Geography Education
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Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
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The World Bank is eliminating the term “developing country” from its data vocabulary

The World Bank is eliminating the term “developing country” from its data vocabulary | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank has made a big choice: It’s no longer distinguishing between 'developed' countries and “developing” ones in the presentation of its data. The change marks an evolution in thinking about the geographic distribution of poverty and prosperity. But it sounds less radical when you consider that nobody has ever agreed on a definition for these terms in the first place. The International Monetary Fund says its own distinction between advanced and emerging market economies “is not based on strict criteria, economic or otherwise.” The United Nations doesn’t have an official definition of a developing country, despite slapping the label on 159 nations. And the World Bank itself had previously simply lumped countries in the bottom two-thirds of gross national income (GNI) into the category, but even that comparatively strict cut-off wasn’t very useful."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Labels and categories are so often problematic, but they are also necessary to make sense of the vast amount of information.  Regional geography is inherently about lumping places together that have commonalities, but acknowledging that many differences from place to place makes the world infinitely varied and complex.  Since we can’t process an infinite amount of complexity, we categorize, for better or for worse.  In education, we are continually trying to show how some categorizations fail, hoping that our students will categorize the information they receive in better ways (non-racist ways for example).  The regional terms we use--Latin America, the Middle East, Europe, etc.—impacts how we think about the world.  Each of those terms highlights a few similarities and ignores some important differences.  The terms More Developed Countries (MDCs), Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs), and Less Developed (LDCs) is how many people have socioeconomically categorized the world’s countries, some preferring developing countries instead of LDCs because it less stigmatizing.  In 2015, many at the World Bank have thought that the term “Developing Countries” obscures more than it reveals.  In 2016, the World Bank removed the term from its database since there are more differences than similarities in the economic structures and trajectories of developing countries.         

 

Questions to Ponder: What are some of the major problems that you see with the term developing country?  Even with its problems, what utility is there in the term?  Will you keep using the term or will you abandon it?  How come? 

 

Tagsdevelopment, statistics, economicindustry.

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Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, September 29, 3:06 AM

Global challenges: Development

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How a Texas grocery chain kept running after Hurricane Harvey

How a Texas grocery chain kept running after Hurricane Harvey | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"One of my stores, we had 300 employees; 140 of them were displaced by the flooding. So how do you put your store back together quickly? We asked for volunteers in the rest of the company. We brought over 2,000 partners from Austin, San Antonio, the Rio Grande Valley. They hopped into cars and they just drove to Houston. They said, we're here to help. For 18 hours a day, they’re going to help us restock and then they'll go sleep on the couch at somebody's house."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Natural disasters complicate the logistics that make our modern economy run.  We take these flows for granted--until they are disrupted. This article is a excellent view into how to operate when disaster strikes. 

 

Tagseconomicindustry, laborglobalizationplace, transportation.

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Deanna Wiist's curator insight, September 12, 8:55 PM

Natural disasters complicate the logistics that make our modern economy run.  We take these flows for granted--until they are disrupted. This article is a excellent view into how to operate when disaster strikes. 

 

Tagseconomicindustry, laborglobalizationplace, transportation.

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Self-driving technology and highway trucks with no one at the wheel

Technological innovation and automation are transforming entire industries. As self-driving trucks hit the road, what could possibly go wrong?
Seth Dixon's insight:

What jobs can be automated?  This is a question I ask all of my students because job disruption is something that every future wage earner should consider as they plan out their careers.  Would you be outsource-able? Could technology render your skill set unnecessary in the future?  What are the impacts of creative destruction on the economic, cultural, and political characteristics of a place?  How would those changes impact regions? 

 

Tagseconomicindustry, laborglobalizationtransportation, unit 6 industry.

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How Does it Grow? Avocados

Avocados have become a super trendy food, but few of us know how they're even grown or harvested. We visit a California farm to uncover the amazing story of the avocado — and share the secrets to choosing, ripening and cutting the fruit.
Seth Dixon's insight:

My childhood house in the Los Angeles area had an avocado tree in the backyard; I now realize that the climatic demands of avocado production means this is a rarity in the United States, but as a kid I thought guacamole was as ubiquitous as peanut butter.  This 5-minute video is a good introduction to the avocado, it's production, environmental requirements, nutritional profile and diffusion.  The geography of food goes far beyond the kitchen and there are more episodes in the "How Does it Grow?" series to show that. WARNING: the video does mention the Nahuatl origin of the word (‘testicle-fruit’) in the video so as you manage your own classroom…just so you know. 

 

Tags: foodeconomic, agribusiness, video, agriculture.

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M Sullivan's curator insight, July 23, 12:00 AM
An insight into how avocados are grown.
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The real reason Amazon buying Whole Foods terrifies the competition

The real reason Amazon buying Whole Foods terrifies the competition | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Amazon’s zero-profit strategy is a disaster for anyone who goes up against it.
Seth Dixon's insight:

I have more questions than definitive answers, so let's get right to it. 

 

Questions to Ponder: How have technological and logistical shifts in various industries made this once unthinkable union workable?  How will a retailer like Amazon change the food industry on the production side of the equation? What are the advantages and disadvantages of creative destruction (eliminating old jobs by creating new ones)?  Who stands to benefit the most, and who are the most negatively impacted?    

 

Tagsindustry, economic, scale, agriculture, food production, agribusiness, food

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Mr Mac's curator insight, June 22, 9:35 AM
Unit 5 - Commercial Agriculture, Agribusiness, Food Distribution; Unit 6 - Services, Distribution of Services, Service and Technology
mouthpaptops's comment, June 24, 2:34 AM
good
charlytap's comment, June 30, 1:29 AM
nice
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From Risking His Life To Saving Lives, Ex-Coal Miner Is Happy To Take The Paycut

From Risking His Life To Saving Lives, Ex-Coal Miner Is Happy To Take The Paycut | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The "Brave New Workers" series tells stories of Americans adapting to a changing economy. This week: after years working in the coal mines of West Virginia, a miner charts a new career in health care.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This series, Brave New Workers, is all about workers adapting to the shifting economic geographies.  Some industries are seen as foundational to a community and there is much angst about the loss of particular jobs.  New technologies are disruptive, and the process of job creation/job loss is sometimes referred to as creative destruction.  My uncle, once about a time, was a typewriter repairman.  Clearly, the personal computer was going to render his niche in the economic system obsolete so he became a web developer.  Not everyone successfully makes a seamless transition, but this collection of stories is emblematic of the modern American worker, needing to nimbly adapt to the labor market.

 

Tagspodcast, industry, manufacturinglabor, economic, USA.  

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Why do people and nations trade?

"Mark Blyth of Brown University explains international trade." 

Seth Dixon's insight:

To understand international trade, you need to understand how the factors of production vary from place to place, resulting in different locations having a comparative advantage on a global market.  This video nicely explains that with the example of Scotland’s comparative advantage raising sheep with southern Europe’s comparative advantage in producing wine.   Does the size of a country matter in trade?  You betcha.

 

Tags: regions, economic, diffusion, industry

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Special Economic Zones

Special Economic Zones | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are the most rapidly spreading kind of city, having catapulted exports and growth from Mauritius and the Dominican Republic to Shenzhen and Dubai -- and now across Africa. Today more than 4000 SEZs dot the planet, a major indication of our transition towards the "supply chain world" explored in Connectography.  See more maps from Connectography and order the book here."

 

Tags: globalizationurban, economicindustry, regions.

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China sends first freight train to London

China sends first freight train to London | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Time for a long trip along the new silk road.

 

The train is part of Chinese President Xi Jinping's vision for 'One Belt, One Road' -- dubbed by some as the new silk road. It's China's infrastructure initiative, which Xi hopes will improve China's economic ties with Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

 

Tags: regions, transportationeconomic, globalization, diffusion, industry.

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America's Wealth Is Staggeringly Concentrated in the Northeast Corridor

America's Wealth Is Staggeringly Concentrated in the Northeast Corridor | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"At the county level, America is a tremendously unequal place."

Seth Dixon's insight:

The concentration of wealth within U.S. cities is one of the most powerful geographic patterns in North America (and remains of of the key geographic stories of the 2016 presidential election). NYC served as a hub for the import/export of primary economic resources during the 18th and 19th centuries as the Erie Canal opened up the interior of the United States to become part of NYC's hinterland.  NYC expanded as a hub for the manufacturing of consumer products and then began to transition to a more tertiary based economy. “There are more than 3,000 counties in the U.S. Of the 75 with the highest incomes, 44 are located in the Northeast, including Maryland and Virginia. The corridor of metropolitan statistical areas that runs from Washington, D.C., through Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston includes 37 of these top-earning counties (where the median family takes home at least $75,000 a year)."

 

Tags: urbanindustrymanufacturinglabor, economic, NYC, Washington DC. Boston.

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Tom Cockburn's curator insight, December 13, 2016 3:54 AM
UK wealth is in South East
Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, December 18, 2016 12:00 AM

Influences on settlement patterns. 

Where is Australia's population concentrated? 

Syllabus
Students investigate differences in urban settlement patterns between Australia and another country, for example:
- examination of urban settlements to determine patterns of concentration
- explanation of factors influencing urban concentration eg climate and topography, transportation networks, land use or perceptions of liveability
- assessment of the consequences of urban concentrations on the characteristics, liveability and sustainability of places


Geoworld 9 NSW
Chapter 7: Urban settlement patterns Australia and the USA
7.1 Population concentrated near coasts
7.3 Is Australia a nation of tribes?
7.4 Nature in control
7.5 Coastal colonial cities and ports
7.6 USA: Settlement, geography and history
7.7 Large cities: Contrasting patterns
7.8 Sprawling suburbs: similar patterns
7.9 Consequences of urban concentration

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The Dakota Access Pipeline Map

The Dakota Access Pipeline Map | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Thousands of Native Americans and their allies have gathered on unceded Sioux land delimited by the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie to try and stand in the way of the “black snake” that could poison the Standing Rock Reservation’s water supply. Many have noted that the pipeline corridor was repositioned from its original route north of Bismarck after white citizens spoke up against the threat a spill would pose to their drinking water ― a threat duly recognized by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Yet the Corps failed its federal mandate for meaningful consultation with the Standing Rock Tribe before signing off on a route that moved the pipeline to their doorstep."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Maps can tell truths, and maps can be used to obscure other truths. Creating a map, choosing what data to include (and exclude) is an inherently political act.  Maps have the power to convey geographic perspectives that might otherwise be muted.

 

Tags: industryconflict, economic, energy, resources, environmentindigenous, ecology.

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Liz Caughlin's curator insight, November 4, 2016 12:03 PM
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The Environmental Cost of Consumption

The Environmental Cost of Consumption | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Environmental artist J Henry Fair captures the beauty and destruction of industrial sites to illustrate the hidden impacts of the things we buy – the polluted air, destroyed habitats and the invisible carbon heating the planet
Seth Dixon's insight:

This artistic portrayal shows the extent of the massive modifications we've made to the landscape with some striking examples.  Pictured above is one of 17 images in this article that promotes the launch of the new book entitled, Industrial Scars: the Environmental Cost of Consumption.  In the image above we see mountaintop coal mining in West Virginia.  "This lonely stand of trees disappeared in barely a day. The small bulldozer on the upper level pushes loose material down to the loader, which scoops it up into the next earth mover in line, which will in turn dump it into a nearby ‘valley fill’, burying the stream there." This might be the most beautiful and ugly set of images that you'll see today. 

 

Tags: pollution, industry, sustainability, images, art, landscape, unit 6 industry.

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Sally Egan's curator insight, October 30, 2016 6:28 PM
Photographic essay illustrates the impacts of human use of resources. The beautiful images illustrate the extreme impact on the environment.
Sally Egan's curator insight, October 30, 2016 6:30 PM
Photographic essay illustrates the impact of human activity on environments.
Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, November 16, 2016 5:37 PM

Production and consumption - interconnections and consequences 

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Dakota Access Pipeline: What You Need to Know

Dakota Access Pipeline: What You Need to Know | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Conflict between Native American protesters and private security personnel over construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline has turned violent. What is the Dakota Access Pipeline?

 

Tags: industryconflict, economic, energy, resources, environmentindigenous, ecology.

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How Does it Grow? Garlic

Telling the stories of our food from field to fork.
Episode Two: Peeling back the layers of nature's most powerful superfood.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This 5-minute video is a good introduction to garlic, it's production, environmental requirements, nutritional profile and diffusion.  Historically, garlic was far more important than I ever imagined.  The geography of food goes far beyond the kitchen and there are many more episodes in the "How Does it Grow?" series to show that.

 

Tags: foodeconomicfood production, agribusiness, industryvideo, agriculture.

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Edward Russell's curator insight, September 12, 5:15 AM
interesting little video
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Amazon Is Building a Colossal Warehouse Where America's Biggest Mall Once Stood

Amazon Is Building a Colossal Warehouse Where America's Biggest Mall Once Stood | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The Seattle-based internet book seller Amazon just announced plans to open an enormous fulfillment center in the North Randall, Ohio. This is a big deal for the small community which has suffered greatly since the Randall Park Mall, once the largest in America, shut down due to retail sales moving online. Amazon is actually building its new warehouse on the same land where the mall once stood. The irony of this is lost on no one."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Questions to Ponder: Where is the geography in this new development?  What economic forces are shaping and reshaping places?

 

Tagseconomicindustry, laborglobalizationplace, transportation.

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"The Last of the Free Seas"

"The Last of the Free Seas" | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The Last of the Free Seas is the title of this fantastic map of the Great Lakes made by Boris Artzbasheff.  It was published in Fortune Magazine in July 1940."

Seth Dixon's insight:

The inland waterways were absolutely critical to the demographic and economic development of the eastern part of the United States, especially from 1820-1940.  Before World War II, Great Lakes shipping exceeded the tonnage of U.S. Pacific Coast shipping (see hi-res map here). World War II and the beginning of the Cold War led to a consolidation of naval power for the United States and its allies, greatly expanding Pacific shipping trade and spurring fast-developing economies countries. 

 

Great Lakes shipping dramatically declined, in part because steel production has gone to lower-cost producers that were connected to the U.S. economy through the expanded trade.  Some could see irony since the steel warships created from the Great Lakes manufacturing enabled expanded Pacific and Atlantic trade that led to the decline of Great Lakes manufacturing and regional struggles in the rust belt.  Still, more than 200 million tons of cargo, mostly iron ore, coal, and grain, travel across the Great Lakes annually.

 

This deindustrialization clearly is a huge economic negative but the environmental impacts for lakeside communities has been enormous.  Industrial emissions in the watershed and shipping pollution in the lakes went down as waterfowl populations returned and more waterfront property became swimmable again.  Still this map of the environmental stress on the Great Lakes shows they are far from pristine.    

 

Tagsenvironment, historicalwater, resources, transportation, industry, economicregions, globalization.

 

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PIRatE Lab's curator insight, August 8, 9:08 PM
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Pro Wrestling and Economic Restructuring

"For decades, professional wrestling in North America operated under a system of informally defined 'territories.' Each territory represented an individual promotion with its own stable of talent that drew crowds to local arenas and broadcast the product on regional television stations. In 1982, Vince McMahon purchased his father's company, the World Wrestling Federation. For almost two decades, he endured an epic conquest of the pro wrestling world that led to where he is today: standing tall as the undisputed king of the industry."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This may seem like a strange video for geography educators and students.  In one sense, the history of a wrestling entertainment business is trivial, but this provides a great example of how using economies of scale can overcome regional advantages as new technologies enter the market.  Maybe is not a 'real' sport, but the example of wrestling might pique a few students' interest as the economic principles are made manifest. 

 

Questions to Ponder: How do emerging technologies lead to economic disruption?  Why was regional systems so prevalent in the 1950s and1960s?  If Vince McMahon didn't pursue this plan, would there still be smaller, regional wrestling organizations?  Why or why not? 

 

Tags: regions, economic, diffusiontechnologysport, industry

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The Fallacy of Endless Economic Growth

The Fallacy of Endless Economic Growth | Geography Education | Scoop.it
What economists around the world get wrong about the future.

 

The idea that economic growth can continue forever on a finite planet is the unifying faith of industrial civilization. That it is nonsensical in the extreme, a deluded fantasy, doesn't appear to bother us. We hear the holy truth in the decrees of elected officials, in the laments of economists about flagging GDP, in the authoritative pages of opinion, in the whirligig of advertising, at the World Bank and on Wall Street, in the prospectuses of globe-spanning corporations and in the halls of the smallest small-town chambers of commerce. Growth is sacrosanct. Growth will bring jobs and income, which allow us entry into the state of grace known as affluence, which permits us to consume more, providing more jobs for more people producing more goods and services so that the all-mighty economy can continue to grow. "Growth is our idol, our golden calf," Herman Daly, an economist known for his anti-growth heresies, told me recently.

 

Tagsop-ed, economicindustry, sustainability, development, consumption, climate change, environment, resources.

 

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Long-time Iowa farm cartoonist fired after creating this cartoon

Long-time Iowa farm cartoonist fired after creating this cartoon | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Rick Friday has been giving farmers a voice and a laugh every Friday for two decades through his cartoons in Farm News.
Now the long-time Iowa farm cartoonist tells KCCI that he has been fired. Friday announced Sunday that his job was over after 21 years in a Facebook post that has since gone viral."

Seth Dixon's insight:

There are some intriguing layers connected to the politics of agribusiness in this story.  First off, the political cartoon highlights a pithy truth--that while the 'traditional' farmer is a lucrative position, in the global economy, there are corporations that are amassing fortunes in agribusiness.  The second connection is more telling--the newspaper company felt compelled to fire the cartoonist as for voicing this perspective as the newspaper advertisers flexed their pocketbooks to change the direction of the news being reported.  

 

Tags: agriculture, food production, agribusiness, foodeconomicindustry, scale, media

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Ship to shore: tracking the maritime motorways

Ship to shore: tracking the maritime motorways | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"It is estimated that 97 per cent of all trade – the things we buy in shops – will have been transported in containers by ships at sea. The container vessel, stacked high with uniformly-sized metal boxes, has become a symbol of our globalized world. This is a world of imports and exports, a world where moving things across huge distances keeps the price of daily commodities low as items are manufactured in one place, then packaged in another, before arriving on the shores where they will eventually be sold. In recent geographical literature, attention has turned to the world at sea – a space traditionally overlooked. Geography means ‘Earth-writing’ and geographers have taken the origins of the term very seriously. They have written primarily about the Earth: the ground, the soil, the land. The sea is something ‘out there’ – seemingly disconnected from our everyday lives. However, an appreciation of the world as made from flows and connections has enabled geography to recognize that the sea is essential to our landed life." http://wp.me/p2Ij6x-5DS

 

Tags: transportation, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

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Ivan Ius's curator insight, February 19, 3:38 PM
Geographic Concepts: Patterns and Trends, Geographic Perspective, Interrelationships
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Providence area sees biggest shift away from manufacturing jobs in US

Providence area sees biggest shift away from manufacturing jobs in US | Geography Education | Scoop.it

A new study illustrates just how drastically employment has plunged in Rhode Island’s historic industrial base over recent decades. Since 1980, the Providence metropolitan area has experienced the largest shift in the country away from manufacturing jobs and into work requiring college degrees, according to a paper by Stephan Whitaker, a research economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. “In 1980, 40% of workers in the Providence metro area worked in manufacturing and 25% worked in degree-intensive fields,” Whitaker writes. “By 2014, manufacturing had dropped to just 11%, and degree-intensive jobs had risen to 47%.”

 

Tags: urbanindustrymanufacturinglabor, economic, Rhode Island.

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The Final Days Of Hawaiian Sugar

The Final Days Of Hawaiian Sugar | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The sugar industry in Hawaii dominated the state's economy for over a century. But it has shrunk in recent years. Now, the last of the state's sugar mills has wrapped up its final harvest.
Seth Dixon's insight:

I grew up hearing commercials that sold the purity of the Hawaiian sugar Industry (C & H, Pure Sugar, that's the one!).  These commercials sold not just the purity of Hawaii's sugar, but also of the people and the place.  These commercials were some of my first geographic imaginings of an exotic tropical paradise on the peripheral edge of the United States.  Just like the imagined tropical bliss, the actual sugar industry of Hawaii is also coming to an end.  "For over a century, the sugar industry dominated Hawaii's economy. But that changed in recent decades as the industry struggled to keep up with the mechanization in mills on mainland U.S. That and rising labor costs have caused Hawaii's sugar mills to shut down, shrinking the industry to this one last mill."   

 

Tags: industrymanufacturinglabor, economic, agribusiness, agriculture.

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Bonnie Bracey Sutton's curator insight, December 20, 2016 8:22 AM
Industries change..
Jane Ellingson's curator insight, December 20, 2016 9:42 AM
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The Spice Trade's Legacy

The Spice Trade's Legacy | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"In its day, the spice trade was the world’s biggest industry. It established and destroyed empires and helped the Europeans (who were looking for alternate routes to the east) map the globe through their discovery of new continents. What was once tightly controlled by the Arabs for centuries was now available throughout Europe with the establishment of the Ocean Spice Trade route connecting Europe directly to South Asia (India) and South East Asia."

Seth Dixon's insight:

The spice trade changed how we eat forever but it did so much more.  The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire cut off Europe from the vital trade routes to the east and access to the most prized commodities of the day.  What drove European exploration to get around Africa and to cross the Atlantic?  It was to reshape their situation location relative to the economic networks that shaped the emerging global economy.  In essence, the spice trade reshaped the fortunes and trajectories of several major world regions.   

 

Tags: Southeast Asia, food productiondiffusionglobalization, agriculture, economicindustry, economic, historical, regions.

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Liz Caughlin's curator insight, November 21, 2016 7:45 PM
Spice trade and connections with diffusion of Islam
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Germany reunified 26 years ago, but some divisions are still strong

Germany reunified 26 years ago, but some divisions are still strong | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"While 75 percent of Germans who live in the east said that they considered their country's reunification a success, only half of western Germans agreed. With eastern and western Germans blaming each other for past mistakes over the past two years, that frustration has likely increased. Younger citizens, especially — who do not usually identify themselves with their area of origin as strongly anymore — have grown worried about the persistent skepticism on both sides. But where do those divisions come from? And how different are eastern and western Germany today?"

Seth Dixon's insight:

This series of 10 maps (and 1 satellite image) highlights many of the cultural and economic divisions between East and West, despite efforts to in the last 26 years to smooth out these discrepancies. The social geographies imposed by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall are still being felt from this relic border and will for years to come. 

 

Tags: Germany, industry, laboreconomichistorical, politicalborders.

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Jeremy Hansen's curator insight, November 1, 2016 11:25 AM
Seth Dixon's insight: This series of 10 maps (and 1 satellite image) highlights many of the cultural and economic divisions between East and West, despite efforts to in the last 26 years to smooth out these discrepancies. The social geographies imposed by the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall are still being felt from this relic border and will for years to come.
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Growth of underwater cables that power the web

Growth of underwater cables that power the web | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The map above, created with data from Telegeography, shows how those cables have developed since 1990. Most existing cables were constructed during a period of rapid growth in the mid-2000’s. This was followed by a gap of several years during which companies steadily exhausted the available capacity. Over the last few years, explosive new demand, driven by streaming video, has once again jumpstarted the the construction of new cables."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Twenty years ago, people were still connecting to the internet with a dial-up connection through their modem (if you don't know what that sounds like, this was once the sound of interconnectivity).  People focus on cell phones, tablets, and cool gadgets when discussing the digital transformation of globalization, but it all rests on the infrastructure of the global connectivity that is mapped out here.  Even still, global trade rests on the back of container ships moving manufactured goods from far-flung factories to major markets.

 

Tags: technology, globalization, diffusion, industry, economic.

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Sally Egan's curator insight, October 26, 2016 5:58 PM
Interconnections
ROCAFORT's curator insight, October 28, 2016 2:48 AM
Growth of underwater cables that power the web
Lee Hancock's curator insight, November 1, 2016 5:42 PM

Telecommunication linkages between continents, regions and cities. Note the strength of the trans-atlantic connections. These communication linkages enable communication between these areas.