Central Places:Theory and Applications produced by Ken Keller (email@example.com) adapted from Don Ziegler.
Digital resources to strengthen the quality and quantity of geography education in classrooms the world over.
Curated by Seth Dixon
Central Places:Theory and Applications produced by Ken Keller (firstname.lastname@example.org) adapted from Don Ziegler.
The Central Place Theory is a model that is not used much today in academic geography, but given it's explicitly spatial nature, it is used in many geography curricula (including AP Human Geography) to show systems thinking and spatial patterns. This powerpoint goes over the main ideas of the theory developed by Walter Christaller as well as some examples.
|Suggested by Kara Charboneau|
"The nation's fertility rate has slipped below replacement levels partly because of the recession and a decline in immigration. That's raising concern about the nation's future."
During this recent recession, fertility rates in the United States have dropped with many speculating that the financial investment in child-rearing caused this shift. The big question is this: will birth rates bounce back when the economy fully recovers or is the United States population going to follow the example of Western Europe? What would the impact be for both of these scenarios?
In this age of fast travel and instant digital communications, we tend to forget that not so long ago, distances were subjectively very different.
This series of maps shows the great leaps and bounds that were made during the 19th century in transportation technology in the United States. This impacted population settlement, economic interactions and functionally made the great distances seem smaller. This is what many call the time-space compression; the friction of distance is diminished as communication and transportation technologies improve.
Questions to Ponder: When someone says they live "10 minutes away," what does that say about how we think about distance, transportation infrastructure and time? How is geography still relevant in a world where distance appears to becoming less of a factor?
Unicharm Corp.’s sales of adult diapers in Japan exceeded those for babies for the first time last year. At Daiei Inc. supermarkets, customers can feel Japan aging -- literally: It has made shopping carts lighter.
Japan's demographic shifts are well-chronicled: the Japanese are having fewer children and the improvements in healthcare mean that the elderly are living longer than ever. Combined this means that Japan's population pyramid is getting "top heavy." This population change is having huge econmic impacts as the percentage of Japanese people is now over 23%. Retailers and industries are heavily targeting this expanding demographic with financial clout that outspends all other cohorts.
It is possible in many cities to identify zones with a particular type of land use - eg a residential zone. Often these zones have developed due to a combination of economic and social factors. In some cases planners may have tried to separate out some land uses, eg an airport is separated from a large housing estate.
The concentric and sector models in one news article? The BBC is showing once again the possibilities available if only the United States taught more geography in the schools.
Learn more: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=r1ywppAJ1xs Thomas Malthus's views on population. Malthusian limits.
This is a succinct (but not perfect) summary of Malthusian ideas on population. What do you think of his ideas? Any specific parts of his theory that you agree with? Do you disagree with some of his ideas? What did history have to say about it?
It was just over two centuries ago that the global population was 1 billion — in 1804. But better medicine and improved agriculture resulted in higher life expectancy for children, dramatically increasing the world population, especially in the West.
This is an excellent video for population and demographic units, but also for showing regional and spatial patterns within the global dataset (since terms like 'overpopulation' and 'carrying capacity' inherently have different meanings in distinct places and when analyzed at various scales). It is also a fantastic way to visualize population data and explain the ideas that are foundational for the Demographic Transition Model.
Adapted from the book by Professor Susan Hanson...
This is an excellent review/summary of an edited volume that shows the value of geographic thought and its importance in the modern world. This review conveniently gives a one paragraph synopsis of each chapter. It does not need to be read chronologically, so you can pick and choose what you find relevant to your course. The top 10 are (in order of inclusion in the book): the Idea of the Map, the Weather Map, GIS, Human Adjustment, Water Budget Climatology, Human Transformation of the Earth, Spatial Organization and Interdependence, Central Place Theory, Megalopolis and Sense of Place.
Births have plummeted since their 2007 peak, and the recession is a factor. There's worry that the birthrate will be affected for years.
The graph for this article is an incredible visual that highlights how the economic conditions of a country can impact its demographics. Not surprisingly, Americans have less children during tough times. Questions to ponder: would this phenomenon be expected in all parts of the world? Why or why not? Demographically, what will the long-term impact of the recession be?
Public health crises of the past decade — such as the 2003 SARS outbreak, which spread to 37 countries and caused about 1,000 deaths, and the 2009 H1N1 flu p...
The spread of infectious diseases is inherently connected to the mobility of infected. Airports are important nodes in this complex transportation network. Which airports would have the greatest potential to spread diseases? At MIT, they've gathered data that incorporates variations in travel patterns among individuals, the geographic locations of airports, the disparity in interactions among airports, and waiting times at individual airports to create a tool that could be used to predict where and how fast a disease might spread. To read more, see the associated article.
Amazon has long enjoyed an unbeatable price advantage over its physical rivals. When I buy a $1,000 laptop from Wal-Mart, the company is required to collect local sales tax from me, so I pay almost $1,100 at checkout.
Just-in-Time production has reshaped the logistics of manufacturing. How does same-day online delivery impact local retail businesses? How might this change urban patterns of retail stores and of areas of warehouses?
THE giant American conglomerate General Electric (GE) holds more assets abroad than any other non-financial firm in the world—over $500 billion worth. Its foreign assets make up over 70% of its total.
While we may think of Volkswagen as a "German" company, 78% of their assets are in other countries. What advantages is there for companies to have operations in multiple countries? How do transnational corporations change the geographies of production, consumption and economics?
"Many of the original and innovative contributions to the field of urban sociology came out of the University of Chicago in the early 20th Century. Influenced by the natural sciences, in particular evolutionary biology, members of the Chicago School forwarded an ecological approach to sociology emphasizing the interaction between human behavior, social structures and the built environment. In their view, competition over scarce resources, particularly land, led to the spatial differentiation of urban areas into zones of similar use and similar social groups.
Two of the major proponents of urban ecology were Ernest Burgess and Robert E. Park, professors at the University of Chicago, who together in 1925 published a book entitled The City."
Many students struggle with models when there isn't a corresponding example. The Concentric Zone Model and Chicago are a great marriage.
This particular graph shows Total Fertility (x axis) and Life Expectancy (y axis) which collectively can explain some of what can be called human development. This is an interactive graphic that shows both temporal and regional patterns in changes in development.
HometownAnnapolis.com - A Web site for Annapolis and Anne Arundel County. Powered by Capital Gazette Communications and The Capital Newspaper.
This short article discusses the demographic shift in urban areas since the collapse of the housing bubble (explicitly referencing Burgess' Concentric Zone Model!). With higher gas prices discouraging long commutes, is the era of sprawl over? Some feel that suburban housing prices aren't in momentary decline, but that this represents a new normal as we reconceptualize the city and urban land values. For more on the decline of the Exurbs, see: http://www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2012/04/05/growth-exurbs-falls-historic-low/WEsMHqBISD1n60T7WCJdTO/story.html ;
This is the new and improved version of the familiar map can teach regions (formal, functional, vernacular) as well as the importance on TV markets as a diffusion mechanism for culture. As mentioned by Andy Baker, "This map is also useful for showcasing 'threshold' and 'range' from 'Central Place Theory.' For instance, I ask my students, 'Why are the Mid-Atlantic & California coasts boundaries (range) so small compared to Great Plains teams?'" Great idea Andy!
Eighty-two years after the original development of the four stage Demographic Transition Model (DTM) by the late demographer Warren Thompson (1887-1973), the cracks are starting to show on the model that for many years revolutionized how we think about the geography of our global population.
At TEDxPhilly, Next American City editor at large Diana Lind explains why cities should rethink their highway infrastructure.
For generations, the prominent model of urbanism accepted in the U.S. has placed the automobile as the top priority for public places, placing massive highways right in the middle of key downtown areas. Some cities (including Denver, DC, NYC, Providence and Dallas) are rethinking the relationship between urban spaces and the transportation networks.
The United Nations says today symbolically marks the moment when the world's population reaches 7 billion. A little more than two centuries ago, the global population was 1 billion. How did it grow so big so fast?
This is an excellent way to visualize population data and explain the ideas that are foundational for the Demographic Transition Model.
TED Talks The world's population will grow to 9 billion over the next 50 years -- and only by raising the living standards of the poorest can we check population growth.
TED talks are great resources, and this one about global population growth, is a great link with Hans Roslings trademark data visualizations that simplifiy complex data and 'tell the story,' but this time using far more common visual aids.
Prezi in an online alternative to powerpoint for displaying notes and lecture materials (noted for it's ability to see the whole picture, zoom in and it's rotating animations). Prezi is free for educators and the presentations you made can be kept private or made public. This Prezi outlines the 4 stages of the Demographic Transition Model, with historical and spatial context. Thanks for sharing Kari!
In several previous posts we have looked at specific migration channels connecting Mexico to the USA: From Morelos to Minnesota; case study of a migrant...
An excellent way to show examples of chain migration and the gravity model...students will understand the concepts with concretes examples. These interactive maps have crisp geo-visualizations of the migratory flows.
While global population now is almost reaching 7 billion, mainly to due high birth rates in the developing world, many of the more developed parts of Asia (and elsewhere) are facing shrinking population as fewer women are choosing to marry and have children.
This is a very concrete way to discuss the Demographic Transition Model and population issues around the world. Cultural values shifting, globalization and demographics all merge together in this issue.