Fungicide Hormesis
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Molecular basis of fungicide resistance
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Clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages

Clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. Here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster comprised of duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the CCA gene cluster, trace its evolution across Ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the FOSC), a cosmopolitan clade of purportedly clonal vascular wilt plant pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal cyanase and carbonic anhydrase genes reveals that the CCA gene cluster arose independently at least twice and is now present in three lineages, namely Cochliobolus lunatus, Oidiodendron maius and the FOSC. Genome-wide surveys within the FOSC indicate that the CCA gene cluster varies in copy number across isolates, is always located on accessory chromosomes, and is absent in FOSC's closest relatives. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the CCA gene cluster in 163 FOSC strains from a wide variety of hosts suggests a recent history of rampant transfers between isolates. We hypothesize that the independent formation of the CCA gene cluster in different fungal lineages and its spread across FOSC strains may be associated with resistance to plant-produced cyanates or to use of cyanate fungicides in agriculture.


Via Melvin Bolton
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51

Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51 | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Fungal diseases are an increasing global burden. Fungi are now recognised to kill more people annually than malaria, whilst in agriculture, fungi threaten crop yields and food security. Azoleresistance, mediated by several mechanisms including point mutations in the target enzyme (CYP51), is increasing through selection pressure as a result of widespread use of triazole fungicides in agriculture and triazole antifungal drugs in the clinic. Mutations similar to those seen in clinical isolates as long ago as the 1990s in Candida albicans and later in Aspergillus fumigatushave been identified in agriculturally important fungal species and also wider combinations of point mutations. Recently, evidence that mutations originate in the field and now appear in clinical infections has been suggested. This situation is likely to increase in prevalence as triazole fungicide use continues to rise. Here, we review the progress made in understanding azole resistance found amongst clinically and agriculturally important fungal species focussing on resistance mechanisms associated with CYP51. Biochemical characterisation of wild-type and mutant CYP51 enzymes through ligand binding studies and azole IC50 determinations is an important tool for understanding azole susceptibility and can be used in conjunction with microbiological methods (MIC50 values), molecular biological studies (site-directed mutagenesis) and protein modelling studies to inform future antifungal development with increased specificity for the target enzyme over the host homologue.


Via Melvin Bolton, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from The Plant Microbiome
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EM: The soil resistome: a critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria

EM: The soil resistome: a critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Soil is a large reservoir of microbial diversity and the majority of antimicrobial compounds used today in human and veterinary healthcare have been isolated from soil microorganisms. The Darwinian hypothesis of an “arms-shields race” between antibiotic producers and resistant strains is often cited to explain antibiotic resistance gene determinants (ARGD) origins and diversity. ARGD abundance and antibiotic molecule exposure are, however, not systematically linked and many other factors can contribute to resistance gene emergence, selection and dissemination in the environment. Soil is a heterogeneous habitat and represents a broad spectrum of different ecological niches. Soil harbors a large genetic diversity at small spatial scale, favoring exchange of genetic materials by means of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that will contribute to ARGD dissemination between bacteria and eventually acquisition by pathogen genomes therefore threatening antibiotic therapies. Our current knowledge on the extent of the soil resistome abundance and diversity has been greatly enhanced with since metagenomic revolution and the help of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Different ecological hypotheses explaining their high prevalence in soil and questioning their transfer rate to pathogens, in respect to these recent experimental results will be discussed in the present review.


Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Molecular basis of fungicide resistance
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Acquired Resistance to Mefenoxam in Sensitive Isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Childers et al. Phytopathology

Acquired Resistance to Mefenoxam in Sensitive Isolates of Phytophthora infestans. Childers et al. Phytopathology | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

The systemic fungicide mefenoxam has been important in the control of late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. This phenylamide fungicide has a negative effect on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA, however, the genetic basis for inherited field resistance is still not completely clear. We recently observed that a sensitive isolate became tolerant after a single passage on mefenoxam-containing medium. Further analyses revealed that all sensitive isolates tested (in three diverse genotypes) acquired this resistance equally quickly. In contrast, isolates that were “resistant” to mefenoxam in the initial assessment (stably resistant) did not increase in resistance upon further exposure. However, there appeared to be a cost associated with acquired resistance in the initially sensitive isolates, in that isolates with acquired resistance grew more slowly on mefenoxam-free medium than did the same isolates that had never been exposed to mefenoxam. The acquired resistance of the sensitive isolates declined slightly with subsequent culturing on medium free of mefenoxam. To investigate the mechanism of acquired resistance, we employed strand-specific RNA sequencing. Many differentially expressed genes were genotype specific, but there was a set of genes differentially expressed in all genotypes. Among these were several genes (a phospholipase “Pi-PLD-like-3”, two ATP binding cassette superfamily (ABC) transporters, and a mannitol dehydrogenase) which were up regulated and whose function might contribute to a resistance phenotype.


Via Melvin Bolton
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Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase CYP53 Family in Fungi: Comparative Structural and Evolutionary Analysis and Its Role as a Common Alternative Anti-Fungal Drug Target | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as a drug target against pathogenic microbes has been explored because of their stereo- and regio-specific oxidation activity. We aimed to assess the CYP53 family's role as a common alternative drug target against animal (including human) and plant pathogenic fungi and its role in fungal-mediated wood degradation. Genome-wide analysis of fungal species revealed the presence of CYP53 members in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. Basidiomycetes had a higher number of CYP53 members in their genomes than ascomycetes. Only two CYP53 subfamilies were found in ascomycetes and six subfamilies in basidiomycetes, suggesting that during the divergence of phyla ascomycetes lost CYP53 P450s. According to phylogenetic and gene-structure analysis, enrichment of CYP53 P450s in basidiomycetes occurred due to the extensive duplication of CYP53 P450s in their genomes. Numerous amino acids (103) were found to be conserved in the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s, against only seven in basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s. 3D-modelling and active-site cavity mapping data revealed that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s have a highly conserved protein structure whereby 78% amino acids in the active-site cavity were found to be conserved. Because of this rigid nature of ascomycetes CYP53 P450s' active site cavity, any inhibitor directed against this P450 family can serve as a common anti-fungal drug target, particularly toward pathogenic ascomycetes. The dynamic nature of basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s at a gene and protein level indicates that these P450s are destined to acquire novel functions. Functional analysis of CYP53 P450s strongly supported our hypothesis that the ascomycetes CYP53 P450s ability is limited for detoxification of toxic molecules, whereas basidiomycetes CYP53 P450s play an additional role, i.e. involvement in degradation of wood and its derived components. This study is the first report on genome-wide comparative structural (gene and protein structure-level) and evolutionary analysis of a fungal P450 family.


Via Christophe Jacquet, Steve Marek
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Webcast: Managing Fungicide Resistance in Potato

Webcast: Managing Fungicide Resistance in Potato | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Plant Health Progress, an online journal of the American
Phytopathological Society with content appropriate for all plant health practitioners.
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Botrytis fungicide-resistance survey for grape growers - Michigan State University Extension

Botrytis fungicide-resistance survey for grape growers - Michigan State University Extension | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Botrytis fungicide-resistance survey for grape growers
Michigan State University Extension
Erosion of fungicide efficacy against B. cinerea due to fungicide resistance development has been observed in other crops and regions of the United States.
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The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

The Sch9 Kinase Regulates Conidium Size, Stress Responses, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the ΔMosch9 mutant also was defective in conidiogenesis and pathogenesis. Interestingly, it also produced smaller conidia and appressoria.

 

Taken together, these data indicate that the SCH9 kinase gene may have a conserved role in regulating conidium size and plant infection in phytopathogenic ascomycetes.


Via Elsa Ballini, Steve Marek
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Materials with Fungi-Bioinspired Surface for Efficient Binding and Fungi-Sensitive Release of Antifungal Agents - Biomacromolecules (ACS Publications)

Materials with Fungi-Bioinspired Surface for Efficient Binding and Fungi-Sensitive Release of Antifungal Agents - Biomacromolecules (ACS Publications) | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from NetBiology
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Feeding 9 Billion - National Geographic

Feeding 9 Billion - National Geographic | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
“ When we think about threats to the environment, we tend to picture cars and smokestacks, not dinner. But the truth is, our need for food poses one of the biggest dangers to the planet.”
Via Mary Williams, Luisa Meira
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Higher azole rates protect SDHI fungicides - FarmersWeekly

Higher azole rates protect SDHI fungicides - FarmersWeekly | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Higher azole rates protect SDHI fungicides
FarmersWeekly
Maintaining higher rates of azole fungicide treatments will help protect vital SDHI chemistry without increasing resistance risk, according to new research.
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Autoimmunity
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Why dark chocolate is good for your health

Why dark chocolate is good for your health | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
“ Confirmed: Dark chocolate is good for your heart. Really good. What's better, scientists have discovered that people who eat 70 grams of chocolate every day increase their vascular health dramatically by "restoring flexibility to arteries and preventing white cells from sticking to the walls of blood vessels."”
Via Steven Krohn, jumoline
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Independent Emergence of Resistance to Seven Chemical Classes of Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea

Independent Emergence of Resistance to Seven Chemical Classes of Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Gray mold, caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, is one of the most destructive diseases of small fruit crops and control is largely dependent on the application of fungicides. As part of a regionwide resistance-monitoring program that investigated 1,890 B. cinerea isolates from 189 fields in 10 states of the United States, we identified 7 isolates (0.4%) from 5 locations in 4 different states with unprecedented resistance to all seven Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) codes with single-site modes of action including FRAC 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 17 registered in the U.S. for gray mold control. Resistance to thiophanate-methyl, iprodione, boscalid, pyraclostrobin and fenhexamid was based on target gene mutations that conferred E198A and F200Y in β-tubulin, I365N/S in Bos1, H272R/Y in SdhB, G143A in Cytb, and T63I and F412S in Erg27. Isolates were grouped into MDR1 and MDR1h phenotypes based on sensitivity to fludioxonil and variations in transcription factor mrr1. MDR1h isolates had a previously described 3-bp deletion at position 497 in mrr1. Expression of ABC transporter atrB was increased in MDR1 isolates but highest in MDR1h isolates. None of the isolates with 7 single resistances (SR) had identical nucleotide variations in target genes, indicating that they emerged independently. Multifungicide resistance phenotypes did not exhibit significant fitness penalties for the parameters used in this study, but MDR1h isolates produced more sclerotia at low temperatures and exhibited increased sensitivity to salt stress. In this study we show that current antiresistance management strategies have not been able to prevent the geographically independent development of resistance to all seven site-specific fungicides currently registered for gray mold control in the United States and document the presence of MDR1h in North America.

Via Melvin Bolton, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Genomes and Transcriptomes of Partners in Plant-Fungal- Interactions between Canola (Brassica napus) and Two Leptosphaeria Species

Genomes and Transcriptomes of Partners in Plant-Fungal- Interactions between Canola (Brassica napus) and Two Leptosphaeria Species | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Leptosphaeria maculans ‘brassicae’ is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus), causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa ‘canadensis’, colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys) and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa ‘canadensis’, a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans ‘brassicae’, a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans ‘brassicae’ expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans‘brassicae’ genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa ‘canadensis’ infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans ‘brassicae’ triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa‘canadensis’ infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa‘canadensis’, and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans ‘brassicae'.


Via Steve Marek
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Steve Marek's curator insight, October 6, 2014 10:15 PM

Nice genomic characterization of the two Leptosphaeria species associated with black leg of canola.

Rescooped by Carla Garzon from The Plant Microbiome
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New Phytol: Unraveling the effect of arsenic on the model Medicago–Ensifer interaction: a transcriptomic meta-analysis

New Phytol: Unraveling the effect of arsenic on the model Medicago–Ensifer interaction: a transcriptomic meta-analysis | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

    The genetic regulation underlying the effect of arsenic (As(III)) on the model symbiosis Medicago–Ensifer was investigated using a combination of physiological (split-roots), microscopy and genetic (microarrays, qRT-PCR and composite plants) tools.
    Nodulation was very sensitive to As(III) (median inhibitory dose (ID50) = 20 μM). The effect on root elongation and on nodulation was local (nonsystemic). A battery of stress (salt, drought, heat shock, metals, etc.)-related genes were induced. Glutathione played a pivotal role in tolerance/detoxification, together with secondary metabolites ((iso)flavonoids and phenylpropanoids). However, antioxidant enzymes were not activated.
    Concerning the symbiotic interaction, molecular evidence suggesting that rhizobia alleviate As stress is for the first time provided. Chalcone synthase (which is involved in the first step of the legume–rhizobia cross-talk) was strongly enhanced, suggesting that the plants are biased to establish symbiotic interactions under As(III) stress. In contrast, 13 subsequent nodulation genes (involved in nodulation factors (Nod factors) perception, infection, thread initiation and progression, and nodule morphogenesis) were repressed.
    Overexpression of the ethylene responsive factor ERN in composite plants reduced root stress and partially restored nodulation, whereas overexpression of the early nodulin ENOD12 enhanced nodulation both in the presence and, particularly, in the absence of As, without affecting root elongation. Several transcription factors were identified, which could be additional targets for genetic engineering aiming to improve nodulation and/or alleviate root stress induced by this toxic.


Via Stéphane Hacquard
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Early planting a disease risk - Weekly Times Now

Early planting a disease risk - Weekly Times Now | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Early planting a disease risk
Weekly Times Now
Particularly since fungicide options may not be cost effective in the Mallee environment, because the region generally produced lower yields.
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Resistance to QoI fungicides is widespread in Brazilian populations of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae

Resistance to QoI fungicides is widespread in Brazilian populations of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Here we report the widespread distribution of QoI resistance in M. oryzae populations sampled from wheat fields and poaceous hosts across central and southern Brazil and the evolution of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Sequence analysis of the cyt b gene distinguished nine haplotypes. The frequency of the G143A mutation in the wheat-infecting population increased from 36% in 2005 to 90% in 2012. Our findings indicate an urgent need to reexamine the use of strobilurins to manage fungal wheat diseases in Brazil.


Via Elsa Ballini, Steve Marek
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Environmental azole fungicide, Prochloraz, ca... [FEMS Yeast Res. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Organic status granted for new fungicide designed to aid apple scab control - Horticulture Week

Organic status granted for new fungicide designed to aid apple scab control - Horticulture Week | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Organic status granted for new fungicide designed to aid apple scab control
Horticulture Week
"It has a multi-site mode of action, which inhibits the chance of any resistance problems developing.
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from Molecular basis of fungicide resistance
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A pleiotropic drug resistance transporter is involved in reduced sensitivity to multiple fungicide classes in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa - Sang et al. - MPP

A pleiotropic drug resistance transporter is involved in reduced sensitivity to multiple fungicide classes in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa - Sang et al. - MPP | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it

Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is a prevalent turfgrass disease and the fungus has exhibited widespread fungicide resistance in North America. In a previous study an ABC-G transporter, ShatrD, was associated with practical field resistance to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. Mining of ABC-G transporters, also known as pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters, from RNA-Seq data gives an assortment of transcripts, several with high sequence similarity to functionally characterized transporters from Botrytis cinerea, and others with closest BLASTX hits from Aspergillus and Monilinia. In addition to ShatrD, another PDR transporter showed significant overexpression in replicated RNA-Seq data, and in a collection of field resistant isolates, as measured by qPCR. These isolates also showed reduced sensitivity to unrelated fungicide classes. Using a yeast complementation system, we sought to test the hypothesis that this PDR transporter effluxes DMIs, as well as chemically unrelated fungicides. The transporter (ShPDR1) was cloned into the Gal1 expression vector and transformed into a yeast PDR transporter deletion mutant, AD12345678. Complementation assays indicated that ShPDR1 complemented the mutant in the presence of propiconazole (DMI), iprodione (Dicarboximide) and boscalid (SDHI: Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor). Our results indicate that overexpression of ShPDR1 is correlated with practical field resistance to DMI fungicides and reduced sensitivity to Dicarboximide and SDHI fungicides. These findings highlight the potential for eventual development of a multidrug resistance phenotype in this pathogen. Additionally, this study presents a pipeline for the discovery and validation of fungicide resistance genes using de novo Next-Generation Sequencing and molecular biology techniques in an unsequenced plant pathogenic fungus.


Via Melvin Bolton
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Frontiers | Multidrug resistance in fungi: regulation of transporter-encoding gene expression | Membrane Physiology and Membrane Biophysics

Frontiers | Multidrug resistance in fungi: regulation of transporter-encoding gene expression | Membrane Physiology and Membrane Biophysics | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
“ A critical risk to the continued success of antifungal chemotherapy is the acquisition of resistance; a risk exacerbated by the few classes of effective antifungal drugs. Predictably, as the use of these drugs increases in the clinic, more resistant organisms can be isolated from patients. A particularly problematic form of drug resistance that routinely emerges in the major fungal pathogens is known as multidrug resistance. Multidrug resistance refers to the simultaneous acquisition of tolerance to a range of drugs via a limited or even single genetic change. This review will focus on recent progress in understanding pathways of multidrug resistance in fungi including those of most medical relevance. Analyses of multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided the most detailed outline of multidrug resistance in a eukaryotic microorganism. Multidrug resistant isolates of S. cerevisiae typically result from changes in the activity of a pair of related transcription factors that in turn elicit overproduction of several target genes. Chief among these is the ATP-binding cassette-encoding gene PDR5. Interestingly, in the medically important Candida species, very similar pathways are involved in acquisition of multidrug resistance. In both C. albicans and C. glabrata, changes in the activity of transcriptional activator proteins elicits overproduction of a protein closely related to S. cerevisiae Pdr5 called Cdr1. The major filamentous fungal pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, was previously thought to acquire resistance to azole compounds (the principal antifungal drug class) via alterations in the azole drug target-encoding gene cyp51A. More recent data indicate that pathways in addition to changes in the cyp51A gene are important determinants in A. fumigatus azole resistance. We will discuss findings that suggest azole resistance in A. fumigatus and Candida species may share more mechanistic similarities than previously thought.”
Via Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Carla Garzon from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals

Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Nitrogen is abundant in the earth’s atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.
Via Francis Martin
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Southern NSW canola growers urged to plan for blackleg - The Rural

Southern NSW canola growers urged to plan for blackleg - The Rural | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
Southern NSW canola growers urged to plan for blackleg The Rural “We deliberately sow each of the representative canola varieties of each of the canola resistance groups at each of those sites, deliberately without any fungicide protection at all,...
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Human Health Risk Assessment to Chemicals: Hormesis for Setting ...

Human Health Risk Assessment to Chemicals: Hormesis for Setting ... | Fungicide Hormesis | Scoop.it
I have been interested in the topic of hormesis for a long time. Even though I am not a toxicologist, some years ago I was responsible for running an inhalation toxicity laboratory in a large chemical company.
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