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How Languages and Genes Evolve Together

How Languages and Genes Evolve Together | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Goran Tomasevic/Reuters As human populations disperse, the separation leads to changes both in genes and in language. So if we look at human DNA and languages over time, we should find that they differ along similar geographic lines.
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From whales to larvae, study finds common principles at work in swimming

From whales to larvae, study finds common principles at work in swimming | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

"The basic relationship we wanted to understand was how the input variables – namely the size of the organism, the amount an organism moves and how quickly it moves – control the output variable, which is effectively the speed at which it moves," Mahadevan explained. "What we found is that there is a specific relationship, which can be described by in terms of a simple scaling law with two limits."...

 

...Armed with those observations, Mahadevan and colleagues turned to a host of empirical observations that had been made over the past 50-plus years. When those data were plotted on a graph, the researchers found that the swimming speed of virtually every organism, from fish larvae to frogs to birds, amphibians and even whales, could be described by one of the two equations.



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-09-whales-larvae-common-principles.html#jCp

Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "The first, which corresponds to creatures moving at intermediate speeds, describes situations where the bulk of the resistance is caused by skin friction, because water "sticks" to the organism's body. At faster speeds, Mahadevan said, the resistance organisms face largely comes from pressure that builds up in front of and around them, which is described by the second limit."

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Secrets of the Creative Brain

Secrets of the Creative Brain | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
A leading neuroscientist who has spent decades studying creativity shares her research on where genius comes from, whether it is dependent on high IQ—and why it is so often accompanied by mental illness. 
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DNA of Oldest Flowering Plant Solves Darwin's Evolution Mystery

DNA of Oldest Flowering Plant Solves Darwin's Evolution Mystery | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
One of Darwin's mysteries may have been solved thanks to the sequenced genome of the Amborella plant. Scientists have discovered why flowers suddenly proliferated on Earth millions of years ago.

Via Pamela D Lloyd
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Pamela D Lloyd's curator insight, December 24, 2013 4:55 AM

We are learning so much about our world and how it has developed through the study of genomics, as indicated by researcher Brad Barbazuk's comment on the sequencing of the Amborella plant, "This work provides the first global insight as to how flowering plants are genetically different from all other plants on Earth."

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Cancer therapies likely to improve with new insights into DNA repair process


Via Heather Swift
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Heather Swift's curator insight, October 3, 2013 10:10 PM

Cancer therapies likely to improve with new insights into DNA repair process
By detailing a process required for repairing DNA breakage, scientists at the Duke Cancer Institute have gained a better understanding of how cells deal with the barrage of damage that can contribute to cancer and other diseases.

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dbGaP - The Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes

dbGaP - The Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) was developed to archive and distribute the results of studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Frontiers | Handedness genetics: considering the phenotype | Movement Science and Sport Psychology

The question which genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors contribute to human handedness certainly is one of the central questions in research on manual asymmetries. A number of environmenta...
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Genetically engineered pig hearts survived more than a year in baboon abdomens

Genetically engineered pig hearts survived more than a year in baboon abdomens | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

The heart didn't beat for the baboon, but it did overcome the risk of organ rejection.

 

By breeding piglets with a few choice human genes, scientists were able to create sort-of-pig hearts that seem to be compatible with primate hosts. The organ wasn't used as a heart, but was instead grafted into the abdomen of an otherwise healthy baboon. After over a year, the best of the hearts are still living, viable organs. Next stop, the chest cavity!

 

Researchers at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health will publish their results in the September issue of The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, though their findings were discussed several months ago at a conference. According to the study, the researchers experimented with different degrees of genetic modification in the pigs. They prevented all of the piglets from producing certain enzymes known to cause organ rejection in baboons (and, by extension, humans) but were given different gene alterations to keep blood from clotting, which is another common issue.

 

The most successful group had the human thrombomodulin gene added to their genomes. The expression of this gene prevented clotting, lead investigator Muhammad M. Mohiuddin said in a statement. While the average survival of the other groups were 70 days, 21 days and 80 days, the thrombomodulin group survived an average of 200 days in the baboon abdomen. And three of the five grafts in the group were still alive at 200 to 500 days since their grafting, when the study was submitted for review.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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5 Things You Didn't Know About Milk

5 Things You Didn't Know About Milk | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
The strange, the technological, and the cultural history of milk.
Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "then and now, organic or conventional, raw or pasteurized, pure milk is neither wholly a product of nature nor wholly dependent on human labor and technologies. Milk purity requires the action of human forces and technology, like refrigeration and inspection, and nonhuman ones, such as the grasses that power cows’ bodies and the bulls that impregnate them."

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Mark Lynas: truth, treachery and GM food

Mark Lynas: truth, treachery and GM food | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Mark Lynas spent years destroying genetically modified crops in the name of the environment. Now he's told the world that he was wrong. So why did he change his mind?
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Monsanto buys big data weather company to boost yields and profit

Monsanto buys big data weather company to boost yields and profit | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Agriculture giant Monsanto has announced acquisition of the Climate Corporation, a climate data research company, expecting that its info will help farmers maximize crop yields with fewer resources.

Via Plant Breeding and Genomics News
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Research | Columbia News

Research | Columbia News | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

A human nose has the remarkable ability to distinguish among more than 10,000 smells. How it does that was long an enigma until University Professor Richard Axel and his researchers discovered a pool of more than 1,000 different genes that encode olfactory receptors in the nose. This is believed to be the largest gene family in the human genome.

 
Sharrock's insight:

from the article: "His research with Buck combined molecular genetics with neuroscience in order to approach the previously tenuous relationship between genes, perception and behavior. They asked how the brain builds an internal representation of the external sensory world and how the recognition of olfactory stimuli might lead to meaningful thoughts and behaviors."

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Scientists untangle connection between genes, behavior - Boston Globe

Scientists untangle connection between genes, behavior - Boston Globe | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Boston Globe Scientists untangle connection between genes, behavior Boston Globe For years, scientists have been trying to untangle the complicated connections between genes and behavior, knowing that just as DNA gives rise to physical traits, it...
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