Geography Education
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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
Curated by Seth Dixon
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Increasing Density and Diversity Likely to Make Western States More Blue

Increasing Density and Diversity Likely to Make Western States More Blue | Geography Education |
A new report finds growing urban and minority populations that will affect redistricting and reapportionment in the Mountain West.


The Intermountain West has been a bastion of strength for the Republican Party for many years now.  Migration into the urban areas may lead to redistricting, giving urban voters (typically leading more to the Democrats) more influence.  However, it all comes down to the critical 'where' question.  Where will the lines be drawn?  

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Currywurst on the Street

Currywurst on the Street | Geography Education |
Michael Slackman, The Times's Berlin Bureau Chief, looks into the city's obsession with a popular street dish that combines sausage, ketchup and curry powder. 


The globalization of food, immigration and the diffusion of cultural practices are all richly displayed in this short clip. 

Shelby Porter's curator insight, September 26, 2013 9:36 AM

The globalization of food is becoming more apparent in todays culture than ever before. More and more restaurants from different parts of the world are showing up and alot of the food we as Americans are familar with are taking on some new ethnic influences. The currywurst is a great example of one country's culinary favorite around the time of WWII and enhancing it with an American and Indian by way of London flavor. And now it is one of the most popular treats someone can buy while in Germany. Many of our cultures foods are being influenced by others now and flavors are beginning to mix as well as our idea of where foods come from. The diffusion of cultural practices as well as the globalization of food will only grow stronger as time goes on, and so will our taste for a new culinary delight. 

Liam Michelsohn's curator insight, November 6, 2013 2:20 PM

Ahhh the currywurst on the street, well i thought this was great very informitive cultural video. The speical dish that is made and served among the streets in germany and all over,  it is thought to be a very weird and almost un appitizing meal to some one like my self.  However those food are very popular and prominate in there culture, just like certian foods, hotdog stands, flaffel carts and other foods that we enjoy have be come common in our culture. However I dont see currywurst hitting the streets of NYC any time soon.

Kenny Dominguez's curator insight, November 29, 2013 12:23 PM

The Currywurst sounds good but it seems that it will upset my stomach. I have a feeling it would. But it seems to be a hit were it is sold because that is what most people eat when they are on the streets burlin.


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China's Urban Population Now Exceeds 50% of Population

China's Urban Population Now Exceeds 50% of Population | Geography Education |
China's Urban Population Now Exceeds 50% of Population.


China has historically been a predominantly rural country; a major part of the economic growth of the last few decades has been driven my a push towards urbanization.   Now that China is predominantly an urban population, what will that been for resource consumption, development and global economics? 

Sabrina Gam's curator insight, May 5, 2013 5:00 AM

China & its population is something that we as geographers must be aware of; this ever growing population of people will play a large part to our human geogrpahy. 

Rachael Johns's curator insight, September 9, 2014 6:15 PM

The population in China is still exceeding in spite of the safety regulations that they've set to limit their population growth. With their population being 20% of the worlds population China is the most populous country in the world. One in five people is a resident of China, but with recent studies statistics show that by 2040 India will exceed 1.52 billion. ~R.J~

MissPatel's curator insight, December 16, 2014 3:26 AM

We constantly talk about the one child policy - this is also another near future concern in China.  

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Videographic: Global fertility

A good video about global population trends since 1950.  The is rich with charts, maps and data (from Hans Rosling it would appear) many about accelerated population growth, total fertility rates.  China, Iran, South Korea and France are all individually showcased to show how global patterns were at play within local settings. 

Sarah Ann Glesenkamp's curator insight, September 17, 2014 7:40 PM

Unit 2


Daniel Lindahl's curator insight, March 21, 2015 11:54 PM

This video shows how the global population has changed throughout time. It illustrates how the population went on a massive incline, and based on the DTM, will soon go onto the decline as more countries become developed. 

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Migrants’ New Paths Reshaping Latin America

Migrants’ New Paths Reshaping Latin America | Geography Education |
In Mexico and Latin America, old migratory patterns are changing as migrants move to a wider range of cities and countries, creating regional challenges and opportunities.


Diffusion and patterns of migration are by their nature, going to be fluctuating.  Whether and why people stay or go, has profound impacts on the human geographic landscape of a variety of regions.  With less Latin American migrants coming to the United States and the Maquiladora zone of Northern Mexico, this has allowed southern Mexico and other countries to reap the benefits of maintaining portions of their most educated and entrepreneurial population. 

Via Mr. David Burton
WalkerKyleForrest's curator insight, September 16, 2013 10:10 AM

My insight on this would be how that Latin American countries have more educated people than other countries, then they spread to surrounding counties, providing many challenges and opportunities. Some opportunities would be that speading education would bring jobs. And the challenges would be the issue of mixing diversities, which could cause stds and gene mutations.- walker

Elizabeth Bitgood's curator insight, February 6, 2014 11:46 AM

This article points out how when the pattern of immigration shifts it creates new challenges for the country of immigration, even if it is internal migration as opposed to external migration.  The path and flow of people moving from place to place can change the shape and nature of a country.  

Gareth Jukes's curator insight, March 24, 2015 12:52 PM

Consequences of migration: socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, and political; immigration policies; remittances-

This article speaks of how migratory patterns are changing for illegal immigrants, and how it is causing problems. It states that as more countries and cities are exploited, their needs to be more jobs created. Sometimes, even new immigration policies are needed.


This article portrays the idea of consequences of Migration because it speaks of what those nations must do in order to thrive and survive the wave of illegal immigrants.

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South Asia's smog 'getting worse'

South Asia's smog 'getting worse' | Geography Education |
A rapid rise in air pollution from fossil fuels and biomass burnings worsens winter smog and extends its duration in many parts of South Asia.


The confluence of population growth, rapid urbanization and global economic restructuring combine with other geographic factors to adversely impact the environmental conditions in South Asia.  

Via José Moraga Campos
Catherine Shabo's curator insight, April 15, 2013 9:22 PM

With the pollution increasing in South Asia, I strongly believe that this is a cause for respiratory deaths. Especially if the citizens of this regions are inhaling it every single day. The article even says that some days in a row the temperature drops because no sunlight is getting through the smog. If this is the case, then that is very dangerous to inhale because no air is circulating and there is no fresh sunlight coming in. This could also cause long term respiratory illnesses for the children living here. Solutions to this problem can be tricky but cutting back on the amount of fuel being used is a good place to start. The pictures even say enough because it is clear that the air is not clear. I would not want to breathe that in. There has to be alternatives.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, November 20, 2014 2:36 PM

This seems to be a dangerous circle that potentially has south Asia in a lot of trouble in the foreseeable future.  There is smog in the air from everything that is burned, causing the sun to be blocked and temperatures to drop, which in turn causes people to become cold and burn more wood, hay and cow pies.  This vicious circle needs to be fixed.  However right now is going to be the hardest time to do that.  In the winter it is harder for the smog to go up into the atmosphere leaving the blanket of smog.  It is also colder in the winter months leading to people to burn products to keep themselves warm.  This has however has already created problems especially with the elderly and young children.  With all the smog in the air it has caused respiratory infections leading to the deaths of people.  Not seeing this as a major issue is wrong.  Something needs to be done, it could be the government regulating what people burn to make sure that the smog is not getting to be too out of hand.  People's well being is not the only thing that this smog is hurting.  Cities literally have to shut down because people can't go anywhere, the smog creates a zero or very little visibility stopping traffic, trains, and planes.  Without people being able to get anywhere there is no way of people going to work causing places to have to close down either early or entirely for the day.  The smog is shedding a negative light not only on the environment but the economy and well being of the people around.

Michael Mazo's curator insight, December 15, 2014 2:17 PM

South Asia's extremely massive population comes at the expense of heavy energy consumption. In turn it leads to pollution cause by the burning of fossil fuels in the area, and this pollution has been getting worse and worse to a point where its affecting the daily lives of those in South Asia. This pollution has been causing smog to become more prevalent as the days go on. The burning of fossil fuels through motor vehicles and manufacturing plants has taken its toll on the environment in an extremely negative way. A switch to green energy would help fight this issue, although no plans have yet been set in stone to remove the consumption of oil

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Jewish And Mexican Cooking Meet In 'Challa-peño'

Alex Schmidt's grandparents say that the best Jewish food they've ever eaten came from Mexico. They remember a legendary husband-and-wife catering team who made downtown Mexico City feel like the shtetls of Eastern Europe.


Cultural processes, such as diffusion syncretism, are evident in this extraordinary podcast.  Ethnic neighborhoods, nostalgia for traditions, folk and popular cultures interacting, globalization and migration are all themes that could make this an interesting podcast to have students listen to it and analyze the geographic content embedded within it. 

elsa hunziker's comment, January 30, 2012 2:36 PM
Sounds delicious!!!!
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NYTimes: Older to Wed, If They Marry at All

NYTimes: Older to Wed, If They Marry at All | Geography Education |
The median age of first marriage is at an all-time high, according to a new report from Pew Research Center based on census data.


Clearly the marrying patterns of Americans have dramatically changed since 1960.  What cultural impacts are changing these patterns?  What economic factors are shaping marriage decisions?  How does this change demographic patterns?  Society as a whole? for more information on these patterns.  

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The National Womb

The National Womb | Geography Education |
Nagorno-Karabakh is paying couples to have children, but is the solution simply to increase the birthrate, without first improving education, infrastructure and employment opportunities?


This sits at the intersection of a population and political unit.  Why would the govt. encourage more births?  Is population growth a local or global issue?  How is scale a part of the geographic analysis? 

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UN warns land degraded, farm production must rise

UN warns land degraded, farm production must rise | Geography Education |
ROME — The United Nations has completed the first-ever global assessment of the state of the planet’s land resources, finding in a report Monday that a quarter of all land is highly degraded and warning the trend must be reversed if the world’s...


Seth Dixon's insight:

Population growth and food production are obviously linked.  Thanks to folks at ESRI, this theoretical issue can be made much more concrete for our students using geospatial technologies.  You can examine 4 crops of the world using GIS with this ArcLesson on the ESRI Ed Community site.

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Latin@s are contributing most to the declining U.S. birth rate

Latin@s are contributing most to the declining U.S. birth rate | Geography Education |

The U.S. birth rate has dropped over the last two years, and each ethnic group within the United States has seen a decline in birth rates. What may surprise some is that the Latino population has seen the greatest drop in birth rates, declining by 5%. Fertility rates in the country are also at their lowest since the 1990s. What will this mean for the future of the U.S.? How does this fit in with what we know about the Demographic Transition? What factors account for the largest drop in birth rates coming from the Latino population?

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The Geography of Stuck

The Geography of Stuck | Geography Education |
America can be divided into two distinct classes, the stuck and the mobile...


Migration as a simply a function of push factors and pull factors needs to be more fully fleshed out.  Not everyone is equally able to move freely (as those of you with mortgages can attest to) and that has a strong spatial relationship within the United States. 

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World Large Urban Areas 1905-2050

World Large Urban Areas 1905-2050 | Geography Education |
In 1950, the world population was 2.5 billion and according to United Nations estimates, the world population reached seven billion sometime around October 31st this year.

Want some global population data sets to map for a GIS project?  Historical GIS? Here it is.

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Do the dead outnumber the living?

Do the dead outnumber the living? | Geography Education |
The population of the planet reached seven billion in October last year, according to the United Nations. But what's the figure for all those who have lived before us?

Simple answer, no.  But did it make you think?

Seth Dixon's comment, February 6, 2012 8:52 PM
Very short answer: no. Yet, how many people have lived in human history? What are the estimates? This article is worth exploring to not at other population issues and debates.
Em Marin's comment, February 7, 2012 11:09 AM
wow... it is so mind boggling just thinking about how I am just one person, amongst billions, and billions more that have since passed. It certainly makes me question my existance and significance or lack there of...
melissa Marin's comment, February 7, 2012 11:10 AM
wow... it is so mind boggling just thinking about how I am just one person, amongst billions, and billions more that have since passed. It certainly makes me question my existance and significance or lack there of...
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Chinatowns in Decline in Move to Suburbs

Chinatowns in Decline in Move to Suburbs | Geography Education |
WASHINGTON — America’s historic Chinatowns, home for a century to immigrants seeking social support and refuge from racism, are fading as rising living costs, jobs elsewhere and a desire for wider spaces lure Asian-Americans more than ever to the...


The geography of ethnic neighborhoods has changed as urbanization has changed within the United States.  This article, posted by the AAG, shows that most middle-class, second generation that are accultured into American society, gravitate towards the suburbs.  The 'older generation' with littled English skills coupled with the newly arrived to the country become those that remain behind in the urban centers.  How does this culturally impact Chinatown and Chinese-Americans?  Will Chinatowns become gentrified?  Are they already?  Where?   

Alison J. Garrow's curator insight, April 15, 2015 10:50 PM

Module Seven. 


In this post it talks about the people of Chinatown having to move to the suburbs. Towns that are filled with immigrants that came to American are asking to leave their homes for reasons that do not seem as valuable as them leaving homes they grew up in. I think that there are places that can take the place of Chinatown so that it does not have to be moved. These people will end up being spread out and not living comfortably next to one another. It is odd that another place could not of been asked to up and move a place where there were no immigrants. I feel that because they are immigrants that it does not matter to the people in charge of this project.  

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Movement and Migration

Chaos inevitably erupts in China each year when millions of people swamp the transport system as they return to their hometowns for Lunar New Year celebrations. This year, authorities thought selling tickets online would make things easier.


The logistics of Chinese New Year is enormous.  It's the impetus for the world's largest annual migration.  

Valorie Morgan's curator insight, September 16, 2013 10:01 AM

I can understand why people are outraged. All that time on a computer, just for one lousy ticket, that could possibly not even be there? That's crazy. As Huang Qinghong stated, it's hard for some to get a hold of transportation tickets because of lack of computer knowledge. With my own parents, not knowing much about computer, I can only imagine how outraged they would be if they were presented with this situation. It shouldn't take a letter or a newspaper article for some to realize that using the internet for these resources are a HUGE challenge for some individuals. I adore the fact that we are growing with technology, although I disagree with something’s becoming "digital". I believe we could make changes with some things but we need to stay sort of "old fashion" with other techniques, just so there is less conflict in the future. 

Anhony DeSimone's curator insight, December 18, 2013 10:02 PM

This is a fascinating article because it shows us the migration within a  country and the peoples pride for the country. As we know China is the mot populated city on earth so, of course there is going to be mayhem especially during one of the most traveled time. During the Chinese New Year many people want to travel back to their respected  homelands to celebrate the Chinese New Year with their family.

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7 Billion: How Did We Get So Big So Fast?

This is an excellent video for population and demographic units, but also for showing regional and spatial distinctions (since terms like 'overpopulation' and 'carrying capacity' inherently have different meanings at different scales). 

Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s curator insight, August 27, 2014 9:44 AM

This video shows how the populations of each country  are  increasing and decreasing in a very unique way. It explains how the populations are increasing and decreasing as the years go on.  It also shows that the death rates and the birth rates are  being combined to make the true populations as accurate as possible.

Aurora Rider's curator insight, October 7, 2014 9:13 PM

This video is good at helping people better visualize population because you can easily see the difference of each continent. It shows how the population started small and rapidly expanded because of the agricultural and industrial revolution and decrease in deaths making it and the births unstablized. It even goes on to talk about the future population and how it is believed that the population won't continue to grow rapidly but once again stabalize.

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Rethinking the Demographic Transition Model: Stage 5?

Rethinking the Demographic Transition Model: Stage 5? | Geography Education |

Eighty-two years after the original development of the four stage Demographic Transition Model (DTM) by the late demographer Warren Thompson (1887-1973), the cracks are starting to show on the model that for many years revolutionized how we think about the geography of our global population. 

Via Mr. David Burton
Elle Reagan's curator insight, March 23, 2015 11:33 PM

In my opinion, I do not think that the world could be approaching stage 5. I'm not sure if the world as a whole will ever reach stage 5. Our population is increasing and even though birth rates are low I still think that stage 4 is where we will be stuck. 

Emily Bian's curator insight, March 25, 2015 6:52 PM

This article discusses the demographic transition model, mostly Stage 5. Stage 5 is still slightly an unknown thing, because many people argue whether there are any countries in that phase or not. Stage 5 is characterized with very low birth rates, low death rates, lots of family oriented planning, and a slow decrease in population. Some people argue Germany is already in this stage, but I don't really agree. 

I think we should focus more on the developing countries that are stuck in stage 2. 

USA is in stage 4, and I believe that we will be stuck here for a while before advancing to stage 5. 

This is a good article for people that are interested in this unit to read, it gives a new perspective on things. 

Flo Cuadra Scrofft's curator insight, May 27, 2015 12:44 AM

Summary- With his Demographic Transition Model, Warren Thompson suggested that we are in the midst of a transition shown by stage 4, in which birth rates are equaling death rates. But if we analyze the demography in the present day, we will find that we are already past that stage. Most countries in the world are now entering or already in stage 5, in which birth rates are lower than death rates, making it very difficult, if not impossible for the population to grow. These current trends have led to an increased empowerment of women in western countries, since less babies mean more working hours, and more profits. It has also allowed for inter-generational relationships within families, where a children is able to meet his grandparents and even his great grandparents. In Europe, the birth rate is currently below the replacement level. The only way Europe has been able to increase or at least maintain its population is through waves of immigration.


Insight- it's is incredible that we are taught that we are experiencing the fourth stage of the Demographic Transition model, and that stage 5 talks about the future. What we may have not noticed is that many countries of the world are already part of that future; they have started to be part of this stage without us realizing it. I really liked the prediction made in the last paragraph. The fertility increase in more developed countries can take us to a new stage 6 in Thompson's model.

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The Plight of China's Favored Sons

The Plight of China's Favored Sons | Geography Education |
For China's government, social stability is threatened by a gender imbalance likely to leave up to 40 million Chinese without a wife.


There are many results of population policies such as the 'One-Child Policy' in China, which is primarily aimed at reducing population growth. Some on these consequences are unintended; due to parents preferences for male children there is a strong gender imbalance in China which has some serious sociological and cultural implications. For more about Asian society, follow:

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Selling condoms in the Congo

Selling condoms in the Congo | Geography Education |
TED Talks HIV is a serious problem in the DR Congo, and aid agencies have flooded the country with free and cheap condoms. But few people are using them. Why?


This video highlights why some well-intending NGOs with excellent plans for the developing world don't have the impact they are hoping for. Cultural barriers to diffusion abound and finding a way to make your idea resonate with your target audience takes some preparation. This also addresses some important demographic and health-related issues, so the clip could be used in a variety of places within the curriculum. FYI: this clip briefly shows some steamy condom ads.

Crissy Borton's curator insight, December 11, 2012 9:45 PM

Marketing is not something I would have thought about when trying to get people in the Kongo to use condoms. Her research into the brands they use and why may save many lives.

Nick Flanagan's curator insight, December 12, 2012 8:27 PM

I was surprised actually that it took this long for someone to think of this, given the fact that the AIDS crisis in Africa is practically a pandemic.However it is a good idea that someone had finally started to do something about it.  

Kaitlin Young's curator insight, November 13, 2014 5:37 PM

This video explains the errors that a lot of NGOs make when attempting to help the developing world. While the NGOs have done a service providing condoms in the DRC, they lack appropriate marketing and merchandising for the product itself. In a way, the organizations need to eliminate their egos in the situation and allow for the product to be marketed appropriately.

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Day vs. Night population maps

Day vs. Night population maps | Geography Education |

A great image for showing the pulsating rythmns of a dynamic urban system.  We treat population density as a static metric, but how many people are in a given place would truly be difficult to fully quantify.  What logisitic difficulties would this shift present for cities?  

Wildcardspades58's comment, December 16, 2011 11:44 AM
I would be interested to find out how these were created and how the data was recorded.
Darius Kidd's comment, August 27, 2013 10:44 AM
There is not much Definiton on this map......
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Inside a halal slaughterhouse in Queens

"This is the story of a halal slaughterhouse in Queens. It is a bit graphic at times, but the culture, history and passion behind the business is fascinating."

Seth Dixon's insight:

While a bit gruesome in moments, this video is an excellent view into the inner workings of an ethnic neighborhood.  Why are the cultural connections to a 'homeland' so important to immigrants?  Why is halal meat more expensive than what you would find in a grocery store?  Why is food such an important part of culture?  For more about this NY company and what halah is, click here.     

elsa hunziker's comment, January 30, 2012 2:24 PM
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Asians in the U.S. labor force, 2008–2010

Asians in the U.S. labor force, 2008–2010 | Geography Education |
The Editor's Desk: U.S.Bureau of Labor Statistics...


Ethnic geography, migration and economic geography intersect in this compelling infographic. 

Anhony DeSimone's curator insight, December 19, 2013 9:56 AM

This chart shows the labor force from 2008 to 2010. It what kind of races were active in the labor force and the percentage the race made up of the labor force. It also shows what kind of work they did and how much of the percentage of that race was involved in a specific line of work.

Daniel Lindahl's curator insight, March 21, 2015 10:57 PM

Migration refers to the movement of people across borders. This graph/article illustrates the large amount of Asians migrating to the United States, and joining the work force. The graph further breaks down the "Asians" by specific origin and ethnicity, showing that Chinese Asians are the most prominent in the US workforce. 

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Blueseed: Business' New "Spatial Fix"

Blueseed: Business' New "Spatial Fix" | Geography Education |

Many site outsourcing as a way in which global corporatations are seeking to avoid the typical economic limitations that have been imposed on job production based on geography.  Some refer to it as a 'spatial fix,' a way to get around the high cost of workers in the developed world being reworking how business gets done.  


This takes that to an entirely different level.  The benefits of agglomeration and collaboration help to explain the importance of Silicon Valley.  Entrepreneurs from other countries do not all have access to a comparable location with a high concentration of intellectually driven enterprises that amplify their impacts.  The Blueseed Project intents to, in essence create a floating city in international waters (just off the coast of California) that is outside of U.S. governmental jurisdiction, but easily accessible for Silicon Valley executives.   


More questions than answers arise from this project.  How are economic restructurings altering governance?  Are borders becoming less or more important with increased technological advances?  Would this be a benefit to developing world economies or strengthen the Silicon Valley's economic importance in research and development?     

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Top 10 Reasons Alabama’s New Immigration Law Is a Disaster for Agriculture

Top 10 Reasons Alabama’s New Immigration Law Is a Disaster for Agriculture | Geography Education |

"Alabama’s new immigration law, H.B. 56, is already devastating the state’s agricultural sector."


Does teaching agriculture have to be boring?  This particular issue is an excellent current topic that combines politics, culture and demographics within agriculture.   


Mac steel's comment, March 8, 2013 10:09 AM
Valorie Morgan's curator insight, November 7, 2013 10:13 AM

The new immigration laws have caused farmers to cut back on crops due to low empolyment rate. The immgrants that were currently working for farmers, ran off in fear of being captured. I'm against this law, I see exactly where the farmers are coming from. I believe these laws are pointless, it's just people trying to make an honest buck in the hot sun. Alabama is losing a great deal of agriculture due to this new law. Even though, they say its againast the law. I don't see the point. Why be so hard on these farmer??

Anhony DeSimone's curator insight, December 19, 2013 12:08 AM

This article shows how important it is to follow the natural way of agriculture. With the new laws in Alabama being passed it now allows people to grow crops in an unnatural way which is devastating predicament to the agricultural world.