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Smaller, faster, greener "high-rise" 3D chips are ready for Big Data

Smaller, faster, greener "high-rise" 3D chips are ready for Big Data | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Stanford engineers have pioneered a new design for a scalable 3D computer chip that tightly interconnects logic and memory, with the effect of minimizing data bottlenecks and saving on energy usage.
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Astrocytes, The Brain's Lesser Known Cells, Get Some Cognitive Respect

"What I thought quite unique was the idea that astrocytes, traditionally considered only guardians and supporters of neurons and other cells, are also involved in the processing of information and in other cognitive behavior," says Verma, a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics and American Cancer Society Professor.

Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "It's not that astrocytes are quick—they're still slower than neurons. But the new evidence suggests that astrocytes are actively supplying the right environment for gamma waves to occur, which in turn makes the brain more likely to learn and change the strength of its neuronal connections."

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Different Facets of Memory - BrainFacts.org

Different Facets of Memory - BrainFacts.org | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
From remembering a friend's face to figuring out where you left your keys, the act of memory has many dimensions.
Sharrock's insight:

There are different kinds of memory: "Different areas and systems of the brain are responsible for different kinds of memory. The hippocampus, parahippocampal region, and areas of the cerebral cortex (including the prefrontal cortex) work together to support declarative, or cognitive, memory. Different forms of nondeclarative, or behavioral, memory are supported by the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum." 

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33rd Square: Prototype Holographic Memory Device Created

33rd Square: Prototype Holographic Memory Device Created | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Researchers have demonstrated a holographic memory device that could improve storage capacity and processing capabilities in electronics.
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33rd Square: Major Cause of Age-Related Memory Loss Identified

The results of a new study points to possible treatments and confirms distinction between memory loss due to aging and that of Alzheimer's.
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Study Identifies New Player in Brain Function and Memory

Study Identifies New Player in Brain Function and Memory | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Memory recall and brain function improves when FXR1P is removed, a new study reports.
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Nine Scientific Pioneers Receive the 2014 Kavli Prizes | The Kavli Foundation

Nine Scientific Pioneers Receive the 2014 Kavli Prizes | The Kavli Foundation | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

Nine pioneering scientists have been named this year’s recipients of the Kavli Prizes – prizes that recognize scientists for their seminal advances in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. This year’s laureates were selected for pioneering the theory of cosmic inflation, for transformative contributions to the field of nano-optics and for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition.

 
Sharrock's insight:

My main interest is in the neuroscience fields: "The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience is shared between Brenda Milner, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada, John O’Keefe, University College London, UK, andMarcus E. Raichle, Washington University in St.Louis School of Medicine, USA. They receive the prize “for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition”.

The recipients of the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience have all played major roles in advancing our understanding of memory and in the development of techniques to measure the brain. They have discovered that these functions are produced by specialized systems in the brain, which they analysed through a variety of research approaches. They have found the specific regions of the brain that are involved in memory, and how specialized nerve cells perform different roles.

The higher cognitive functions of our brains such as attention, memory, and planning are crucial to create our rich mental lives: memory is essential for humans, from the recognition of where we are, through learning new skills, to being able to recall events. In humans memory can be said to define who we are, and we know that loss of memory can have devastating effects on an individual’s personality. Knowing how memory function should work in healthy people could open the door to understanding what has changed in patients with dementia and memory loss."

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Neuron Light Switch Now Goes “On” and “Off” | MIT Technology Review

Neuron Light Switch Now Goes “On” and “Off” | MIT Technology Review | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
A new optogenetic protein gives neuroscientists more control over brain circuits.

 

Optogenetics is a recent innovation in neuroscience that gives researchers the ability to control the activity of neurons with light. With this powerful tool, researchers are teasing apart the biological basis of memory, behavior, and disease (see “Scientists Make Mice ‘Remember’ Things That Didn’t Happen” and “An On-Off Switch for Anxiety,”). But for the first several years of this technology’s existence, the proteins that scientists added to neurons to make them react to light were only good at activating neurons. That limited researchers’ ability to understand neuronal circuits, sets of interconnected neurons that are thought to control behavior and, when misfiring, to underlie many brain conditions. Problems can arise from any imbalance in circuit activity, whether too much or too little. 


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How Quantum Computers and Machine Learning Will Revolutionize Big Data - Wired Science

How Quantum Computers and Machine Learning Will Revolutionize Big Data - Wired Science | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

since 2005, many of the gains in computing power have come from adding more parallelism via multiple cores, with multiple levels of memory. The preferred architecture no longer features a single central processing unit (CPU) augmented with random access memory (RAM) and a hard drive for long-term storage. Even the big, centralized parallel supercomputers that dominated the 1980s and 1990s are giving way to distributed data centers and cloud computing, often networked across many organizations and vast geographical distances.

Sharrock's insight:

“Processing speed has been completely irrelevant for five years,” Boyd said. “The challenge is not how to solve problems with a single, ultra-fast processor, but how to solve them with 100,000 slower processors.”

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