displaced by these project. Putting them in confined areas away from their natural habitats is NOT the answer. Just look what happened to the American Indians. Their livelihoods, their homes, their ancestry, their heritage, their health, their souls, their pride and their sense of community were destroyed. It may take a revolution to avoid that happening here, a Food rEvolution.
In an area fraught with political instability, non state actors, and rebel groups all too willing to fight for power and the wealth that comes from it - it will be interesting to see how the conflicts shift over time as this dam gets closer to completion. Will Egypt attempt to sabotage it or will they take a more diplomatic approach and try to work with the Ethiopian government diplomatically again? Perhaps Egypt will whisper in to the ear of Sudan or the various "rebel" groups in the region, considering diplomatic means have apparently failed so far. With Sudan's use of the Blue River also going to be affected by Ethiopia's damming, it will be interesting to see if a cooperation between Egypt and Sudan occurs. Perhaps Ethiopia would like to see a deeper conflict between Sudan and South Sudan, keeping their affected neighbor off balance.
It is extremely difficult to divide a river. The Ethiopians will benefit immensely from this project but the Egyptians could lose everything if the Nile dries up. This is going to be a difficult problem to solve.
President's decision to shift official language from English to local language comes months after its decision to withdraw from the Commonwealth
The Gambia has been showing signs that they want to remove neo-colonial influences. Last year the President withdrew the Gambia from the Commonwealth (a collection of 54 countries, mainly former British colonies), tired of being 'lectured' about human rights. Now they have rejected English as the official language. Mandingo (38%), Fula (21%) and Wolof (18%) are the three most widely spoken languages but it is currently unclear if one of these will become the new official language or if several will receive that status.
Questions to Ponder: What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the old colonial language as the official language in multilingual African countries? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a local language/languages as the official language?
Tags: language, governance, Africa, colonialism.
The president of Gambia rejecting the English language may have a negative impact on his country. This country is a popular destination for British tourists, despite the U.K. criticizing Gambia regarding human rights abuses. I believe this move will only hurt its economy, as many English-speaking people may not visit this country anymore. When a country such as this one rejects a language as popular as the English language, the results will only be negative.
The Gambia president's desire to move away from English as a nation language is a sign of decolonization. Renouncing English as an official language gives Gambia a more African identity, but English is a major language of international commerce and even fewer English speakers in Gambia will not help its ability to trade. Adopting the local languages as the official languages will allow the African Nation to better preserve its cultures, but the several languages spoken by a large numbers of people may create cultural divisions. If care is not taken, those cultural divisions could result in conflicts.
Unit IV - Non American
Mapping the war in Congo: mineral wealth, militias and an epic march
To understand much of the political situation in Central Africa, a short history of the recent political and ethnic turmoil in Rwanda and Congo are helpful. This particular videographic from the Economist is a few years old, but the historical context is still incredibly relevant This series provides a wealth of information and several will be added to the place-based geography videos interactive map.
Tags: Congo, political, conflict, devolution, refugees, Africa.
The conflict in the DROC is extremely complex, inter-cultural war that has been continued since the Belgians left in 1960. The rushed and violent rule imposed by the Belgian's King Leopold II caused problems from the start, and it didn't help when they left the burden of government to the unorganized people of the region. Millions of people have been killed throughout the conflict, many of whom were children. This video is very educational about the conflict and its causes over the years.
The problems of Congo are exacerbated by the mischief of Rwanda. When you think about a country that is blessed with such abundant natural resource you would think that economically they would be doing well. However, the turbulence of politics in this region has caused the opposite to occur. The country is constantly destabilized by the conflicts in its neighboring counties and constant rebellions and conflict have wreaked and destabilized this country. The blessings of abundant natural resources has, instead become a curse.
This video tells me that having an abundance of natural and mineral resources may not always lead to a country that is successful and rich. If the country is politically or economically unstable it could lead to violence within the area over the valuable goods. Also, the wealth generated from these goods could potentially make only a few people very rich and many other workers who collect these resources poor from low wages.
"Two days of street battles between rival factions in South Sudan's army left parts of the capital in ruins and prompted fears of a bloodbath in the world's youngest country.
UN officials in New York said they had received reports from local sources indicating that between 400 and 500 people had been killed and up to 800 wounded. More than 16,000 people were seeking refuge at UN facilities. What began on Sunday night as an alleged coup attempt now threatens to widen deep ethnic divisions in a country awash with weapons and still recovering from a devastating war that led to its secession from the north in 2011."
Earlier in the semester we discussed how difficult it is to establish a new country in a region with political and economic instabilty. This is only further complicated by the presence of factional rivalries. It's a tragedy that these problems are being played out.
Tags: South Sudan, political, Africa, states.
The newest nation in the world still faces hardships today in 2014. In 2013 the country was almost involved with a civil war between the government and rebel forces. One of the reasons for violence occurring was some people who were supportive of the vice president felt the president was acting like a dictator. However, in 2014 a cease-fire was signed between the government and rebel forces, but violence still occurs between those groups of people and over natural resources such as oil.
It is very difficult for the newest country in the world to be successful, as it is politically unstable.
July 23, 2013 (JUBA) – South Sudan’s president, Salva Kiir Mayardit, has issued a presidential decree removing the vice-president, Riek Machar Teny, and dissolved the whole government.
Just today I mentioned in class that South Sudan had some serious issues in establishing effective governance over their territory and building a legitimate government...then I read this. Starting a new country is difficult, especially with the hand South Sudan has been dealt--stay tuned.
Tags: South Sudan, political, Africa, states.
Here is a living example of how hard it is to start a new country. Imagine what our founding fathers int he US was doing back in 1783 when they were trying something new, with not much to look to in the past as an example. Even with all the history since then, and all the examples of how to for a working governemt, startnig a new country in the area of the world that was once controlled by imperialists and warlords is not going to be an easy task by no stretch of the imagination. We can only hope for the best for these people.
Unfortunately, these actions seem to be the one of a man who is trying desperately to hold on to his power. It is known that there was a power struggle between him and members of his government. It is the last thing this young country needs when it is trying to establish itself. Hopefully this move does not lead to the very thing South Sudanians were trying to get away from.
It is very difficult for a country this young to be politically and economically stable. The president must have a difficult time earning the peoples respect when the country is struggling. Removing the vice president only upset some locals as they felt he showed signs of a dictator.
When filmmaker Shantha Bloemen was stationed in a remote village in Zambia as a worker with an international aid organization, she had to adjust to living in a different culture. But one thing struck her as oddly familiar: almost everyone in the village wore secondhand clothing from the West. Bloemen began to imagine stories about the people who used to wear the clothing, wondering if the original owners had any idea that the castoffs they had given to charities ended up being sold to Africans half a world away.
This PBS documentary shows some of the unexpected consequences of globalization and less well-publicized economic interactions. This online supplemental to the video allows users to track the journey of a T-shirt. For additional reading on topic, this article shows how some the same process is impacting the those in Haiti. The complex interactions that stem from globalization never cease to amaze me.
Tags: industry, economic, poverty, globalization, Africa.
I saw old coats in parts of India , .
It's fascinating to look at the effects of globalization, and a great look at how economies change. When people in the Western world drop a bag of clothes off at a charity, I doubt we think they'd end up in a village in Africa. Warning: it does get a little preachy at the end.
Is direct aid a good thing or not? How does secondhand clothing impact local economies?
The UN projects Kenya to grow older and healthierSummary:
Tags: population, demographics, models, Africa, Kenya.
These projections given by the UN in regards to Kenya, specifically life expectancy and health, are very interesting and show how Kenya has the potential to grow.
The UN projects that Kenyans will grow older and healthier. Infant deaths will decrease and age expectancy will increase. What will Kenyans have to do to be healthier? Lifestyle changes?
This article provides statistics for the population growth of Kenya and other African nations in relation to the rest of the world. Africa features some of the world's highest birthrates and the world's youngest population. In Kenya, improving healthcare will see the life expectancy rise significantly due to less infant death while the population will become older as birthrates begin to decline, as they tend to do as a nation develops, but not before Kenya becomes one of the more populous nations in the world.
Kenya's growing population and increasing median age could mean good things for its economic prospects. Population growth along with maturation means there is a large and capable workforce available, but Kenya must have the resources and abilities to create jobs for its burgeoning population or face widespread poverty.
"Our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice -- and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding."
To gain a global perspective inherently requires understanding multiple perspectives. Africa is frequently portrayed as 'the other' but also homogenized within a single narrative that 'flattens' truth. How can we teach and learn about other places in a way that develops geographic empathy and shows the many stories of that can belong to any one place?
Tags: Africa, perspective, TED.
This is such an interesting TED talk. Chimamanda Adichie of Nigeria talks about the danger of a single story. That is, the danger of using one story to tell about an entire group of people or an entire country. She says that using a single story is dangerous because it focuses on stereotypes that are not necessarily untrue, but they are incomplete. There are so many more important pieces of a story of a group of people than just the single story. She believes that the single story robs people of their dignity and shows differences between people rather than similiarities. Her experiences in Nigeria, the United States, and Mexico are very interesting and lend meaning to her opposition of the single story.
This infographic is a great introduction to the historical genesis of South Sudan and the political uncertainty and difficulties that it now faces as an independent country.
Tags: South Sudan, political, sovereignty, Africa, territoriality, states, unit 4 political.
South Sudan secceded from Sudan in 2011. North Sudan is Muslim, while South Sudan is Christian. This difference alone causes one t think of what impacts and consequences this new border will cause.
South Sudan recently gained its independence from Sudan. South Sudan is now home to 10-12 million people and is the 193rd member of the United Nations. However, just because South Sudan became independent from Sudan does not mean it does not no longer carry some of the remaining issues.
This infographic gives an idea of why South Sudan seceded from the rest of the country. Decades of civil war preceded the secession, and it is clear the cultural differences between the two areas were a contributing factor. South Sudan is a part of the fertile Sahel, with the majority of its people Christian, while Sudan is mostly desert, with the majority of its people Muslims. South Sudan, as a new nation, faces a number of difficulties. Its new government needed to remain stable to focus on nation building, but war has broken out between the government and a rebel faction. South Sudan, should it become stable again, should work to improve the education of its people, as the infographic explains, since the vote to secede needed symbols rather than words due to only 15% of its people being literate.
The filmmakers present a 12-step program to establish the world’s newest country: South Sudan.
What does a state need to have to be politically viable? If you were to start your own country, what would you need to do? This isn't just a hypothetical question since South Sudan is currently undergoing this process and having to answer these questions.
If I was to create my own country, the first thing I'd do is make sure not to shoot down any U.N. helicopters. This video does show the very hard process of creating a country from scratch. I particularly enjoy the piece in which a government official attempts to explain taxes to folks at the marketplace because I probably had the same expression when taxes were first explained to me. "Why should I pay the government my hard earned money? They didn't do anything to earn it from me."
This is a really interesting dynamic to look into, as it's not everyday the process of founding a country can be seen at work. That's a true once in a lifetime experience for those involved, and is likely one of the harder jobs in the entirety of history.
This video and article highlight the steps a new country takes when it is carved out of an old one. The problems and tribulations the new country faces and how it responds to the rest of the international community will decide if it will be a long lasting country or just a blip on the road of the original countries history.
Africa has a lot to offer the adventurous traveller. We've compiled a list of the must-see places any trip should include.
There are great iconic places of Africa in this Top 10 list (and yes, I'd love to see Victoria Falls from above).
Tags: tourism, Africa.
Although Africa does not have the greatest economic structure, it has beauty throughout. Here are the top 10 locations to visit in Africa that will take your breath away!
I always have to re-scoop these when I see them for different regions, as followers will already know, it's a big desire of mine to see most countries in the world, and natural/ancient environments are my favorite.
Balancing the interests of stakeholders in the Malian polity will be difficult, however some key steps should be taken.
This is a great article for give to students to provide them with the geo-political context to understand the situation in Mali. It also give a great reminder for observers and the involved parties to not lump all Tuareg civilians in the north with the Islamists groups that are in control. "This failure to consistently distinguish between different groups in the North by multiple stakeholders...portends longer term trouble." For additional reading, see this Geography in the News article on Mali, tailor-made for classroom.
Tags: Mali, Africa, political, conflict, war.
Problems in this area will only increase if the powers that be do not take the innocence of the civilian population into account. When trying to put down a terrorist insurgence it is imperative that a government tries to safe guard the population. If not it will only drive these people into the arms of the insurgents.