Uluru is easily the most iconic natural landform in Australia, and its formation was equally special. The creation of Uluru and Kata Tjuta — as both were formed at the same time — began over 500 million years ago.
At this time the big crustal blocks that form the Australian continent coming together. A block called the Musgrave Province pushed up from the south creating mountains — the Petermann Ranges — in an event called the Petermann Orogeny (an orogeny is a mountain-building event.)
When they first formed, the Petermann Ranges were a high mountain range more like the Alps or the Himalayas. Today, we can only see the 'nubs' or 'roots' of this once mighty range, says Dr Marita Bradshaw, a geologist with Geosciences Australia.