Geography Education
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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
Curated by Seth Dixon
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Earth's tectonic plates skitter about

Earth's tectonic plates skitter about | Geography Education |

"Geoscientists have unveiled a computer model that maps the details of that tectonic dance in 1-million-year increments—practically a frame-by-frame recap of geologic time. It shows that the plates speed up, slow down, and move around in unexpectedly short bursts of activity. It also suggests that researchers may have to rethink what drives much of that incessant motion.  The new model shows that although plates usually creep along at an average speed of about 4 centimeters per year, some can reach much faster speeds in short sprints. For example, India, which broke off the east coast of Africa about 120 million years and is now plowing into Asia, reached speeds as high as 20 centimeters per year for a relatively brief 10 million years."

Tagstectonicsphysicalgeomorphology, video.

Maricarmen Husson's curator insight, April 27, 2015 5:52 PM

"Los geocientíficos han dado a conocer un modelo de computadora que asigna los detalles de esa danza tectónico en 1 millón de años incrementos de una recapitulación fotograma a fotograma de tiempo geológico. Esto demuestra que las placas aceleran, frenan, y se mueven alrededor de pequeños estallidos de actividad. también sugiere que los investigadores pueden tener que repensar lo que impulsa gran parte de ese movimiento incesante. El nuevo modelo muestra que, aunque por lo general se arrastran a lo largo de las placas a una velocidad media de unos 4 centímetros por año, algunos pueden alcanzar velocidades mucho más rápidas en carreras cortas. Por ejemplo, la India, que estalló frente a la costa oriental de África a unos 120 millones de años y ahora está arando en Asia, alcanza velocidades de hasta 20 centímetros por año durante un tiempo relativamente breves 10 millones años ".

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Journey to the Center of the Earth

Journey to the Center of the Earth | Geography Education |

"How far would you have to travel to reach the Earth’s core? And what would you see along the way? Use this BBC interactive to dig into the truth. (BBC).  Download the National Geographic Education high-resolution illustration of Earth’s interior."

Melissa Marshall's curator insight, April 30, 2015 8:17 PM

Interactive that would be great for Year 7 and 8 Science next term - moving through the layers of the Earth!

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California Drought Tests History of Endless Growth

California Drought Tests History of Endless Growth | Geography Education |
A punishing drought is forcing a reconsideration of whether the aspiration of untrammeled growth that has for so long been the state’s engine has run against the limits of nature.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Major urban areas in California have limited local water resources so they draw water from large area to bring in sufficient water for these burgeoning metropolitan regions.  With this current drought getting worse, California has ordered emergency water restrictions on residents while companies and large farms have been granted exemptions even though they account for 82% of the state's annual water consumption (residential accounts for 12%). Almond farms alone consume 10% of the state's water, and many agricultural crops are incredibly water intensive land uses.  A better way to think of it isn't just about raw water usage though.  A better question to ask would be this--how does one gallon of water translate into calories that most efficiently feed people?

Questions to Ponder: How does the concept of carrying capacity relate to California urban growth/drought issues?  California passed its carrying capacity?  How are demographics, economics, politics and the environment intertwined in California?  What are the environmental limits on urban growth and development? 

Tags: physical, weather and climate, consumptionCalifornia, water, environment, resources, environment dependurban ecology.

LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, April 9, 2015 8:49 AM

The mathematics of endless growth due to economic monetary rules has a clear outcome.

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Bang Kachao: Bangkok’s Green Lung

Bang Kachao: Bangkok’s Green Lung | Geography Education |

"In the heart of Thailand’s most populous city, an oasis stands out from the urban landscape like a great “green lung.” That’s the nickname given to Bang Kachao—a lush protected area that has escaped the dense development seen elsewhere in Bangkok.  The city is built on the alluvial plain of the Chao Phraya River. Toward the southern end, near the Gulf of Thailand, is an old meander that never quite formed an oxbow lake. That meander traces the boundary of Bang Kachao, which TIME magazine once called the 'best urban oasis' in Asia.  According to a travel story in The New York Times, Bang Kachao is gaining popularity among tourists lured by bike tours, a floating farmers’ market, and the relaxed atmosphere."

Tags: physical, fluvialremote sensing, land use, Thailand, Southeast Asia, urban ecology.

Seth Dixon's insight:

This video in a good visual introduction to Bang Kacho in the Phra Pradaeng neighborhood of Bangkok from a nice travelers guide to the city.  

Danielle Lip's curator insight, April 14, 2015 12:32 PM

These pictures of the heart of Thailand is very interesting and intriguing because the viewer can get a view of what the city Bang Kachao really looks from a arial view. The researcher call Bang Kachao the green lung because the area looks like a lung as well as the meander that formed an oxbow lake. Every country. city has different landmarks that make the location their own such as Michigan whose borders look like a mitten. Bang Kachao is becoming larger and growing more and more in population such as tourists, farmers and bike tourers. This location has a relaxed atmosphere and the Landsat image gives it justice, showing its actual size as a city based on its location near the Chao Phraya River towards the Gulf of Thailand which allows for access to the gulf and other different trading advantages.

Savannah Rains's curator insight, May 27, 2015 1:51 AM

This scoop shows an example of built environmental space. The highly urban and crowded Thailand has little green space. So why is this massive green park looking landmass there? Its a strictly environmental section of land to help water flow into the ocean. The people call it the "green lung" because its plants give off oxygen and provide a contrast from its urban sprawl. This article shows the importance that should be placed on having more strictly environmental places in big cities. 

Chris Costa's curator insight, November 9, 2015 2:06 PM

It's interesting to see the mixture of natural and manmade landscapes in this image. Humans have an enormous influence on the world around us- we have moved entire rivers for our own purposes, reshaped entire regions. In China, we have literally made it rain. Therefore, it's nice to see remnants of the rich environments that used to cover the urban sprawls of many of the world's largest cities, like Central Park in New York. Bang Kachao in Bangkok is another example of this, a reminder of the richness of the region before it was overwhelmed by the urban development that has characterized Bangkok over the previous century. The oasis serves as a valuable tourist attraction, as Westerners come to enjoy the bike trails and small farming community within Thailand's green lung. Leave it to hipsters to travel halfway across the globe just to enjoy nature within the confines of one of the world's largest cities. 

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First photographs emerge of new Pacific island off Tonga

First photographs emerge of new Pacific island off Tonga | Geography Education |

The first photographs have emerged of a newly formed volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean after three men climbed to the peak of the land mass off the coast of Tonga. Experts believe a volcano exploded underwater and then expanded until an island formed. The island is expected to erode back into the ocean in a matter of months.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Additionally, here are two islands off the coast of Japan that 'kissed' after a volcanic eruption caused them to coalesce into one island

Tags: physicalimages, volcano.

Louis Mazza's curator insight, May 6, 2015 10:17 AM

A new one mile island of the coast of Tonga in Oceania west coast of Australia. A volcano exploded underwater, turning lava in rock and pushing through the surface of the ocean to expose a new island. Three men have scaled the peak of the mountain to date. The men say the surface was still hot and the green lake in the crater smelt strongly of sulfur.

                This is great example of geography constantly undergoing changes and new looks and features. Officials say that this island will be eroded away within the next month so they will not even name it I wonder how many islands like this has happened to, or if inhabitants went to live there then the next day there home is underwater. This is another great example of plate tectonic and active under sea forces that we do not see with our eyes, and what most people do not think of on a daily basis, but is working on a daily basis, constantly changing geography and our world. 

Felix Ramos Jr.'s curator insight, May 7, 2015 9:34 PM

I just find this fascinating.  History is excellent to study but so is the watching history in the making.  This volcanic island formation off the coast of Tonga is a modern day phenomenon which will one day be history.  Some people predict it will erode back into the water but some others think it will be able to last longer.  Either way stuff like this is pretty cool to watch and study while it is happening before your very own eyes.

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 14, 2015 11:20 PM

This is pretty cool that a new island is being formed, due to a volcano that erupted under water. I am sure there are many more in other places, but it is a new opportunity for life, development and travel. Although since it is new, obviously now would not be a good time because you do not want a volcano erupting on people, that would not be an ideal situation. Although, I hope to one day be able to travel to this new island to check it out. 

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Volcanic Eruption

"WebCams de Mexico archives the best of webcam videos in Mexico."

Seth Dixon's insight:

What does a volcanic eruption look like?  Just like this. 

Tags: disastersMexico, physical, volcano.

Mr Inniss's curator insight, March 20, 2015 9:28 AM

watch an eruption in action

Paul Farias's curator insight, April 9, 2015 12:43 PM

It almost reminds me of a blemish that needs to be tended to on the face of the earth and it just couldn't handle the pressure anymore. My fascination with the way the earth does things blows my mind. 

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, September 22, 2015 8:20 AM

Their is nothing on earth more amazing and terrifying than a volcanic eruption. As mentioned in class, Mexico has a number of active volcanos. The most troubling one is the volcano near Mexico City. An Eruption of that volcano would spell doom for portions of Mexico City, and a wider doom for the whole nation. As a primate city, destruction in Mexico City would be devastating to the overall health of the Mexican economy. We can only hope that Mexico will be prepared to deal with the ramifications of such an eruption.

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How the warming Arctic might be behind Boston's deep freeze

How the warming Arctic might be behind Boston's deep freeze | Geography Education |
There may be a counterintuitive explanation for the deep freeze that hit New England this winter: The rapidly warming Arctic is causing big disruptions in the jet stream, which carries weather across North America. Is this the worst winter you've experienced?

Tags: physical, weather and climate, ArcticBoston, climate change, podcast.

Gail McAuliffe's curator insight, March 1, 2015 11:12 AM

Perhaps this article will sway some climate change skeptics...

Paul Farias's curator insight, April 9, 2015 11:33 AM

So bizarre how the rate of the arctic warming causes us to get smacked with the cold weather. Its one of those things that are like how does the jet stream actually work. Including the fact that California is getting hit with a major drought. 

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How Wolves Change Rivers

"When wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park in the United States after being absent nearly 70 years, the most remarkable 'trophic cascade' occurred. What is a trophic cascade and how exactly do wolves change rivers?"

Seth Dixon's insight:

When a complex system gets one aspect of it changed, there are many other changes that occur, some of which are nearly impossible to envision beforehand.  Here is some Oregon State research on the changes in Yellowstone's ecosystems and physical environments since the introduction of wolves. 

Tagsecology, biogeography, environment, environment adapt, physical, fluvial.

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Simulation of the Oso Landslide

Simulation of the Oso Landslide | Geography Education |

"The large landslide that occurred in March near Oso, Washington was unusually mobile and destructive."

Seth Dixon's insight:

There are several reasons for landslides--some are purely a result of physical geography and others are related to land use patterns.  The landslide in Washington state last year was a combination of the two (see on map) and it is a good teaching moment to discuss the environmental impacts of land use patterns and resource extraction projects.  As seen in this interactive, the river was cutting at the base of the hill, while loggers were clear-cutting at the top of the mountain.  Trees help prevent erosion as the roots hold the soil in place--a critical piece to the puzzle in a very rainy climate.  With $1 million worth of timber on the slope, logging companies persisted despite objections from the Department of Natural Resources and some restrictions (but in hindsight, those restrictions clearly were not enough).  Watch a simulation of the landslide here.  

View the impact in ArcGIS online: Before and After Swipe, LiDAR I and II, and Imagery.

Questions to Consider: Other than economic worth, what other ways are there to value and evaluate the environment?  How could this landscape have been protected and managed better or was this landslide inevitable?   

Tagspolitical ecology, resources, environment, environment modify, industry, physical, geomorphology, erosion, landforms.

Kristin Mandsager San Bento's curator insight, January 27, 2015 4:50 PM

This seems like a useful tool to a degree.  But if we could actually simulate every destructive event then we would be miracle workers.  This was a sad event.  We have left such an imprint on the earth that it's starting to fight back.  We need to be more aware and careful with the one planet we have.  Climate changes are in the news more and more.  We can't ignore climate changes anymore.  

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Town Slowly deformed by Plate Tectonics

Town Slowly deformed by Plate Tectonics | Geography Education |

"The signs that something’s wrong are not immediately obvious, but, once you see them, it’s hard to tune them out. Curbs at nearly the exact same spot on opposite sides of the street are popped out of alignment. Houses too young to show this kind of wear stand oddly warped, torqued out of sync with their own foundations, their once-strong frames off-kilter. This is Hollister, California, a town being broken in two slowly, relentlessly, and in real time by an effect known as 'fault creep.' A slow, surreal tide of deformation has appeared throughout the city."

Tags: disasters, geomorphologyCalifornia, physical.

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How One Woman's Discovery Shook the Foundations of Geology

How One Woman's Discovery Shook the Foundations of Geology | Geography Education |
Without ever setting sail, Marie Tharp mapped the ocean floor and made a discovery that shook the foundations of geology. So why did the giants of her field dismiss her findings as “girl talk"?
Seth Dixon's insight:

I love this article, because it is a fantastic reminder of some excellent principles. 

  1. Women in science are awesome and we need to encourage girls in STEM disciplines. 
  2. Mapping the unknown can lead to shocking discoveries. 
  3. Underlying grand discoveries is tedious work with unexciting data. 
  4. It wasn't too long ago that we didn't understand foundational principles about the Earth (such as plate tectonics). 

Tags: tectonicsphysical, mapping, cartography, 201, statistics, STEM.

Prof. Hankell's curator insight, December 19, 2014 9:27 AM

Marie Tharp v Experts...

Marianne Naughton's curator insight, December 20, 2014 11:32 AM

Marie's Ocean Discoveries ...  

Allan Tsuda's curator insight, December 21, 2014 7:12 PM

Not EdTech but great story. Embarrased I had never heard of Marie Tharp until now.

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Meandering Stream Time Lapse

The most viral images on the internet, curated in real time by a dedicated community through commenting, voting and sharing.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This is a fantastic way to visualize physical geographic processes. 

Tags physical, fluvial, geomorphology, erosion, landscape.

Jake Red Dorman's curator insight, November 25, 2014 1:24 PM

El Sire Reserve in Peru is a river that has been monitored over the last 28 years. Every time I watch this short 6 second clip, I learn something different about how this river has changed. On the bottom of the screen, just past half way, the river just takes a huge short cut and cuts over and connects to a different part of the same river. This happens on the whole river too. there are 8 or 9 huge bends and curves in the river but by the end in 2012 there are only about 3 to 4 bends and curves. For some reason the water is taking short cuts and just leaving the spaces where the water used to run through and leaving it dry.  

Mathijs Booden's curator insight, January 20, 2016 8:35 AM

This is such a tangible way of showing things that seem abstract on a static map.

Pieter de Paauw's curator insight, February 15, 2016 6:28 AM

Een natuurlijk meanderende rivier

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Eerie Landforms

Eerie Landforms | Geography Education |

Utah's Fantasy Canyon features mudstone eroded into bizarre shapes. This one's called "Flying Witch". #Halloween

Tags: physical, geomorphology, erosion, landforms, Utah.

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Nepal earthquake: Hundreds die, many feared trapped

Nepal earthquake: Hundreds die, many feared trapped | Geography Education |
At least 970 people have died as Nepal suffered its worst earthquake for more than 80 years, with deaths also reported in India, Tibet and Bangladesh.

Tags: Nepal, disasters, physical, tectonics.

Gene Gagne's curator insight, November 18, 2015 12:48 PM

We have learned that the Himalayas are growing everyday while our Appalachians in the united states are shrinking. What does this all mean? In the platonic spectrum it means in Nepal, earthquakes.

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Five Things The Gulf Oil Spill Has Taught Us About the Ocean

Five Things The Gulf Oil Spill Has Taught Us About the Ocean | Geography Education |

"The Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010 is the largest accidental marine spill in U.S. history: these are the pivotal discoveries scientists and environmentalists have learned from researching it.  While researching the spill, scientists tracked deep-sea sharks, found new mud dragons, and discovered a new type of ocean current."

Tags: water, conservation, physical, biogeography, environmentpollution, resources.

Beatrice J. P. Vasconcelos's curator insight, April 21, 2015 9:43 AM

Olha o tamanho da bobagem...

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If all the Ice melted: National Geographic's Interactive map on Rising Seas

If all the Ice melted: National Geographic's Interactive map on Rising Seas | Geography Education |

What if all the ice melted in the world? Now whether you believe global warming happens because of human activities or naturally is another debate. The questions “How would the world look if ALL the ice melted?” How much would the sea rise by? What would be the average temperature on Earth? are of interest to everyone.

Trust National Geographic not only to capture such questions in the best manner possible but also to visualize it in such geoawesome manner! Here’s the super interesting map by National Geographic “IF ALL THE ICE MELTED“!

Tags: physical, weather and climateNational Geographic, climate change, water, visualization.

LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, April 5, 2015 9:05 AM

Climate change is all about the "Pendulum Effect," where the extremes is what matters, not so much the median or average. The average may fluctuate some, but the real problem comes when the weather goes haywire. Too much water can be as destructive as too little water, and this doesn't only happen in time but in space as well, where regions get too much of one and too little of the other. We'll see strips of drought and strips of wetness, strips of cold and strips of heat, like bands across regions and across the planet. If he ice melts, the sea and fresh water strips in the ocean will keep the fresh water atop and it'll probably freeze in great bands in winter and provoke an extreme albedo effect cooling down the planet radically followed immediately by a potential mini ice age.

Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, April 5, 2015 9:23 PM

Impact of climate change on landforms and landscapes 

The human causes and effects of landscape degradation (ACHGK051)

The ways of protecting significant landscapes (ACHGK052)

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Tide Makes Tombolo an Island

Tide Makes Tombolo an Island | Geography Education |
The historic abbey of Mont Saint-Michel became an island on March 21 after a rare “supertide” flooded a causeway.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Coastal physical geography produces some beautiful landforms such as tombolos.  A tombolo is created when sand deposits attach an island to a larger piece of land--think of it as special type of isthmus.  Mont St. Michel (picture above) is the world’s most famous example because of the iconic walled city with crowned with a striking medieval abbey.  As the tides fluctuated, the city and abbey were alternately connected or disconnected from the mainland.  However, a ‘super-tide’ that occurs once every 18.6 years wiped out the artificial causeway stranding motorists on France's most visited tourist destination (I wouldn't mind be stranded there right about now).  

Tags: water, physical, coastal, geomorphology, landformsFrance, tourism.

West Sound Tech Assn's curator insight, March 25, 2015 8:32 PM

Not techy but very cool!

Jacob McCullough's curator insight, May 26, 2015 5:24 PM

this was interesting mother nature shows us once again that she is in control by showing us how easily our seemingly strong structures can be swept away    

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Protecting an Ocean at Risk

"Pristine Seas is an exploration, research, and media project to find, survey, and help protect the last wild places in the ocean. These pristine places are unknown by all but long-distance fishing fleets, which have started to encroach on them. It is essential that we let the world know that these places exist, that they are threatened, and that they deserve to be protected.  Learn more about Pristine Seas here: "

Seth Dixon's insight:

I was enchanted hearing Enriq Sala discuss his passion for ocean biodiversity and purity.  This passion, combined with scientific exploration and political advocacy is the backbone of a National Geographic's Pristine Seas project.  Here is one news story about the Seychelles, and how they are trying to manage their fishing industries to promote sustainability and hopefully the Pristine Seas project will lead to greater awareness of the need for ocean conservation. 

Tags: water, conservation, National Geographicphysical, biogeography, environmentpollution, resources.

Emily Coats's curator insight, March 24, 2015 12:41 PM


Fishing and Urban Development have detrimentally destroyed our oceans, and we have polluted the seas at such a high level. Urban growth and over fishing have caused our oceans to be polluted, and we are killing the diversity in Earth's waters. It is essential that we preserve marine life and stop polluting the ocean and the creatures that inhabit it. 

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Augmented Reality Sandbox

"Realtime topographic contour line generation."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Many of our first experiments of creating landforms and designing a new world started in the sandbox (you can only image what I do at the beach).  This video shows how that early childhood activity can make for an excellent classroom demonstration to shows how Earth's physical systems work.  If you don't happen to have a digital topographic map to superimpose on the sandbox and a GPU-based water simulation, then at least you've got this video.  Click here to learn more about this UC Davis project on the visualization of lake ecosystems.

Tags: water, physical, geomorphology, landforms, visualization.

Bobbi Dunham's curator insight, March 8, 2015 10:08 AM

Well, that is just incredible. Now THAT'S a sandbox! Augmented Reality is going to be a major gamechanger.

Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, April 5, 2015 9:20 PM

Every Geography classroom needs one of these to explain topography

Paul Farias's curator insight, April 9, 2015 12:24 PM

This thing is sick! I would love to make one of these i would play with this thing for hours and I'm an adult. And they say video games are useless, the kinect can be used for things other than dance offs and such. 

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Imagining Continental Drift

"This animated documentary tells the story of polar explorer Alfred Wegener, the unlikely scientist behind continental drift theory."

Seth Dixon's insight:

While plate tectonics is now universally accepted, when Alfred Wegener first proposed continental drift it was it was greeted with a great deal of skepticism from the academic community.  This video nicely shows how scientific advancement requires exploration and imagination, and whole lot of heart.   

Tagstectonicsphysicalgeomorphology, K12STEM, video.

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4 animations that show what's really going on with our climate

4 animations that show what's really going on with our climate | Geography Education |

"Trying to understand what’s actually going on in the world’s climate seems like it might be truly impossible. For one thing, there are so many different factors at work. Everything from how light travels through the atmosphere to how the winds move the ocean around to how rain hits the ground has an effect on what actually happens on Earth both now and in the future. That also means there’s absolutely no use in looking at each piece individually … to understand what’s really going on, the climate jigsaw puzzle needs to be complete.

That, says climate scientist Gavin Schmidt, is where climate modeling comes in. The discipline synthesizes data from multiple sources, including satellites, weather stations, even from people camping in the Arctic and submitting measurements of the ice they see around them. Climate modeling, Schmidt says, gives us our best chance of understanding the bigger picture of the world around us. 'We take all of the things we can see are going on, put them together with our best estimates of how processes work, and then see if we can understand and explain the emergent properties of climate systems,' he says. These four silent animations show what he means."

Tags: physical, weather and climate, Arctic, Antarctica, climate change.

Lora Tortolani's curator insight, February 2, 2015 6:59 PM

This makes me think of so many more things than just Geography and climate!

Nathalie Mercken's curator insight, February 11, 2015 3:33 AM

ajouter votre aperçu ...

Rich Schultz's curator insight, February 11, 2015 11:22 AM

All about climate change...

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Dramatic Confluences

Dramatic Confluences | Geography Education |

"Confluences occur wherever two streams come together. If the gradient is low (i.e., nearly level) and the properties of the two streams are very different, the confluences may be characterized by a dramatic visible distinction as the mixing occurs only slowly."

Tagsphysical, fluvial, geomorphology, erosion, landscape.

Sylvain Rotillon's curator insight, January 7, 2015 5:47 AM

Wonderful pictures of rivers confluences

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Gravitational Pull

Gravitational Pull | Geography Education |

"Revolution and rotation are the terms we use to describe the motions of the earth and moon. Revolution is the movement of the earth in an orbit around the sun.  The Earth completes one revolution around the sun every 365 days. The moon revolves around the Earth about once every month.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Understanding the relationships between the Sun, Earth and moon are critical for for understanding the seasons, climate and other geographic factors.  This interactive simulates gravity unlike anything I've every seen on a computer screen. 

To exploring Earth-Sun interactions, playing around with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Sun Simulator is a fun way to make a little more sense of the various factors that control how the Sun appears in the sky.

Barbara Goebel's curator insight, December 23, 2014 10:41 AM

Writing prompt: Specify a set of objects to put in motion, have them observe the interactions of the objects, then write to describe. For younger students, supply an observation organizer note sheet. For older students, the descriptions can be as technical as their math understanding will allow. 

Jason Schneider's curator insight, January 28, 2015 9:06 PM

It's pretty simple, the bigger the particle is, the bigger it's atmosphere is to allow more gravity. For example, Jupiter is the largest planet which is in favor to Earth. The reason why is because Jupiter uses it's large mass to protect Earth from oncoming meteors and comets. It uses it's large atmosphere to absorb comets and meteors onto Jupiter instead of allowing them to crash onto Earth. 

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Why Do Rivers Curve?

Seth Dixon's insight:

While this Minute Earth video might make geomorphology experts cringe at some of the vocabulary in this, it still is a good introduction to the absolute basics of fluvial geomorphology, or how and why rivers reshape the Earth.   Fun fact: Albert Einstein pondered some of the great mysteries of the Earth, and in 1926 wrote an article on this very subject (actual paper can be read here).  

Tagsphysical, fluvial, geomorphology, erosion, landscape.

YEC Geo's curator insight, December 7, 2014 8:15 PM

Actually a very good video.  My one quibble is with the introduction, when the narrator talks about mountain streams "carving" their gorges.  The puzzle of how small streams could possibly carve out deep bedrock canyons is an ongoing research problem, and is difficult to resolve from a gradualistic perspective.

Jason Schneider's curator insight, January 27, 2015 12:15 AM

So pretty much, the water controls rivers rather than particles controlling the river. Also, it appears that the motion and strength of the water causes rivers to bend and form in different curves. I'd like to think of it as a ball bouncing from side to side and every time it touches the border land of a river, it expands to the opposite side. However, when the water flow is hitting the side of a river, the opposite side is not getting any force from the water flow. In that case, the side that is not getting hit by the water flow slowly moves to the side that is being by the water flow causing river curves.

Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, June 1, 2015 2:07 AM

Australian curriculum

The geomorphic processes that produce landforms, including a case study of at least one landform (ACHGK050)


Chapter 1: Distinctive landform features

Chapter 3: Restless Earth: geomorphic processes 

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What’s the deal with Antarctica and the Arctic?

What’s the deal with Antarctica and the Arctic? | Geography Education |

"Perhaps the biggest misunderstanding is that the Arctic and Antarctic are similar. One’s in the north and the other is in the south; but other than that, they’re the same, right? No, this couldn’t be more wrong. These polar opposites are literally polar opposites.
For starters, the Arctic is a small, shallow ocean surrounded by land: Eurasia, Greenland, Canada and the United States. It’s only about 5 ½ million square miles, which is five times smaller than the Atlantic and 11 times smaller than the Pacific. Antarctica, on the other hand, is a continent surrounded by the entire Southern Ocean.

This may seem like no big deal, but it makes all the difference in the world. It takes a lot of energy to change water temperature compared to what it takes to change land temperature, which means Arctic seawater isn’t as cold as the continental ice sheet covering Antarctica. So, the Arctic sea ice (frozen sea water) is about 10 feet thick, whereas the Antarctic ice sheet (compacted freshwater ice) is over a mile thick."

Tags: physical, weather and climate, Arctic, Antarctica.

Ruth Reynolds's curator insight, November 12, 2014 9:05 PM

It would be nice to keep both

Javier Antonio Bellina's curator insight, November 17, 2014 2:51 PM

If we are