Although women make up 40% of the global workforce, they hold only 24% of senior management roles around the world — a figure that has not changed significantly over the past decade. Of chief executive officers of S&P 500 firms, only about 5% are women. Why aren’t more talented women moving up? Researchers have pointed to an array of reasons, from explicit discrimination to promotion processes that quietly favor men, but one of the most perplexing is that women themselves aren’t as likely as men to put themselves forward for leadership roles through promotions, job transfers, and high-profile assignments.
Women begin their careers with ambitions that are just as high as their male peers, but before long they scale back their goals and shy away from competing for these jobs. The reason, many assume, is because women are risk averse or lack confidence, or maybe because they have different career preferences than their male colleagues do. But our research suggests another reason.
We recently conducted a study of more than 10,000 senior executives who were competing for top management jobs in the UK. We found that women were indeed less likely than men to apply for these jobs, but here’s the interesting part: We found that women were much less likely to apply for a job if they had been rejected for a similar job in the past. Of course, men were also less likely to apply if they had been rejected, but the effect was much stronger for women — more than 1.5 times as strong.
The implications here are not trivial, because rejection is a routine part of corporate life. Employees regularly get rejected for promotions, job transfers, important project assignments, and so on. To reach the top of the organization, people need to keep playing the game, over and over again, even after repeated disappointments. So even small differences between how men and women respond to rejection could lead to big differences over time.
To investigate this effect further, we interviewed top women executives about their experiences in recruitment processes and found a common complaint: dissatisfaction and frustration with how those processes were managed. For example, the CFO of a biotech company recalled that she had been considered for a CEO position. After failing to get the job after many rounds of interviews, she had been left with the impression that she was asked to apply merely because she was female and the firm needed a woman on the shortlist — not because the company was serious about hiring her. This may or may not have been true, but that’s the impression she had, and as a result she said she would be unlikely to put herself through a similar process in the future.
This was not an isolated anecdote. We heard many similar stories in our interviews, and results from a survey and randomized experiment conducted with executives confirmed that female managers weren’t dropping out after being rejected because of risk aversion or a lack of confidence. It’s not that they didn’t think they were good enough; they were withdrawing from the corporate race because of concerns that they would not be valued or truly accepted at the highest levels in the organization. Often that feeling was a result of the way hiring and promotion processes were being managed (or mismanaged), sending women subtle (and sometimes overt) signals that the highest rungs of the corporate ladder were intended only for men.
In line with these findings, we discovered that women tend to place greater weight than men do on the fairness of the recruitment and selection processes. This is because fair treatment is interpreted by female managers as a signal that they belong and are accepted in the executive community. Moreover, women who are rejected tend to perceive their treatment as less fair than men do.
While this could sound to some like sour grapes (e.g., “I didn’t win, therefore the contest was rigged”) our findings suggest something subtler. Women’s decisions to remove themselves from competition after having been rejected is driven partly by their experience of being a negatively stereotyped minority in the executive labor market. Think about it — women executives were coming to the table with past experiences of being in the minority, and they may have been in situations in which they felt like outsiders or felt that their leadership ability wasn’t recognized. Because the majority of men had generally not been subject to these same situations, men were less likely to take rejection as a signal that they did not belong in the corner offices, and therefore such disappointments had less of a negative impact on their willingness to apply again.
And, by the way, this same underlying mechanism should apply to any underrepresented group. In other words, what we found is not that there’s something unique about women; it’s that women are a minority, and minorities are often not perceived as legitimate leaders. Indeed, we would expect that men would behave in the same way in contexts where they were seen as illegitimate or outsiders.
These results have important managerial implications. For any company wanting to improve its gender diversity at the senior levels, the most important thing is to avoid the temptation to solely focus on encouraging more women to throw their hat into the ring. That approach misses the mark because it doesn’t address the underlying problem that female executives may feel that the company doesn’t truly believe that they belong in top management. This can be true whether or not the organization is actually contributing to that feeling. In fact, issuing blanket encouragements to women to apply for leadership positions could even backfire if it means the company ends up rejecting more women. Our research suggests this will make those women less likely to apply for similar jobs in the future, compounding the company’s gender problem.
Companies must take a hard look at their recruiting and promotion processes to assess whether they are indeed fair — and, just as important, whether those processes are perceived to be fair, especially by women and other minorities. A series of questions can help make that determination: Does the company have the right procedures in place to manage rejection in recruitment and promotion processes? For example, does it give appropriate feedback to candidates who are rejected? What signals is it sending to both men and women who are rejected? Companies need to look beyond recruitment and promotion and ask themselves whether they foster a sense of belonging and how they can ensure that underrepresented groups don’t feel overlooked or slighted. By addressing any deficiencies in the above, firms can begin to chip away at their glass ceilings. After all, when it comes to gender diversity, it’s not so much a matter of getting women to lean in; it’s more a matter of preventing them from leaning out.
Members of a state parole board panel recommended that Marty Don Spears, the ringleader among four teens convicted in the 1979 murders of Phillip and Kathy Ranzo in Modesto, be released over objections by victims’ family members, others. Gov. Brown has 90 days to review the decision and either allow it to stand or deny it.
Police in southeastern Kentucky say officers shot a woman brandishing a handgun after she allegedly killed her husband and two teenage daughters at their home.
Whitley County Sheriff Colan Harrell says officers were called to the home of Larry and Courtney Taylor Friday night after a relative went there to check on the family.
Harrell told The Lexington Herald-Leader that 41-year-old Courtney Taylor pointed a gun at two deputies who arrived at the home. One of the deputies shot her. She was taken to University of Kentucky Chandler Hospital with life-threatening injuries. Her condition was not known Saturday afternoon.
Police found three people dead inside the home, Larry Taylor, 51, and the couple's two teenage daughters.
Harrell says the family members had been dead for several hours before being found.
It's a disturbing notion, but much about Sidnei Ramis de Araújo is hardly unusual, when it comes to gender-based violence.
His father described him as “a sweet person, who never smoked or drank.” As anthropologist Debora Diniz pointed out in a op-ed for Brasil Post (Brazil's version of The Huffington Post), “madness does not explain the misogynistic fantasies in the killer’s mind” — even if he was a “psychopath.” Diniz added: “Sidnei killed because he couldn’t stand the break-up or the law enforcement against his patriarchal abuse, because he lost his domestic domain as the sovereign.”
And Sidnei was not alone. After the news of the massacre broke out, several people tried to “make sense” of the killer’s motives. Some even justified his actions. This time without satire, the parody website Sensacionalista published several comments circulating online in support of the shooter:
A woman who reported to authorities that she performed a sexual favor to avoid a ticket after being pulled over in Jefferson County has confessed she fabricated the story, police say.
There was no sexual favor, and in fact, she wasn’t pulled over that day, according to Jefferson County Sheriff David L. Marshak. He said authorities spent more than 160 man-hours investigating her claim before she admitted fabricating the story.
The woman, Brenda L. Hawkins, of Arnold, was charged Thursday with making a false report. She was being held in lieu of $1,000, cash-only bail.
“UPS Freight is in a unique position to help identify traffickers and trafficking victims by educating our drivers and management on this epidemic impacting our local communities,” Rich McArdle, president of UPS Freight, said in the release. “We are proud to take a stand in fighting human trafficking and look forward to working with Truckers Against Trafficking on this initiative that will save lives.”
Training is taking place on site around the country, Ross said. Each UPS driver also receives a wallet card that contains helpful phone numbers and instructs drivers what to do if they identify trafficking on the road. The card also identifies "trafficking red flags," which include a person who:
exhibits restricted or controlled communication has a disheveled appearance or is crying is a minor traveling without adult supervision does not know the person who is picking them up
Ashland, Ore. – The father of a 12-year-old Ashland boy who allegedly killed his mother and wounded his sister took to Facebook addressing the attack. Ashland Police said Pamela Wolosz was fatally stabbed by her own son on Tuesday. The 12-year-old also... #ashland #ashlandhomicide #ashlandmurder
She signed up for a seven-hour firearms training course the next day.
But before she ever made it to her class, Strobel stormed back into her life in a hail of gunfire, seriously wounding Almeida and killing another man before dying in a shootout with police.
His violent last act fit a lifelong pattern of abuse and manipulation of women. Strobel’s first marriage collapsed after he sexually assaulted his mother-in-law, then threatened to kill his estranged wife if she didn’t return to him. In two relationships between 1991 and 2001, Strobel assaulted the women after they broke up with him. Goulet, his most recent romantic relationship, was victimized by Strobel in 2010, when he choked her while intoxicated during an argument.
To the people who knew him, Strobel was obviously dangerous, yet each new criminal charge against him resulted in minor jail time. His strategy was simple: Cut a deal with prosecutors, plead guilty quickly and do minimal jail time. Don’t give the cops or the courts a reason to probe deeper into his criminal history. And it worked.
A FEW years ago it looked like the curse that would never lift. In China, north India and other parts of Asia, ever more girls were being destroyed by their parents. Many were detected in utero by ultrasound scans and aborted; others died young as a result of neglect; some were murdered.
AZIZ OSMANOGLU and his wife Sehabat Kocabas were both born in Turkey around 40 years ago, but they are long-standing residents of the city of Basel. Mr Osmanoglu migrated to Switzerland at the age of 10, but later moved back to pursue advanced Islamic studies in his homeland, where he met his spouse. Eventually, he brought her to Basel.
For many years, the couple has been in dispute with the local authorities over whether or not their two older daughters, born in 1999 and 2001, should have been obliged to take part in mixed swimming along with the other boys and girls when they were at primary school. In 2010 they were obliged to pay 1400 Swiss Francs (about as many American dollars) as a penalty for keeping their daughters away from sessions at the pool.
This week, the European Court of Human Rights gave its verdict on the case. It upheld the right of the regional authorities of Basel to impose the fine, vindicating the view of the Swiss government. Any infringement of the family's religious freedom was over-ridden by the authorities’ right and duty to provide children with basic education, the judges found. This included imparting the ability not only to swim but to live together in a cohesive society. As the verdict noted, “in the [Swiss] government’s view, if it was only a question of learning to swim, compulsory lessons would stop as soon as all pupils were able to swim...[But] the very fact of engaging in this activity together with other pupils is an important element of the course...” A significant feature of the case was that the school authorities had gone some way to accommodate the family’s sensitivities: they agreed that the girls could wear a head-to-toe burkini (the garment which caused uproar on French beaches last summer) and change in a strictly gender-segregated area.
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