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Nature: Updated_NgAgo gene-editing controversy escalates in peer-reviewed papers

Nature: Updated_NgAgo gene-editing controversy escalates in peer-reviewed papers | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it

Six months ago, Chinese researchers reported that an enzyme called NgAgo could be used to edit mammalian genes — and that it might be more accurate and more versatile than the popular CRISPR–Cas9 gene-editing technique1. But almost immediately, other scientists complained that they could not replicate the experiment.

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Nature: DNA reveals that giraffes are four species — not one

Nature: DNA reveals that giraffes are four species — not one | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
Finding could alter conservation strategies for long-necked animals.
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Nature Methods: Shrinkage-mediated imaging of entire organs and organisms using uDISCO

Nature Methods: Shrinkage-mediated imaging of entire organs and organisms using uDISCO | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Recent tissue-clearing approaches have become important alternatives to standard histology approaches. However, light scattering in thick tissues and the size restrictions on samples that can be imaged with standard light-sheet microscopy pose limitations for analyzing large samples such as an entire rodent body. We developed 'ultimate DISCO' (uDISCO) clearing to overcome these limitations in volumetric imaging. uDISCO preserves fluorescent proteins over months and renders intact organs and rodent bodies transparent while reducing their size up to 65%. We used uDISCO to image neuronal connections and vasculature from head to toe over 7 cm and to perform unbiased screening of transplanted stem cells within the entire body of adult mice. uDISCO is compatible with diverse labeling methods and archival human tissue, and it can readily be used in various biomedical applications to study organization of large organ systems throughout entire organisms.
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Nature: DWARF14 is a non-canonical hormone receptor for strigolactone

Nature: DWARF14 is a non-canonical hormone receptor for strigolactone | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Classical hormone receptors reversibly and non-covalently bind active hormone molecules, which are generated by biosynthetic enzymes, to trigger signal transduction. The α/β hydrolase DWARF14 (D14), which hydrolyses the plant branching hormone strigolactone and interacts with the F-box protein D3/MAX2, is probably involved in strigolactone detection1, 2, 3. However, the active form of strigolactone has yet to be identified and it is unclear which protein directly binds the active form of strigolactone, and in which manner, to act as the genuine strigolactone receptor. Here we report the crystal structure of the strigolactone-induced AtD14–D3–ASK1 complex, reveal that Arabidopsis thaliana (At)D14 undergoes an open-to-closed state transition to trigger strigolactone signalling, and demonstrate that strigolactone is hydrolysed into a covalently linked intermediate molecule (CLIM) to initiate a conformational change of AtD14 to facilitate interaction with D3. Notably, analyses of a highly branched Arabidopsis mutant d14-5 show that the AtD14(G158E) mutant maintains enzyme activity to hydrolyse strigolactone, but fails to efficiently interact with D3/MAX2 and loses the ability to act as a receptor that triggers strigolactone signalling in planta. These findings uncover a mechanism underlying the allosteric activation of AtD14 by strigolactone hydrolysis into CLIM, and define AtD14 as a non-canonical hormone receptor with dual functions to generate and sense the active form of strigolactone.
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Nat Comm: Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England

Nat Comm: Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Wild bee declines have been ascribed in part to neonicotinoid insecticides. While short-term laboratory studies on commercially bred species (principally honeybees and bumblebees) have identified sub-lethal effects, there is no strong evidence linking these insecticides to losses of the majority of wild bee species. We relate 18 years of UK national wild bee distribution data for 62 species to amounts of neonicotinoid use in oilseed rape. Using a multi-species dynamic Bayesian occupancy analysis, we find evidence of increased population extinction rates in response to neonicotinoid seed treatment use on oilseed rape. Species foraging on oilseed rape benefit from the cover of this crop, but were on average three times more negatively affected by exposure to neonicotinoids than non-crop foragers. Our results suggest that sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoids could scale up to cause losses of bee biodiversity. Restrictions on neonicotinoid use may reduce population declines.
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Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription

Auxin-dependent compositional change in Mediator in ARF7- and ARF19-mediated transcription | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Mediator is a multiprotein complex that integrates the signals from transcription factors binding to the promoter and transmits them to achieve gene transcription. The subunits of Mediator complex reside in four modules: the head, middle, tail, and dissociable CDK8 kinase module (CKM). The head, middle, and tail modules form the core Mediator complex, and the association of CKM can modify the function of Mediator in transcription. Here, we show genetic and biochemical evidence that CKM-associated Mediator transmits auxin-dependent transcriptional repression in lateral root (LR) formation. The AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID 14 (Aux/IAA14) transcriptional repressor inhibits the transcriptional activity of its binding partners AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7) and ARF19 by making a complex with the CKM-associated Mediator. In addition, TOPLESS (TPL), a transcriptional corepressor, forms a bridge between IAA14 and the CKM component MED13 through the physical interaction. ChIP assays show that auxin induces the dissociation of MED13 but not the tail module component MED25 from the ARF7 binding region upstream of its target gene. These findings indicate that auxin-induced degradation of IAA14 changes the module composition of Mediator interacting with ARF7 and ARF19 in the upstream region of their target genes involved in LR formation. We suggest that this regulation leads to a quick switch of signal transmission from ARFs to target gene expression in response to auxin.
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Nat Comm: A developmentally regulated switch from stem cells to dedifferentiation for limb muscle regeneration in newts

Nat Comm: A developmentally regulated switch from stem cells to dedifferentiation for limb muscle regeneration in newts | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: The newt, a urodele amphibian, is able to repeatedly regenerate its limbs throughout its lifespan, whereas other amphibians deteriorate or lose their ability to regenerate limbs after metamorphosis. It remains to be determined whether such an exceptional ability of the newt is either attributed to a strategy, which controls regeneration in larvae, or on a novel one invented by the newt after metamorphosis. Here we report that the newt switches the cellular mechanism for limb regeneration from a stem/progenitor-based mechanism (larval mode) to a dedifferentiation-based one (adult mode) as it transits beyond metamorphosis. We demonstrate that larval newts use stem/progenitor cells such as satellite cells for new muscle in a regenerated limb, whereas metamorphosed newts recruit muscle fibre cells in the stump for the same purpose. We conclude that the newt has evolved novel strategies to secure its regenerative ability of the limbs after metamorphosis.
fundoshi's insight:
[今回我々は、イモリが変態して成長するのに伴い、肢再生の細胞機構が幹/前駆細胞を基盤とする機構(幼生モード)から脱分化を基盤とする機構(成体モード)に切り替わることを報告する。幼生のイモリは再生された肢では衛星細胞のような幹/前駆細胞を用いて新しい筋を作り出すが、変態後のイモリは切断部の筋繊維細胞を動員して新しい筋を作り出す。我々は、イモリが変態後の肢の再生能を保証する新しい戦略を進化させたと結論する。]
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Nature: Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal

Nature: Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
In many animal societies where hierarchies govern access to reproduction, the social rank of individuals is related to their age and weight and slow-growing animals may lose their place in breeding queues to younger ‘challengers’ that grow faster. The threat of being displaced might be expected to favour the evolution of competitive growth strategies, where individuals increase their own rate of growth in response to increases in the growth of potential rivals. Although growth rates have been shown to vary in relation to changes in the social environment in several vertebrates including fish and mammals, it is not yet known whether individuals increase their growth rates in response to increases in the growth of particular reproductive rivals. Here we show that, in wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake. In addition, when individuals acquire dominant status, they show a secondary period of accelerated growth whose magnitude increases if the difference between their own weight and that of the heaviest subordinate of the same sex in their group is small. Our results show that individuals adjust their growth to the size of their closest competitor and raise the possibility that similar plastic responses to the risk of competition may occur in other social mammals, including domestic animals and primates.
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Meerkat.comですって?
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Nat Comm: Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology

Nat Comm: Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: The origins of giraffe’s imposing stature and associated cardiovascular adaptations are unknown. Okapi, which lacks these unique features, is giraffe’s closest relative and provides a useful comparison, to identify genetic variation underlying giraffe’s long neck and cardiovascular system. The genomes of giraffe and okapi were sequenced, and through comparative analyses genes and pathways were identified that exhibit unique genetic changes and likely contribute to giraffe’s unique features. Some of these genes are in the HOX, NOTCH and FGF signalling pathways, which regulate both skeletal and cardiovascular development, suggesting that giraffe’s stature and cardiovascular adaptations evolved in parallel through changes in a small number of genes. Mitochondrial metabolism and volatile fatty acids transport genes are also evolutionarily diverged in giraffe and may be related to its unusual diet that includes toxic plants. Unexpectedly, substantial evolutionary changes have occurred in giraffe and okapi in double-strand break repair and centrosome functions.
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Open accessでこれが読めるのは素晴らしいね
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Nature: Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage

Nature: Programmable editing of a target base in genomic DNA without double-stranded DNA cleavage | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
Current genome-editing technologies introduce double-stranded (ds) DNA breaks at a target locus as the first step to gene correction. Although most genetic diseases arise from point mutations, current approaches to point mutation correction are inefficient and typically induce an abundance of random insertions and deletions (indels) at the target locus resulting from the cellular response to dsDNA breaks. Here we report the development of ‘base editing’, a new approach to genome editing that enables the direct, irreversible conversion of one target DNA base into another in a programmable manner, without requiring dsDNA backbone cleavage or a donor template. We engineered fusions of CRISPR/Cas9 and a cytidine deaminase enzyme that retain the ability to be programmed with a guide RNA, do not induce dsDNA breaks, and mediate the direct conversion of cytidine to uridine, thereby effecting a C→T (or G→A) substitution. The resulting ‘base editors’ convert cytidines within a window of approximately five nucleotides, and can efficiently correct a variety of point mutations relevant to human disease. In four transformed human and murine cell lines, second- and third-generation base editors that fuse uracil glycosylase inhibitor, and that use a Cas9 nickase targeting the non-edited strand, manipulate the cellular DNA repair response to favour desired base-editing outcomes, resulting in permanent correction of ~15–75% of total cellular DNA with minimal (typically ≤1%) indel formation. Base editing expands the scope and efficiency of genome editing of point mutations.
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CRISPR民の運命やいかに
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Nature: Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors

Nature: Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Signalling by ubiquitination regulates virtually every cellular process in eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate is catalysed by the E1, E2 and E3 three-enzyme cascade1, which links the carboxy terminus of ubiquitin to the ε-amino group of, in most cases, a lysine of the substrate via an isopeptide bond. Given the essential roles of ubiquitination in the regulation of the immune system, it is not surprising that the ubiquitination network is a common target for diverse infectious agents2. For example, many bacterial pathogens exploit ubiquitin signalling using virulence factors that function as E3 ligases, deubiquitinases3 or as enzymes that directly attack ubiquitin4. The bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila utilizes approximately 300 effectors that modulate diverse host processes to create a permissive niche for its replication in phagocytes5. Here we demonstrate that members of the SidE effector family of L. pneumophila ubiquitinate multiple Rab small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we show that these proteins are capable of catalysing ubiquitination without the need for the E1 and E2 enzymes. A putative mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase motif critical for the ubiquitination activity is also essential for the role of the SidE family in intracellular bacterial replication in a protozoan host. The E1/E2-independent ubiquitination catalysed by these enzymes is energized by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which activates ubiquitin by the formation of ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin. These results establish that ubiquitination can be catalysed by a single enzyme, the activity of which does not require ATP.

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Curr Opi Plant Biol: Crop responses to elevated CO2 and interactions with H2O, N, and temperature

About twenty-seven years ago, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was developed that enabled the air above open-field plots to be enriched with CO2 for entire growing seasons. Since then, FACE experiments have been conducted on cotton, wheat, ryegrass, clover, potato, grape, rice, barley, sugar beet, soybean, cassava, rape, mustard, coffee (C3 crops), and sorghum and maize (C4 crops). Elevated CO2 (550 ppm from an ambient concentration of about 353 ppm in 1990) decreased evapotranspiration about 10% on average and increased canopy temperatures about 0.7 °C. Biomass and yield were increased by FACE in all C3 species, but not in C4 species except when water was limiting. Yields of C3 grain crops were increased on average about 19%.
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Nat Comm: Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation

Nat Comm: Exploring the biophysical option space for feeding the world without deforestation | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Safeguarding the world’s remaining forests is a high-priority goal. We assess the biophysical option space for feeding the world in 2050 in a hypothetical zero-deforestation world. We systematically combine realistic assumptions on future yields, agricultural areas, livestock feed and human diets. For each scenario, we determine whether the supply of crop products meets the demand and whether the grazing intensity stays within plausible limits. We find that many options exist to meet the global food supply in 2050 without deforestation, even at low crop-yield levels. Within the option space, individual scenarios differ greatly in terms of biomass harvest, cropland demand and grazing intensity, depending primarily on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human diets. Grazing constraints strongly limit the option space. Without the option to encroach into natural or semi-natural land, trade volumes will rise in scenarios with globally converging diets, thereby decreasing the food self-sufficiency of many developing regions.
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ベジタリアン推奨ってことでいいんですかね
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Nature Photonics: Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network

Nature Photonics: Quantum teleportation with independent sources and prior entanglement distribution over a network | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
The first field test of quantum teleportation is implemented over a 30 km optical fibre network with independent quantum light sources. To establish a robust quantum teleportation system in the real world, several feedback mechanisms are developed.
fundoshi's insight:
量子テレポーテーションですでに11文字。申請書のタイトルとか大変だなぁ
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Sci Rep: The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis

Sci Rep: The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT: Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis’s capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree.

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PNAS: FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis

Significance: Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) not only serves as a receptor for growth-regulating rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptide but also acts as an important node in a variety of other signaling pathways, including plant responses to hormones, pathogens, and abiotic stresses. However, the mechanism underlying FER actions in these signaling cross-talks remain largely unknown. Our previous work identified a molecular relay that allows FER to inhibit abscisic acid (ABA) response through activation of a small G protein to enhance the activity of the clade A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a repressor of ABA response. In this study, we found that ABI2 can directly interact and dephosphorylate FER, providing a feedback mechanism for RALF activation of FER.

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Nature: Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East

Nature: Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000 and 1,400 bc, from Natufian hunter–gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a ‘Basal Eurasian’ lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter–gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter–gatherers of Europe to greatly reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those of Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.
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How one Vietnamese farming village is adapting to climate change | South China Morning Post

How one Vietnamese farming village is adapting to climate change | South China Morning Post | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it

Vietnam has been feeling the brunt of various climate risks. People in Ma Village, in Yen Bai district, northern Vietnam, experience this first-hand with the recent bouts of cold ​spells, record high temperature increases, and heavy rains that have been affecting their agriculture and livelihoods.

​In the article, Christian Larson provided an engaging narrative of the travails of Ma villagers amid these climate extremes. More importantly, the article features various ways by which the villagers confront these problems through climate forecasting, using climate-resilient crops, soil analysis to improve soil health, and proper timing of planting to avert possible crop damage due to severe cold or heavy rains.


Via CGIAR Climate
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Biology Open: Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

ABSTRACT: Auxin response factors (ARFs) can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza , 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF ( SmARF ) gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III) were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza . Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167 , specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis . Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza .

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Nature: MIMIVIRE is a defence system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage

Nature: MIMIVIRE is a defence system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
Since their discovery, giant viruses have revealed several unique features that challenge the conventional definition of a virus, such as their large and complex genomes, their infection by virophages and their presence of transferable short element transpovirons. Here we investigate the sensitivity of mimivirus to virophage infection in a collection of 59 viral strains and demonstrate lineage specificity in the resistance of mimivirus to Zamilon, a unique virophage that can infect lineages B and C of mimivirus but not lineage A. We hypothesized that mimiviruses harbour a defence mechanism resembling the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system that is widely present in bacteria and archaea. We performed de novo sequencing of 45 new mimivirus strains and searched for sequences specific to Zamilon in a total of 60 mimivirus genomes. We found that lineage A strains are resistant to Zamilon and contain the insertion of a repeated Zamilon sequence within an operon, here named the ‘mimivirus virophage resistance element’ (MIMIVIRE). Further analyses of the surrounding sequences showed that this locus is reminiscent of a defence mechanism related to the CRISPR–Cas system. Silencing the repeated sequence and the MIMIVIRE genes restores mimivirus susceptibility to Zamilon. The MIMIVIRE proteins possess the typical functions (nuclease and helicase) involved in the degradation of foreign nucleic acids. The viral defence system, MIMIVIRE, represents a nucleic-acid-based immunity against virophage infection.
fundoshi's insight:
名前がね かわいいですよね
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Nature: How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

Nature: How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male–male competition and female choice as discrete processes.
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Fig.2要チェック
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Rescooped by fundoshi from Plant Cell Biology and Morphogenesis
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Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis: Current Biology

Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis: Current Biology | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it

Via Joop Vermeer
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BMJ Open Gastroenterology: Fortification of alcoholic beverages (12% v/v) with tea (Camellia sinensis) reduces harmful effects of alcohol ingestion and metabolism in mouse model

Results: Consumption of tea fortified alcohols significantly decreased (p=0.0001) bwt at 0.32–9.58% and PCV at 5.56–22.75% for all teas. Total protein in serum and liver of mice fed on different tea fortified alcohols ranged between 6.26 and 9.24 g/dL and 2.14 and 4.02 g/dL, respectively. Albumin, ALP and GSH range was 0.92–2.88 µg/L, 314.98–473.80 µg/L and 17.88–28.62 µM, respectively. Fortification of alcoholic beverages lowered liver ALP, replenished antioxidants and increased liver albumin, improving the nutritional status of the mice.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrate tea's hepatoprotective mechanisms against alcohol-induced injury through promotion of endogenous antioxidants. The beneficial effects of tea in the fortified alcoholic beverages could be used to develop safer alcoholic beverages.
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緑茶ハイ革命来るわ
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Science: Mx1 reveals innate pathways to antiviral resistance and lethal influenza disease

Science: Mx1 reveals innate pathways to antiviral resistance and lethal influenza disease | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
Flu immunity shows its age: As we age, our immune systems change; in many ways not for the better. For instance, the elderly account for 90% of influenza deaths annually. Pillai et al. now report that influenza-infected human monocytes, a type of immune cell, exhibit reduced antiviral activity. In influenza-infected mice, two innate immune sensing pathways work together to promote antiviral immunity to influenza. Mice lacking antiviral immunity (similar to the situation in elderly people) had elevated bacterial burdens in their lungs and increased inflammatory responses, which both contributed to their increased susceptibility to influenza.
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Nat Comm: NETosis and lack of DNase activity are key factors in Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction

Nat Comm: NETosis and lack of DNase activity are key factors in Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction | fundoshi TOPICS: Plant biology, cell biology, and more | Scoop.it
ABSTRACT: Indian Echis carinatus bite causes sustained tissue destruction at the bite site. Neutrophils, the major leukocytes in the early defence process, accumulate at the bite site. Here we show that E. carinatus venom induces neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The NETs block the blood vessels and entrap the venom toxins at the injection site, promoting tissue destruction. The stability of NETs is attributed to the lack of NETs-degrading DNase activity in E. carinatus venom. In a mouse tail model, mice co-injected with venom and DNase 1, and neutropenic mice injected with the venom, do not develop NETs, venom accumulation and tissue destruction at the injected site. Strikingly, venom-induced mice tail tissue destruction is also prevented by the subsequent injection of DNase 1. Thus, our study suggests that DNase 1 treatment may have a therapeutic potential for preventing the tissue destruction caused by snake venom.
fundoshi's insight:
これ面白いわ HRも完全にストップさせると実は何かの広がりが思惑に反して促進されてたり?
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