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Geography Education
Geography Education
Global news with a spatial perspective: Interesting, current supplemental materials for geography students and teachers. http://geographyeducation.org
Curated by Seth Dixon
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As coast erodes, names wiped off the map

As coast erodes, names wiped off the map | Geography Education | Scoop.it
For decades, south Louisiana residents have watched coastal landmarks disappear as erosion worsened and the Gulf of Mexico marched steadily inward.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Just because you've mapped a physical land feature, it doesn't mean it will stay that way forever.  This is a reminder that the Earth and it's cultural and physical landscapes are constantly changing. 


Tagsmapping, erosion, landscape. 

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Sylvain Rotillon's comment, May 9, 2013 11:57 AM
The eprverse effect of maps is that they give the false idea that our physical world is steady. It's the case as we see here for coastal environments, but also for rivers.
Ryan G Soares's curator insight, December 3, 2013 8:12 AM

I find it quite facinating how the world changes. Some of the worlds most beautiful things may not be here 30 years from now. It is quite humbling that things that man builds can be taken away by Mother Nature. As the years pass the memories made will be vanished by the environment.

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Erosion in Action

News 8 chief photojournalist Kevyn Fowler captured a road collapsing in Freeport, Maine during a storm.
Seth Dixon's insight:

The forces of erosion are usually slow and gradual, wearing away at landforms over the course of years.  This video show the quick and dynamic factor that erosion can be...this is easily the most compelling 3-minute video about a single patch of road that I've ever seen. 

 

Tags: physical, water, disasters, geomorphology, erosion.

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Francisco Javier 's curator insight, May 12, 2013 5:53 PM

Erosion in Action | @scoopit via @APHumanGeog http://sco.lt/...

Shelby Porter's curator insight, December 11, 2013 7:23 PM

Normally we see erosion on a piece of land over a long period of time. In this short video, we see what erosion can do to in mere minutes. It is scary to think how much the roads we drive on are eroding right underneath our cars. It is amazing how much the environment around us can change due to the weather. 

megan b clement's comment, December 15, 2013 9:30 PM
This video is crazy! It shows the erosion of a road during a storm. The water was supposed to run under the road and flow through a large pipe. As you can see after watching the video the road eventually erodes and then the pipe begins to bouy up and down. Later the road is completely deteriorated and the pipe ran down the river with the rest of the road.
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Out in the Great Alone

Out in the Great Alone | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pushes participants to the brink on an unforgiving trek to the end of the world. And, as one writer who tracked the race by air discovers, that is exactly the point.
Seth Dixon's insight:

The Iditarod is as much about conquering the physical environment and harsh climates as any sporting event in the world.  This article about this famous Alaskan race also has a unique geo-visualization component to it that is worth exploring--it has a map showing where the action takes place in the article and as the reader scrolls through the article, the map changes and it highlights the progression along the trail.   


Tags: physical, weather and climatesport, Arctic, visualization.

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chris tobin's comment, April 26, 2013 3:18 PM
very good story describing the long and dangerous trek. Its pretty amazing. I appreciated the video commentary and pictures of scenery and animals of the areas.
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Dazzling Northern Lights Anticipated Saturday Night

Dazzling Northern Lights Anticipated Saturday Night | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"A solar flare that occurred around 2 a.m. Thursday morning may create a spectacular display of northern lights Saturday evening. The midlevel flare had a long duration and was directed at Earth.  Solar flares create auroras when radiation from the sun reaches Earth and interacts with charged protons in our atmosphere. The effects are greater at the magnetic poles and weaken as they move south from the Arctic or north of the Antarctic. In the northern hemisphere the results are called the aurora borealis, with the aurora australis being its southern counterpart. The result is a spectacular display of light and color for areas with clear enough views."


Seth Dixon's insight:

For more information and predictions, see the Alaska Geophysical Institute's website, which has plenty of experience predicting the Aurora Borealis. 

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Yann Chemali's comment, September 12, 2013 4:30 PM
I never thought that it was possible to see see northern lights as south as Nebraska. That's very cool.
Zakkary Catera's comment, September 12, 2013 9:43 PM
The aurora borealis (may have butchered that word) is one of the manh beautiful and amazing things that this Earth offers to us! Sadly living in virginia beach it is definitely not as easy to see the lights! Possibly the ONLY reason i would move to alaska/canada and/or some country up north!
Zakkary Catera's comment, September 12, 2013 9:43 PM
The aurora borealis (may have butchered that word) is one of the manh beautiful and amazing things that this Earth offers to us! Sadly living in virginia beach it is definitely not as easy to see the lights! Possibly the ONLY reason i would move to alaska/canada and/or some country up north!
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Astrobleme

Astrobleme | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Lake Manicouagan lies in an astrobleme in central Quebec covering an area of approximately 1206 square miles—an area half the size of Delaware. An astrobleme is a scar left on the Earth’s surface from an impact of a meteorite. Lake Manicouagan is the result of one of the largest identified asteroid or comet impacts on Earth. In the middle of the lake, on Rene-Levasseur Island, Mount Babel rises 3,123 feet into the air.


Lake Manicouagan is thought to have formed about 212 million years ago plus or minus 4 million years.  This happened when an approximately 3.1 mile-diameter asteroid crashed into Earth toward the end of the Triassic period. Some scientists speculate that this impact may have been responsible for the mass extinction that wiped out more than half of all living species."

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Al Picozzi's curator insight, September 18, 2013 5:33 PM

This amazing picture shows how vulnerable the earth is to space born hazards.  This 3.1 mile-diameter asteroid might have caused 1/2 the living species on the earth at that time, 212 million years or so ago, to become extinct.  Man has the abilty to adapt to changes to the environment, unlike the dinosaurs.  The question is though do we have the ability to adapt to an event of this magnitude?  Hopefully we will not have to test out this question.

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Volcanic Forces, Human Impacts

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Rogério Rocha's comment, March 28, 2013 8:30 AM
Thanks for the post.
Josue Maroquin's comment, August 12, 2013 7:12 PM
Amazing how the ash spread out over the world
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Akimiski Island, Canada

Akimiski Island, Canada | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Scraped clean and weighted down for thousands of years by Pleistocene ice sheets, Akimiski Island in James Bay provides a case study of how Earth's land surfaces evolve following glaciation.


Tags: remote sensing, geospatial,Canada.

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Nathan Chasse's curator insight, January 25, 7:18 AM

This image tells the story of Akimiski Island's recovery after the last Ice Age, when it was covered with glaciers so large they sunk the island. The layered scarring on highlighted in the lower image was caused by waves as the island rebounded and rose along with the rising oceans as glaciers melted.

 

I wonder what forces are at work to raise the elevation of the island, possibly just decompression from the millions of pounds of pressure the island was under during the Ice Age.

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NASA Satellites Find Freshwater Losses in Middle East

NASA Satellites Find Freshwater Losses in Middle East | Geography Education | Scoop.it
A new study using data from a pair of gravity-measuring NASA satellites finds that large parts of the arid Middle East region lost freshwater reserves rapidly during the past decade.


"[This] data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, which currently have the second fastest rate of groundwater storage loss on Earth, after India," said Jay Famiglietti, principal investigator of the study and a hydrologist and professor at UC Irvine. "The rate was especially striking after the 2007 drought. Meanwhile, demand for freshwater continues to rise, and the region does not coordinate its water management because of different interpretations of international laws."


Tags: water, environment, consumption, resources, environment depend, Middle East, Iraq.

Seth Dixon's insight:

This is a perfect example of geospatial technologies can lead to a better understanding of how the Earth's physical systems are changing because of human geography.  Teaching geography is about showing how these systems are interconnected.   

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Elizabeth Bitgood's curator insight, March 19, 6:24 AM

Water is a big issue in an arid area.  The fact that we can measure the amount of groundwater present in an area with a satellite is amazing to me.  The issue of water rights and control in this region will someday over take that of oil rights and use in my opinion.  Once people get used to free flowing water to use on demand it will cause problems politically when these sources of ground water inevitably dry up.

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NOVA: Earth From Space

NOVA: Earth From Space | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Detailed satellite images reveal the web of connections that sustain life on Earth.
Seth Dixon's insight:

"Earth From Space is a groundbreaking two-hour special that reveals a spectacular new space-based vision of our planet. Produced in extensive consultation with NASA scientists, NOVA takes data from earth-observing satellites and transforms it into dazzling visual sequences, each one exposing the intricate and surprising web of forces that sustains life on earth."


This documentary shows something interesting for the physical geographer, human geographers, and geospatial technology specialists.  In other words, this touches on just about all things geographic (with cool images!).  The overarching theme is that so many things in this world that we wouldn't imagine are actually interconnected with excellent examples. 


Tags: remote sensing, geospatial, unit 1 Geoprinciples, physical.

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Kenneth Holzman's comment, February 17, 2013 4:37 PM
Thanks so much for this link! I'd completely missed this on PBS, and it is EXACTLY the kind of video I'm trying to get my AP Human Geography students to watch right now. This is getting shared with ALL my kids ASAP. :-)
dilaycock's comment, February 18, 2013 1:02 PM
I just love that Scoop.it allows resources to be shared so easily, and in a manner that is so accessible to students everywhere. Thanks Kenneth.
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Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions | Geography Education | Scoop.it
PULL a spring, let it go, and it will snap back into shape. Pull it further and yet further and it will go on springing back until, quite suddenly, it won't....

Via Joel Barker
Seth Dixon's insight:

This is an interesting article discussing the limits that the Earth's physical systems have and the importance not exceeding any tipping point that could destabilize the planet if we "overstrech the springs."

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Joel Barker's curator insight, February 10, 2013 8:56 AM

A useful discussion on limits of the planet

Angus Henderson's curator insight, February 11, 2013 8:49 AM

An interesting counter-balance to the work of the Planetary Boundaries group. 

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Boston's unnatural shoreline

Boston's unnatural shoreline | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Today's 100-year storm surge could be tomorrow's high tide.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This set of maps and articles help to explain why sea level rise is such an issue for many major metropolitan areas.  In coastal cities with substantial economic development, much of the current coastal areas where once underwater until landfill projects filled in the bay.  During storm surges (or if and when sea levels rise) these will be the first places to flood.  


Tags: disasters, water, physical, Boston, weather and climate.

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Charlotte Hoarau's curator insight, February 6, 2013 2:57 AM

Surging sea represented on an imagery background layer.

Color ramp should be graduated.

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Mount Dixon Explodes!

Mount Dixon Explodes! | Geography Education | Scoop.it
An initial analysis of the Mount Dixon landslide in New Zealand on Monday
Seth Dixon's insight:

There are some great images (and a post-landslide helicopter flight video) of the massive landslide that occurred Jan 21, 2013.  The rockslide extends over 3 km, with an elevation change of approximately 800 meters.  This is an excellent example to help students visualize mass wasting, alpine glaciation and erosion in general.  While the mountain didn't explode strictly speaking, I couldn't help but love the headline "Mount Dixon explodes!"    


Tags: New Zealand, physical, geomorphology, erosion.

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Al Picozzi's curator insight, December 5, 2013 1:58 PM

Just an incredible sight to see.  The helicopter video is truly an amazing must see for anyone.  Just to imagine what it would be like to be there when it happened.  The speed at whcih the landslide moved plus the sounds it must have made would have been a once and a lifetime even, but if you were that close when it happened, it might be the end of your lifetime...what a way to go!

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 1, 7:49 AM

Mount Dixon's landslide is due to the mountain itself being unstable. The landslide pattern is normal in retrospect to other landslides that have happened over the years. The before and after pictures are a clear depiction of the landslide path from top to bottom.

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Visualizing Seismic Waves

Movie showing ground motion of four earthquakes propagating across a high density seismic array in Long Beach, California. Data was recorded by NodalSeismic,...
Seth Dixon's insight:

Seismic activity is to be expected in the Los Angeles region as the major hazard threat in the area.  This area has a great number of sensors which now allows us to visualize seismic waves better than ever before.  This video show 4 earthquakes (starting at 0:45, 2:20, 6:00, and 8:35).  For more information on the science behind this clip, read the adptly named blog, The Trembling Earth.


Tags: visualization, disasters, physical, Los Angeles.

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What is a Hotspot?

1) What is a hotspot? A volcanic "hotspot" is an area in the upper mantle from which heat rises in a plume from deep in the Earth. High heat and lower pressure at the base of the mantle facilitates melting of the rock. This melt, called magma, rises through cracks to the surface and forms volcanoes. As the tectonic plate moves over the stationary hot spot, the volcanoes are rafted away and new ones form in their place.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Why are the Hawaiian Islands a linear formation if there are not plate boundaries in that region?  Why are the islands seemingly arranged from largest to smallest?  The answers lie in the physical geography of 'hot spots.'  After this introductory video, you can learn more about the geologic life cycle of a hot spot volcanic island in this companion video


Tags: Oceania, physical, geomorphology, landforms.

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Al Picozzi's curator insight, December 5, 2013 2:10 PM

Never really understood how island chains were made until now.  As the plate moves the iland is no longer growing and it begins to erode as a new island is created for the hotspot doesn't move the plate does.  That explains why the island of Hawaii is the largest island in the Hawaiian Island Chain..it is the yourgest island and the one the is currently under the hotspot...until it moves along the plate..which I do not believe will be in anyones life time.  It also helps explain how atolls were formed.  The plate moved so the island was no longer growing and though erosion of hundreds of thousands of years the center of the large island is gone while the ring is being supported by a coral reef.  Great site that really makes it easy to understand.

Nathan Chasse's curator insight, April 13, 11:09 AM

This video explains the geology of hotspots which are how many of the islands in the Pacific Ocean are formed. Convection of solid, hot material rises to the tectonic plate where it is trapped, heating the rock above to its melting point. The heat then forces the molten rock to the surface where it cools and creates volcanoes. Over millions of years, the tectonic plate drifts, but the hot spot does not, causing a series of volcanoes on the surface. The Hawaiian Islands were formed by this process, which is why the islands progress from large to small, with the smallest islands being the oldest, in the process of eroding completely away.

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, April 23, 3:23 PM

This video entails that mantel and where a hotspot for a volcanic eruption will take place. This video depicts the way at which a hot spot is located and what makes it erupt and cause an eruption in the firt place. It goes step by step ways to see the many different forms of volcanoes and where they start and end up at.

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Melting Glaciers Transform Alpine Landscape

Melting Glaciers Transform Alpine Landscape | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Climate change is dramatically altering the Swiss Alps, where hundreds of bodies of water are being created by melting glaciers. Though the lakes can attract tourists and even generate electricity, local residents also fear catastrophic tidal waves.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Earth systems are inherently dynamic; however a change to system such as climate change can upset the system dramatically. 


Tags: climate change, water, physical, geomorphology, landforms.

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Magnus Gustafsson's curator insight, May 8, 2013 1:45 AM

What can we do learn of this? Will send this to my students.

Lorraine Chaffer's comment, July 4, 2013 7:36 PM
Inland water - management
Lorraine Chaffer's comment, July 4, 2013 7:36 PM
Climate change impacts
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Night Sky Comes Alive With Aurora Borealis

Night Sky Comes Alive With Aurora Borealis | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Peak season to spot rare, dazzling night skies over Canada and Alaska."

Seth Dixon's insight:

While I didn't get to personally witness this phenomenon over the weekend, many farther north took some incredibly images.  This ABC video nicely summarizes the Aurora Borealis.  

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Lorraine Chaffer's comment, June 1, 2013 4:49 AM
Aurora Borealis has cultural significance for many people in the arctic
Morgan Stewart's comment, July 25, 2013 6:15 PM
This is so beautiful! Seeing an aurora borealis is one of the things on my bucket list and I really hope I get to experience it.
Chloe Williamson's comment, August 13, 2013 7:12 AM
This is would be an incredible sight to witness! I hope I can see is beautiful aurora one day.
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Climographs

Climographs | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Seth Dixon's insight:

Climographs chart the monthly temperature and rainfall data and are a useful tool is studying climatology.  Here are links to dozens of selected United States and International cities that come from the National Drought Mitigation Center.  The image above is a climograph of Providence, RI.


Tags: physical, weather and climate, Rhode Island, statistics, visualization.

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Anhony DeSimone's curator insight, December 19, 2013 6:15 AM

Climographs are used to show the temperature and precipitation within an area monthly. This collection of data allows us to see the climate changes that occur monthly with in an area to better understand its weather patterns.

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Canyons

Canyons | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"A canyon is a deep, narrow valley with steep sides."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This encyclopedic entry is a concise explanation of the environmental forces that create canyons. 


Tags: water, physical, geomorphology, landforms, National Geographic.

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Matthew DiLuglio's curator insight, December 6, 2013 8:45 AM

Canyons are really cool to look at, but they also tell stories.  The various layers of rock can be dated based on crystal structures and possible organic content in sediment, and the eroded sides can be traced back to wind, or in some areas, water-based erosion patterns.  I think that shows that one does not just have to look at the rocks, but one can use their imagination to view history, and even infinite time by considering that the canyons are transient and shifting messages that are carved into rocks by the world, and the universe.  I think that where the article said people have relied on and depended on canyons, it brings to the surface more illumination of the immense convenience of humans having everything they need to survive- just on this one planet...  Food, clothes, shelter, can be created by what is around us.  It is like we were put here with resources- it sorta feels like some of the Sim games.  I do believe aliens are responsible for putting what is now known as the human species on this planet, and I do believe in the abstract yet artificial terraformation of Earth by aliens.  Canyons erode, and die away, as do humans.  I can't help but believe that they are messages from the natural universe, along with the material resource provisions that have been so widely abundant for humans on this planet.

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Augmented Reality Sandbox

Video of a sandbox equipped with a Kinect 3D camera and a projector to project a real-time colored topographic map with contour lines onto the sand surface. ...
Seth Dixon's insight:

Many of our first experiments of creating landforms and designing a new world started in the sandbox.  This video shows how that early childhood activity can make for an excellent classroom demonstration to shows how Earth's physical systems work.  If you don't happen to have a digital topographic map to superimpose on the sandbox and a GPU-based water simulation, then at least you've got this video.  Click here to learn more about this UC Davis project on the visualization of lake ecosystems.


Tags: water, physical, geomorphology, landforms, visualization.

 

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Tibshirani's curator insight, March 12, 2013 11:07 AM

very cool!

David Ricci's comment, April 22, 2013 12:40 PM
I actually watched this video the first time we went to the computer lab in gauge just because it caught my eye. I think that this is a cool way to show different landforms and how some of the ecosystems processes work with and around them. I feel that this video encompasses geography as a whole. Seeing the way that the water falls around the mountain made in the video and where it ends up pooling is a good example of natural geography. When looking at the area the lake is now centered a viewer can see where a potential colony or group of people may live in this are. This all depends on closeness to resources such as water, arable land, and potential food supplies. All of this depends on the physical occurrences that you can see in this video. This video also helps to tie in the lesson in class about geomorphology. The creation of dremmels by glaciers, runoff from the mountains, and plate tectonics. These topics can be taught through a power point, but it really helps to see all of this created and the process it takes.
Brianna Simao's comment, April 30, 2013 7:28 PM
This is a cool way to show the different landforms and the potential use of the surrounding area. It shows us where people could migrate to and start a community and the resources it may have. It also shows the geomorphology of how the landforms were made. I agree with David when he says that these topics can be taught through a power point but to get a real understanding of how they are created and the process it takes, this is the best way to learn.
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App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data

App-lifying USGS Earth Science Data | Geography Education | Scoop.it
App-ly Yourself to Tackle Today's Scientific Challenges
Seth Dixon's insight:

The United States Geologic Survey (USGS) scientists are encouraging app developers and earth scientists to design creative apps that will aid researchers in tackling the important questions. USGS datasets include biogeographical, vegetation and land cover change data. Submissions will be judged on their relevance to today’s scientific challenges, innovative use of the datasets, and overall ease of use of the application. Prizes will be awarded to the best overall app, the best student app, and the people’s choice.  Do you have an idea?  


Tags: physical, ecology, visualization, biogeography, edtech.

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Impact: Earth!

Impact: Earth! | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Seth Dixon's insight:

Given the recent meteor in Russia, interest has been high on the subject.  Have you every wanted to simulate a the impact of a meteorite?  Then this is just what you've always wanted. If you would rather to see an incredibly entertaining clip from the Daily Show, then knock yourself out (disclaimer: it's a VERY irreverant look at the the dash-cam footage from Russia that many just discovered after the meteor hit last week).  

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Ignacio Conejo Moreno's curator insight, February 25, 2013 2:56 AM

¡¡Realmente, acongoja un poquito!!

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When an asteroid gets too close : ImaGeo

When an asteroid gets too close : ImaGeo | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Seth Dixon's insight:

Many of you have seen the YouTube video of the meteor in Russia this week (and were you wondering why so many Russians have cameras on their dashboards?).  This show the geologic impact of the largest of meteors and here are links to a map (with the data) of all the known meteorites to have landed.  Pictured above is Meteor Crater in Arizona, one of the most powerful impacts the Earth has even seen.   

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The Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Did you know that in 2000 the IHO created a new ocean called the Southern Ocean? Here, learn about where and what the Southern Ocean is.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Maybe if more of the global population lived in the Southern Hemisphere, perhaps our educational systems would emphasize more information about the Southern Ocean (not to mention acknowledge that it even exists).  This body of water isn't just the southernmost part of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans; the biology, temperature, chemistry and ocean currents all make it a distinct body of water that circles Antarctica. This is just one of over twenty videos in the "geography" tab from the great folks at about.com.  


Tags: Antarctica, water, physical.


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Jess Deady's curator insight, May 4, 7:19 PM

The southern ocean is a collection of oceans near Australia…. in the southern part of the world… interesting.

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Inside India’s pop-up city

Inside India’s pop-up city | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Every 12 years, the Kumbh Mela, a centuries-old Hindu pilgrimage, temporarily transforms an empty floodplain in India into one of the biggest cities in the world.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Hindu pilgrims from all over India flock to bathe where it the Yamuna Saraswati Rivers join with the Ganges River for a religious experience.  This is a massive undertaking where the cultural practices create migratory patterns that reshape cities because of a sacred physical geography

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Nathan Chasse's curator insight, April 11, 9:21 PM

This article is about the sacred gathering which occurs every 12 years at the merging point of the sacred Hindu rivers. Millions of people bathe in the waters daily during the Kumbh Mela. This sacred physical geography causes a massive human migration and creates a temporary mega-city. The temporary city is an excellent way to experiment with the planning of mega cities which, as evidenced by the problematic physical and human geography of Mexico City, are often not planned so much as just they just expand to meet the needs of the time. Urban planning should be particularly interesting for the people of India as the rapid population growth will cause significant expansion in its cities.

Joseph Thacker 's curator insight, April 13, 10:43 AM

Every 12 years Hindus come together for a religious gathering, which results in the creation of a temporary mega city. The millions of people who attend this Hindu pilgrimage create this mega city for 55 days. It is impressive to see a temporary city supply housing, electricity, food and clean drinking water for millions of people. 

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Pink Lakes

Pink Lakes | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Photo by Jean Paul Ferrero/Ardea/Caters News (via Exposing the Truth   Lake Hillier is a pink-coloured lake on Middle Island in Western Australia. Middle island is the largest of the islands a...
Seth Dixon's insight:

Pictured above is Lake Hillier, located on a small island south of Western Australia.  Around the world there are many pink lakes; most of them can attribute their hue to their high salinity composition.  Some algaes that thrive in salt water produce organic pigments with a reddish/pinkish coloration.  This particular lake's coloration is a mystery.  If you any additional information, feel free to share in in the comments section below.  

   

Tags: water, physical, images, Australia.

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Jessica Rieman's curator insight, April 23, 3:01 PM

This lake is so majestic and beautiful but how does it have this pink color? Well it gets the pink color from the sand it is surrounded by and is one of the largest Middle islands in Australia. 

Elizabeth Bitgood's curator insight, April 24, 5:13 PM

This beautiful lake is a phenomenon the reason for its color is still unknown but it makes a very memorable lake!

Jess Deady's curator insight, May 1, 7:44 AM

The cause of the pink lake is still a mystery. Scientists believe the pink could be due to lack of nutrients or other substances. I think this is truly remarkable! Its beautiful to say the least.