Geography Education
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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
Curated by Seth Dixon
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Changing Real Estate Values

Changing Real Estate Values | Geography Education |
As Mumbai booms, the poor of its notorious Dharavi slum find themselves living in some of India's hottest real estate.


What do you think the future will hold for this slum neighborhood?  What will happen to the people that live there?  What will this place look like in 20 years?  What forces will create this change? 

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Emergency Management: #ActNow, Save Later

Since the year 2000, almost 1 million people have lost their lives to disasters caused by natural hazards. 2 billion people have been affected. 1 trillion do...


In the last decade, almost one million people have been killed by disasters and more than one trillion dollars have been lost. Yet only 1% of international aid is spent to minimize the impact of these disasters.  Every $1 spent on preparedness saves $7 on response, so the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has established to prepare for the disasters which will surely come. 

Kim Vignale's comment, July 5, 2012 8:18 PM
I think this is a great video depicting how disasters are handled today. Lack of preparation increases more damage caused by natural disasters. If more time and money is spent on devising plans on how to prepare for disasters, preventing it, and alleviating the issue, there would be less money lost and most importantly more lives saved.
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Cambridge Ideas - How Many Lightbulbs?

Cambridge University physicist, David Mackay, in a passionate, personal analysis of the energy crisis in the UK, in which he comes to some surprising conclus...


This is a great video to show students the amount of energy they use, both at an individual level and at the national scale (this video is from the U.K.)  To 'flip' this Ted-Ed talk, visit it's homepage at:

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Latino boom makes Orlando proving ground for Obama

Latino boom makes Orlando proving ground for Obama | Geography Education |
President Obama and Mitt Romney are set to make appearances beginning Thursday at a major gathering of Latino officials and activists...


A core component of the 2012 U.S. presidential elections will be the demographic profile of both the Republican and Democratic Parties’ power base. For most of American history, the African-American population was the largest minority second to the Caucasian minority. Since the 2000 census, the Latino population has overtaken the African-American population as the largest minority in the U.S.  How does this impact both parties?  What are the strategies of both parties to appeal from a diverse set of voters?   How does the immigration issue shape 'identity politics?'

Don Brown Jr's comment, September 12, 2012 3:40 PM
Unlike African Americans there is much more differentiation within the Latino population which contains within itself many nationalities with competing priorities. Due to this wide variation of interest it will likely be much harder for either the Democrats or Republicans to gain the support of the entire group. Therefor this question may revolve around what kind of people or concerns will both parties use to gain the support of the majority ofdifferent interest groups within Americas Latino population for the 2012 election.
GIS student's comment, September 13, 2012 9:25 AM
The problem ahead for the republicans is that many of their views and opinions go against the ideas of many Latinos. According to the article Romney has many struggles with Latino community because his views are the opposite of what the majority of the Latino voters consider. On the opposite side Obama has a difficult road ahead as well. Does he focus his campaign more on the large minority or does he concentrate on the majority which could cause a shift in the minority. Regardless Florida has been a primary example of identity politics ever since the election 2008 where some areas were no longer considered battleground areas.
Nicholas Rose's comment, September 13, 2012 10:05 AM
Well, I would like to say is that the Hispanic minority is the majority of the Florida population including major cities like Orlando which is mentioned in the article and Miami. Historically, Florida was a Spanish colony which was led by Juan Ponce De Leon. Even though that Florida is usually a Republican state when it comes to voting but I think that it'll be more of a major impact for the Democratic party than the republican party because of the immigration issues that President Obama was paying attention to throughout his presidency so far.
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Twitter for [Geography] Teachers: Intro & Signing Up

Twitter for [Geography] Teachers: Intro & Signing Up | Geography Education |

"I just returned a few days ago from a great week in Cincinnati, reading AP Human Geography exams with 400 colleagues from all over the country. In our conversations during the reading, I've come across a number of these folks, many of them high school teachers, who are interested in using Twitter but have no idea where to start.


What I'm hoping to do in the next few entries is give a beginner's guide to using Twitter, specifically geared toward folk who are completely lost at how to begin. I'll also be working toward some 'best practices' once the basics are out of the way." 


See this 'ultimate Twitter Guide'--


Need a few ideas of who to follow?  Try these:!/APHumanGeog/geog-400-ideas/members

If you are unconvinced that you should get on twitter (#aphg), see:

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Making Cities Sing

Making Cities Sing | Geography Education |
In urban centers around the country, local governments are looking to attract emerging industries and the next generation of entrepreneurs.


This video shows a panel of urbanists presenting at the Aspen Ideas Festival.  The panelists specialize in revitalizing cities and creating economically and culturally vibrant urban centers.  They focus not on public policy, but rather finding ways to implement the locally produced ideas of people from the neighborhood with an intimate knowledge of the community as well as a vested in strengthening the local networks.  They also highlight the arts, sense of place and the culture of a neighborhood as key components create attractive cities.


More videos from the Apsen Ideas Festival on urbanism, see:

Ricardo Cabeza de Vaca's curator insight, May 27, 2015 4:09 AM

I think this video is really interesting on how local government is looking to help cities create a great economically diverse environment and develop them. These panelists have new ideas and would like to implement them on cities and communities.. They would like to use the arts to help neighborhoods and change them for the better. I think this is a great idea and I think art can unite and improve neighborhoods. They would also like to use laws and local policies to improve neighborhoods.

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Immigrants Working In America

Immigrants Working In America | Geography Education |
The U.S. is still a nation of immigrants: One in six U.S. workers was born somewhere else. Here's where America's immigrants come from, and what they do for work.


Of the American immigrant population, where were the workers born?  In what industries are they employed?  These are two straight-forward graphics with the answers to those questions.    

Kate C's comment, July 8, 2012 7:29 PM
I found the second graphic, "Field of Employment by Place of Birth", interesting because of the relevantly even distribution of employment across the board. The Latin American born population seems the be the only one that deviates from the trend, with high percentages in Agricultural and Construction fields, and the lowest numbers in Education, Health Care, & Social Services. Interesting how students are included and I wonder how accurate the Census Bureau is at measuring specific employment information for undocumented immigrants.
Macy Nossaman's curator insight, September 20, 2013 2:26 PM

This is a good article about immigrants in America because it talks about all of the different places people have immigrated from and now live and work in the U.S. Since my topic is European Immigration, It shows that there are 2.4 million Europeans currently working in the U.S.

Laurel Stelter's comment, September 27, 2013 2:23 PM
I think that this is a really interesting article. The two pictures really help define America and its workplace well. It surprised me how many people weren't born in the U.S., but still work here.
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What is in a Name?

What is in a Name? | Geography Education |
Issues in Focus East Sea...


Does it matter if I call the sea to the east of the Korean Peninsula the "East Sea" and if you call the body of water the west of Japan the "Sea of Japan?"  Absolutely.  When dealing with matters of diplomacy, a name reflects how a country is viewed.  For many years the Sea of Japan has been the defacto name internationally and South Korean officials have lobbied (quite successfully) to bolster the legitimacy of the name within the media, publishers and cartographers.  What other places have multiple names?  What are the political overtones to the name distinctions?  To watch a 10-minute video on the history of the name, see:  

Don Brown Jr's comment, July 3, 2012 8:19 PM
This issue seemed to be largely overshadowed by China’s claims in the Philippines. While changing the name of the Sea of Japan may have no immediate tangible impact on either country, it will certainly have a symbolic one and could possible pave the way for a claim to exclusive water rights within the area in the future. If a valuable resource such as oil is discovered in this disputed area then perhaps Russia, China or even the US will also get involved?
Seth Dixon's comment, July 5, 2012 9:55 AM
Symbolic value is South Korea's main aim, to minimize Japan's (their former colonizer) dominance in the region.
Lamar Ewing White III's comment, August 23, 2012 5:20 PM
Of course it matters whether you call it the East Sea opposed to calling it the Sea of Japan, just like it matters if you call the Mississippi River the Central River or something lame like that. I feel like Japanese citizens would take much offense if someone tried to change the sea's name. It is traced back to Japanese history and heritage which kind of gives them the right to have it named after them. I use the Mississippi River as a comparison because it also traces history and heritage and has every right to be named after the state. Also, (and this might be off subject), if we changed the name of Sea of Japan it would probably take a generation to get the name remembered as "East Sea". It would only create confusion just like if we changed the name of the Mississippi.
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AP Human Geography Test Scores

Good luck to both teachers and students!

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Geography for a Flat World

Geography for a Flat World | Geography Education |
News, Articles and Community for district-level decision makers in K-12 education. Magazine published monthly, with daily news and blogs and online content. Archives available.


I thought I posted this a month ago (at the AP readings when Lili Monk gave me a copy!) but couldn't find the link.  Geography education isn't just essential for the social sciences; it's cross-curricular benefits are well-documented.  I know this is preaching to the choir, but I hope this gives you 'added ammunition' in defending geography with administrators.   

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The Endangered Languages Project

The Endangered Languages Project is a website for people to find and share the most up-to-date and comprehensive information about the over 3,000 endangered ...


This short video is a great primer for understanding the importance of linguistic diversity.  Why the loss of linguistic diversity (a global phenomenon) related to other themes  on geography, such as political and economic autonomy for minority groups?  Why are so many languages vanishing today?  What forces are creating these emerging cultural patterns?  For more on the project, see:

Matt Nardone's comment, September 2, 2012 3:52 PM
I learned a lot from this video/article. I can not believe out of 7000 languages today only about half will survive by the new century. I never thought of language loss as a result of injustice and oppression of a culture. I think that it is very interesting that to save a language means to restore a cultures ideals, ideology, and norms. I think that it is pretty cool Google is trying to help perserve some of the languages that may be fading. It is neat to think that one of the largest social media/communication companies has a great interest not in a universal language BUT a great interest in maintaining differences and uniquenesses about languages.
Adrian Francisco's comment, September 3, 2012 11:04 AM
I like this project and how it preserves languages that are about to die. It's not good when a language dies because there might be some information written in the language and in the future when we look at books we would not know what it is saying.
Kenny Dominguez's curator insight, November 29, 2013 11:59 AM

This is a great website in which everyone should look at because it shows how everyone can come together and help preserve all these languages we all hear today. Day by day languages are becoming extinct because they are speaking English one of the most spoken languages in the world and everyone speaks it or speaks little of it that people can understand. More languages are becoming extinct day by day.

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Why damming world's rivers is a tricky balancing act

Why damming world's rivers is a tricky balancing act | Geography Education |
If we accept that controversial dams will continue to be built for economic benefit, how can we limit their damage on the environment?


"Of all the ways we have engineered Earth in the Anthropocene, the Age of Man, surely nothing rivals our audacious planetary-wide re-plumbing of the world's waterways. But is our control of Earth's arteries causing dangerous clots?"  The human-environmental interaction theme of geography is as readily apparent in this issue as any.  

Jose Sepulveda's comment, June 30, 2012 5:24 PM
It would be possible if only the whole ecosystem is managed so as to damp negative synergies and keep permanent monitoring over the river as a whole, from its origin to its final discharge into the sea.
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Abandoned Walmart Transformed Into A Functioning Library

Abandoned Walmart Transformed Into A Functioning Library | Geography Education |
Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle's design of the McAllen Pubilc Library in Texas is a case study of creative reuse.


So many libraries have suffered extensive cuts and local governments have had less funds in their budgets allocated to libraries.  Yet libraries perform crucial functions of community building and empowering the local citizenry; functions that many are loathe to part with.  Box stores are a key feature in American architecture, and while somewhat sterile, in provides great functionality for a library.  How would this impact the local community?  If the Walmart left town, what type of issues might the area already be facing?

Brandon Murphy's comment, July 9, 2012 6:47 PM
Libraries are quintessential to local towns and provides many opportunities for all citizens to learn an acquire knowledge. Compare that to the benefits of a Walmart. Libraries definitely win that battle. Sure, it is very convenient to have a store that carries any/everything under the sun in town, but it lacks importance.
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Blackfriars station, the world's largest solar bridge

Blackfriars station, the world's largest solar bridge | Geography Education |
The new Blackfriars station, which is being built on a bridge spanning the River Thames, is on its way to becoming the world's largest solar bridge after Solarcentury begun the installation of over 4,400 solar photovoltaic panels...


"The solar panels will generate an estimated 900,000kWh of electricity every year, providing 50% of the station’s energy and reducing CO2 emissions by an estimated 511 tonnes per year. In addition to solar panels, other energy saving measures at the new station will include rain harvesting systems and sun pipes for natural lighting."

Roland Trudeau Jr.'s comment, July 6, 2012 8:21 PM
Its definitely a step in the right direction to conserve our natural resources. Our future won't be easy without renewable energy, and all of our natural resources expended.
Brandon Murphy's comment, July 9, 2012 6:43 PM
Finding new sources of renewable/sustainable energy would definitely be a lot easier if more countries were willing to work together.
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Fascinating Places

Fascinating Places | Geography Education |

'Fascinating Places' is a Facebook page that uploads a beautiful picture from somewhere around the world everyday.  It's great!  This particular image is from Naunton, U.K. in the fabled Cotswolds which are fantastically quaint, dripping with 18th century pastoral charm.   

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History of the India-Pakistan Border

History of the India-Pakistan Border | Geography Education |
The weird, violent history of the Indo-Pakistani border.


Geography rarely makes sense without the added lens of history.  This fantastic article chonicles the history of the geopolitical conflict between India and Pakistan, centering on the disputed Kashmir region.  This border is tied into colonial, cultural, political and religious layers of identity.  As one of the great unresolved issues of the colonial era, this standoff may loom large as India becomes increasingly significant on the global scale.     

Meagan Harpin's curator insight, October 15, 2013 9:07 PM

This article chonicles the history of the conflict between India and Pakistan, focusing on the disputed Kashmir region. The violence over the border is spurred by religion and political issues. But with India increasingly becoming bigger in a global scale what does that mean for this conflict with Pakistani? 

Al Picozzi's curator insight, November 12, 2013 7:41 PM

Colonialism rears its ugly head again, this time not in Africa but in India/Pakistan..but with the same result.  Borders drawn arbitrarily did not work in Africa, nor did it work in India.  It just casues the people there to try and work out and fix problems that the former colonial rulers casued.  They tried here to do it so that there was a land for the Muslim population to have a nation on the subcontinent and not subject to Hindu majority rule.  However Britain never looked at what would happen with a area that had a Hindu leader with a Muslim population.  He wanted to be independant, but the Muslim population wanted to go to Pakistan, so he went to India for help...sound is..much like the Northern Ireland/UK/Republic of Ireland debate..there is no easy answer and it looks like we have to try to fix colonialism's problems again.

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Urban Life In The 21st Century

Urban Life In The 21st Century | Geography Education |
More than half of the world now lives in urban areas. In the U.S., urban dwellers make up 83 percent of the population, and it's growing every day. What does it mean to live in a city today? What are the challenges for cities going forward?


This NPR special series, NPR cities, is an acknowledgement of what we already knew: cities are becoming increasingly important. To understand humanity in the 21st century, we need to understand cities. Included in this marvelous feature are numerous podcasts, infographics and articles about urban themes such as transportation, cultural amenities, economic and neighborhood revitalization.

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Urban issues: Transportation and Density

Urban issues: Transportation and Density | Geography Education |
A map that has been making the rounds on the internet demonstrates how you can fit 7 major U.S. cities plus New York's most famous borough within Los Angeles city limits.


So Los Angeles is big, but, LA's spatial extent is in part due to it's history with transportation (ripped out the streetcars to let the automobile and freeway take over).  How do density and transportation affect cities? 

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Ten Ways Walmart Changed the World

Ten Ways Walmart Changed the World | Geography Education |
On July 2, 1962 -- 50 years ago today -- Sam Walton opened the very first Walmart store in Rogers, Arkansas.


The Walmart business model has profoundly reshaped the economic paradigm of retail these has 50 years.  Walmart is commonly cited as a business that exemplifies the processes of globalization.  How has Walmart reshaped aspects of society such as industrial production, environmental standards, labor, urban shopping locations, the outsourcing of manufacturing and consumption? 

Jordan Simon's comment, August 17, 2012 12:12 PM
It is crazy to think that one store could change the world but this one has. Their effective ways of selling and buying products have made this store very well known. Walmart has more than 140 millions customers shop a week which is very impressive. Without Walmart where would we be?
Rj Ocampo's comment, August 24, 2012 7:11 PM
Its amazing to see how far Walmart has come in just 50 years! Sam Walton's philosophy "Always low prices," shaped Walmart to be so successful and could not be the same without it. It's crazy to know that one store could change the globe, I just wonder how much longer Walmart can keep their success going.
Matt Nardone's comment, September 2, 2012 3:19 PM
I have to say that Walmart is my mom's favorite store. I like going there because I know that things are cheaper and I can end up saving money when I get something I need. But I never realized that they put so many small companies out of business trying to make things cheaper for customers. It is a good thing for us but bad for small business guys. What is the right balance?
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Pena Nieto claims victory in Mexico election

Pena Nieto claims victory in Mexico election | Geography Education |
Presidential candidate says Mexicans have voted for change of direction after exit polls project win for his PRI party.


For the first time in 12 years, Mexico's president will be from the PRI party (which dominated and led power from the 1920's to 2000).  Enrique Peña Prieto won the election, in large part due to Mexico's dissatisfacation with the PAN's handling of the escalating drug violence.  A few decades back, the PRI kept the violence out of the streets with some tacit agreements with the drug cartels to stay within particular territories.

Seth Dixon's comment, July 2, 2012 11:00 AM
I'm afraid that stability and corruption is what Mexico is choosing over instability and freedom. Unfortunately, stability and liberty weren't both on the table. Maybe the PRI in the last 12 years out of power has cleaned up it's act but I am nervous since they were are "party monopoly" when in power that would violate human rights and rig elections.
Roland Trudeau Jr.'s comment, July 7, 2012 11:26 AM
This picture speaks of how the Mexican people feel towards this election;
Jessica Rieman's curator insight, February 4, 2014 12:43 PM

This article is about the victory over the election and the vixctor coming in first was congradulated by President Obama and said that he is excited to be working together in the efforts of creating a better cause. Pena Priento is now the system ruler

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Mapping Mexico's gang violence

Mapping Mexico's gang violence | Geography Education |
Voters are counting on the next president to find a solution to the country's alarming rise in organised crime.


This interactive features shows temporal and spatial data on drug-related deaths in Mexico since 2007.  Also connected are profiles of the presidential candidates of the three major political parties (PRI, PAN and PRD) and with their platform on drugs and ways to curtail the accompanying violence.  Mexico's presidents can only hold office for one term, but it is a six-year term...2012 isn't just about Obama and Romney. 

James Hobson's curator insight, September 23, 2014 12:46 PM

(Mexico topic 7)

A picture (specifically a map, in this case) is absolutely worth a thousand words, and can invoke many more. Over 10,000 deaths in Chihuahua but less than 20 in Baja California Sur, for example - though Chihuahua's population is greater, the percentages based upon population are still way out of proportions. For some perspective, If Rhode Island were in Chihuahua's situation, that would mean over 3000 cartel-related deaths every year in the state (~0.3% of the total population).

Jason Schneider's curator insight, February 3, 2015 3:35 PM

I just finished reading a scoop about violence in Mexico getting worse and I discovered that violence in Mexico comes from its poor economy, drugs and dead-end lives. Chihuahua, the largest state in Mexico has the most number of violent deaths in Mexico with over 10,000 deaths. The smallest state in Mexico, Tlaxcala has only 13 deaths due to gang violence. YOu would think that the size matters in the number of deaths due to gang violence but that is not the case. Sinaloa is smaller than Sonora and Sinaloa's death rate due to gang violence is four times higher than Sonora's. Also, Baja California Sur is slightly smaller than Baja California Norte is Baja California Norte's death rate due to gang violence is 105 times higher than Baja California Sur's death rate.

Adam Deneault's curator insight, December 6, 2015 5:56 PM

After reading this article and playing along with the interactive map, which I think is a very well used resource, I can see that gang violence is a major issue in the country of Mexico, especially as stated in the article, areas near US borders and places with ports. For example, a place near a US border is Chihuahua with 10,134 deaths! In Chihuahua located at Ciudad Juarez, near El Paso is where the conflict between two cartels is focused. It is also scary to know that there is that much violence going on right next to our own territory. 

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Big U.S. Cities Growing Faster than Suburbs

Big U.S. Cities Growing Faster than Suburbs | Geography Education |
For the first time in a century, most of America's largest cities are growing at a faster rate than their surrounding suburbs.


"As young adults seeking a foothold in the weak job market shun home-buying and stay put in bustling urban centers," this profoundly is changing the demographic processes that create our major urban areas.  "Driving the resurgence are young adults, who are delaying careers, marriage and having children amid persistently high unemployment. Burdened with college debt or toiling in temporary, lower-wage positions, they are spurning homeownership in the suburbs for shorter-term, no-strings-attached apartment living, public transit and proximity to potential jobs in larger cities."  With home ownership no longer the goal and the suburbs the destination of choice, how with this affect the urban structure of or major metropolitan areas? 

Kim Vignale's comment, July 30, 2012 10:33 PM
It is logical for many single people to live in urban areas due to job availability, convenience of location, and small affordable apartments. Established families resides in suburban areas because houses are bigger and land is vast for young children to grow up in. However, a typical college graduate would find it difficult to find employment right after college; once employed, wages are not high enough for these young adults to buy a house. I would find it more convenient to live in the city because public transportation is available and more jobs are offered in large cities. Once i get established with a career, it would be more logical to buy a house in the suburbs.
Seth Dixon's comment, August 2, 2012 2:39 PM
It is a logical shift in urban processes, especially when you consider that in the United States, fewer and fewer people are 1) getting married young and 2) having children. Both of these makes the suburbs less of an ideal spot young Americans that are leaving college and their parents homes.
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Technology and Biological Changes

Technology and Biological Changes | Geography Education |
A pilot study discovered that levels of BPA in pregnant Mennonite women were four times lower than the national median.


This is an interesting article that shows that the technological advancements and the way we choose to live has tangible, measureable effects on our biochemistry. 

Roland's comment, July 2, 2012 11:04 AM
Everyone is already aware that organic food is better for you. There is an article I read some time ago, on a man whos name unfortunatley escapes me at the moment. In his late 50's and in fantastic shape, he only eats organic, yet goes many steps further; He eliminated all plastics from his life opting to only drink filtered water from glass containers. His entire home has a water filtration system built into it to remove exposure to toxins that you bathe in, and refuses to wear anything but natural clothing. He claims that his body is all the proof you need to know that his methods work. I'm sure any step to removing toxins in your life is one forward.
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Food Machine

Food Machine | Geography Education |

UPDATE: The PBS episode "Food Machine" premiered on April 11th, 2012 on the series "America Revealed."  Now the episode is available online. 


"Over the past century, an American industrial revolution has given rise to the biggest, most productive food machine the world has ever known.  In this episode, host Yul Kwon explores how this machine feeds nearly 300 million Americans every day. He discovers engineering marvels we’ve created by putting nature to work and takes a look at the costs of our insatiable appetite on our health and environment.  For the first time in human history, less than 2% of the population can feed the other 98%." 

Adrian Bahan (MNPS)'s curator insight, March 7, 2013 8:46 PM

This is a great video covering our industrial agricultural complex

Matthew DiLuglio's curator insight, November 27, 2013 5:13 PM

The Industrial Revolution really changed things, but it is hardly an improvement, because so many people are without the benefits of the rich percentage.  People's roles are becoming solid components that are entirely replacable and part of the machine rather than becoming creative- and by creative, I don't just mean artsy.  I think that the Research and Development part of any machine entity is the part that allows it to adapt and modify in order to change for the better and the greater good.  I look at humans as an alien species inhabiting a planet, and I could make the analogy to a college fraternity.   The planet is a mess, people try to make a buck off each other at every given opportunity, and I particularly dislike that the rich people band together like frat brothers, instead of giving less-priveledged persons the opportunity to attain equal status.  I don't think like everyone else, but I do make efforts to partake in realistic activism to cause change for the betterment of all beings- human or not.  I do believe in predestination, and that everything around us is a material and spiritual echo from the dawn of creation, but I also believe that the flaws present today will disappear tomorrow through courses of events where chosen people will alter the formation of the future, for the benefit of all beings.  Right now, with people undertipping pizza delivery men, and not donating the optional dollar at stop and shop, it is the flawed 'today' phase of the timeline, but the Industrial Revolution has made it easier for society to embrace component roles, however replacable or expendable, and that in the end will achieve greater contentment and universal success.