Fragments of Science
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Fragments of Science
The history, present and future and nature of science and their relationship
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These 3D-printed electrodes for screens are transparent

These 3D-printed electrodes for screens are transparent | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A new way of 3D printing transparent electrodes could make touchscreens in phones and other devices work and look better.
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'A great honour': New fish species named after author Tim Winton

'A great honour': New fish species named after author Tim Winton | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Author and conservationist Tim Winton says when he heard one of 20 new fish species discovered in Western Australia would be named after him, the redneck in him thought: I wonder what it tastes like?
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Melting of massive ice ‘lid’ resulted in huge release of CO2 at the end of the ice age

Melting of massive ice ‘lid’ resulted in huge release of CO2 at the end of the ice age | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A new study reconstructing conditions at the end of the last ice age suggests that as the Antarctic sea ice melted, massive amounts of carbon dioxide that had been trapped in the ocean were released into the atmosphere.
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These Spherical Microphone Arrays Make Holographic Images of Sound 

These Spherical Microphone Arrays Make Holographic Images of Sound  | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"

Imagine attending a live concert where the musicians aren’t even in the performance space. Instead, they’re 500 miles away, playing their hearts out, while a holographic sound image of the music is mapped and then recreated in the performance space for your listening pleasure. It sounds like science fiction, but it’s not, thanks to technology being developed by Austrian acousticians.

For Franz Zotter and Matthias Frank of the Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics (IEM) in Graz, Austria, it amounts to something akin to the teleportation of a musical instrument. They use large surrounding spheres of microphone arrays to record holographic sound images — a kind of 3D aural fingerprint — of any musical instrument."

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Surgeons are training robots to become their new assistants

Surgeons are training robots to become their new assistants | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Video: University of Southern Denmark Robots may soon become the surgeon’s new assistant.
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Scientists have figured out how the Earth looked a billion years ago

Scientists have figured out how the Earth looked a billion years ago | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
By the time Dietmar Mueller arrived at the University of Texas as a graduate student in the mid-1980s, scientists had already long embraced a once-astonishing idea: that the continents on which all human history has unfolded, rather than fixtures of constancy, were orphans of a former grand supercontinent called Pangaea. Showered with awards, the pioneers of this theory—plate tectonics—had by and...
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Scientists discover flower seeds from the dinosaur era

Scientists discover flower seeds from the dinosaur era | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Scientists have discovered the earliest known seeds of flowering plants. The seeds are estimated to be between 110 and 125 million years old.
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Researchers find evidence of cavity-dwelling microbial life from 3 billion years ago

Researchers find evidence of cavity-dwelling microbial life from 3 billion years ago | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from Germany and Switzerland has found examples of microbial life from over 3 billion years ago, that appeared to have evaded UV radiation by hiding in subsurface cavities. In their paper ...
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How Quicksand Works and How to Escape its clutches

How Quicksand Works and How to Escape its clutches | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Quicksand can appear virtually anywhere in the world if an area of loose sand is saturated by water and becomes agitated. One of the following situations can lead to the formation of quicksand:

underground water. Most often, this is the likeliest source of quicksand formation. If an underground reservoir can flow upward through loose sand and get around each grain, then friction is lost and the whole grainy soil becomes a suspension, with the grains floating around the water.vibrations. Earthquakes or some other high vibration source can increase the pressure of shallow groundwater through shaking, thus liquefying the soil. This is why sometimes you hear of buildings sinking even by more than a foot following an earthquake — a home literally trapped in quicksand.

While quicksands can be found all over the globe, there are naturally some areas that are more prone to host them like riverbanks, beaches, lake shorelines, near underground springs or marshes.

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The WIRED guide to the brain in 2016 (Wired UK)

The WIRED guide to the brain in 2016 (Wired UK) | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

We may be living in a world of exciting technological and medical innovation, but that doesn't we still have a lot to learn -- something truer than ever in the case of neuroscience.

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Surface physics: How water learns to dance

Surface physics: How water learns to dance | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Technische Universität Wien, TU Wien

 

"Perovskites are materials used in batteries, fuel cells, and electronic components, and occur in nature as minerals. Despite their important role in technology, little is known about the reactivity of their surfaces. Professor Ulrike Diebold's team at TU Wien (Vienna) has answered a long-standing question using scanning tunnelling microscopes and computer simulations: How do water molecules behave when they attach to a perovskite surface? Normally only the outermost atoms at the surface influence this behaviour, but on perovskites the deeper layers are important, too. The results have been published in the prestigious journal 'Nature Materials'.

Perovskite dissociates water molecules
"We studied strontium ruthenate – a typical perovskite material," says Ulrike Diebold. It has a crystalline structure containing oxygen, strontium and ruthenium. When the crystal is broken apart, the outermost layer consists of only strontium and oxygen atoms; the ruthenium is located underneath, surrounded by oxygen atoms.

A water molecule that lands on this surface splits into two parts: A hydrogen atom is stripped off the molecule and attaches to an oxygen atom on the crystal's surface. This process is known as dissociation. However, although they are physically separated, the pieces continue to interact through a weak “hydrogen bond”.

It is this interaction that causes a strange effect: The OH group cannot move freely, and circles the hydrogen atom like a dancer spinning on a pole. Although this is the first observation of such behaviour, it was not entirely unexpected: "This effect was predicted a few years ago based on theoretical calculations, and we have finally confirmed it with our experiments" said Diebold."

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Blocking fat transport linked to longevity

Blocking fat transport linked to longevity | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"Animals from tiny worms to human beings have a love-hate relationship with fats and lipids. Cholesterol is a famous example of how they are both essential for health and often have a role in death. A new studyreveals another way that may be true. Researchers working in nematodes and mice found that a naturally occurring protein responsible for transporting fats like cholesterol around the body also hinders essential functions in cells that increase life span.

When the scientists genetically blocked production of the worms’ yolk lipoprotein, called vitellogenin (VIT), the nematodes lived up to 40 percent longer, the study showed. Mice, humans and other mammals produce a directly analogous protein called apolipoprotein B (apoB), and therapies have been developed to reduce apoB to prevent cardiovascular disease.

The new research suggests that there might be a whole other benefit to reducing apoB. Data from the nematodes indicate that apoB’s evolutionary cousin VIT prevents long life span by impairing the ability of cells to use and remodel fats for healthier purposes."

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Runaway Stars Create Stunning Bow Waves

Runaway Stars Create Stunning Bow Waves | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Runaway stars push stellar material ahead of them as they move, creating brilliant arcs that allow researchers to find and study them.
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Boosting farm yields to restore habitats could create greenhouse gas ‘sink’

Boosting farm yields to restore habitats could create greenhouse gas ‘sink’ | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
New research into the potential for sparing land from food production to balance greenhouse gas emissions has shown that emissions from the UK farming industry could be largely offset by 2050. This could be achieved if the UK increased agricultural yields and coupled this with expanding the areas of natural forests and wetlands to match its European neighbours.
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What is the Anthropocene?

What is the Anthropocene? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Soon, scientists will decide whether the word Anthropocene should be formally added to the Geologic Time Scale. It indicates a world shaped by human beings.
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It’s official! Element 113 was discovered at RIKEN

It’s official! Element 113 was discovered at RIKEN | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"Element 113, discovered by a RIKEN group led by Kosuke Morita, has become the first element on the periodic table found in Asia. Rewarding nearly a decade of painstaking work by Morita’s group, a Joint Working Party of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) has recommended that the group, from the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-based Science (RNC), be given recognition for the discovery of the new element. This news was conveyed to Dr. Morita through a letter on December 31 from IUPAC.

In the late 1980s, the group began using RIKEN’s Linear Accelerator Facility and the GARIS ion separator, developed by Morita and his group, to explore new synthetic superheavy elements. The work of discovering new superheavy elements is very difficult, and the elements tend to decay extremely quickly—the isotopes of 113 produced at RIKEN lasted for less than a thousandth of a second. Researchers persevere, however, as the research is important for understanding the structure of atomic nuclei. Scientists hope that the work will lead eventually to the discovery of a so-called “island of stability” where elements with longer half-lives will be found.

The search at RIKEN for element 113 started in September 2003, when Morita’s group began bombarding a thin layer of bismuth with zinc ions travelling at about 10% the speed of light. Theoretically, they would occasionally fuse, forming an atom of element 113."



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Globally unique double crater identified in Sweden

Globally unique double crater identified in Sweden | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have found traces of two enormous meteorite impacts in the Swedish county of Jämtland, a twin strike that occurred around 460 million years ago.


The researchers have discovered two craters in Jämtland. One is enormous, while the other is a tenth of the size of the first.


"The two meteorite impacts occurred at the same time, 458 million years ago, and formed these two craters," says Erik Sturkell, Professor of Geophysics at the University of Gothenburg.
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Research lends new view of the Earth’s core

Research lends new view of the Earth’s core | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
There is more oxygen in the core of Earth than originally thought. Lawrence Livermore geologist Rick Ryerson and international colleagues discovered some new findings about Earth's core and mantle by considering their geophysical and geochemical signatures together. This research provides insight into the origins of Earth's formation.
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Tesla On The Horizon: Wireless Power Now Works Over 15 Feet

Tesla On The Horizon: Wireless Power Now Works Over 15 Feet | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Researchers have reported a big improvement in the distance of wireless power.   Their "Dipole Coil Resonant System (DCRS) boosts the extended range of inductive power transfer up to 5 meters between transmitter and receiver coils. 

It's not quite the rumors about Nikola Tesla but if you think that's not a lot, ponder that Bluetooth is only slightly greater after 15 years in progress.

And people want wireless power a lot more than they ever wanted Bluetooth.  Since MIT's introduction of the Coupled Magnetic Resonance System (CMRS) in 2007, which used a magnetic field to transfer energy for a distance of 2.1 meters, the development of long-distance wireless power transfer has attracted a great deal of attention. MIT knew that its initial CMRS had commercialization limits: a rather complicated coil structure (composed of four coils for input, transmission, reception, and load); bulky-size resonant coils; high frequency (in a range of 10 MHz) required to resonate the transmitter and receiver coils, which results in low transfer efficiency; and a high Q factor of 2,000 that makes the resonant coils very sensitive to surroundings such as temperature, humidity, and human proximity.

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First plasma generated in the Wendelstein 7-X

First plasma generated in the Wendelstein 7-X | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A helium plasma has been generated for the first time in the world’s biggest stellarator-type fusion experiment. The generation of the hydrogen plasmas needed for atomic fusion will follow in early 2016.
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The X-Ray Images That Showed Midcentury Scientists How Radiation Affects an Ecosystem

The X-Ray Images That Showed Midcentury Scientists How Radiation Affects an Ecosystem | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
In June 1947, biologists from the University of Washington collected a wrasse from the waters around Bikini Atoll, squished it against a photographic plate
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Helium anomaly preceded Mount Ontake eruption

Helium anomaly preceded Mount Ontake eruption | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
University of Tokyo researchers discovered an increase in a helium isotope during a ten-year period before the 2014 Mount Ontake eruption in central Japan. The finding suggests that this helium isotope anomaly is related to activation of the volcano's magma system and could be a valuable marker for long-term risk mitigation concerning volcanic eruption.
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Stefanie Tellex, Melissa Little, Jennifer Doudna, Maria Pereira - Women who changed science in 2015

Stefanie Tellex, Melissa Little, Jennifer Doudna, Maria Pereira - Women who changed science in 2015 | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
2015 has been full of scientific and technological innovation. From self-teaching robots to gene editing technology, here are the women who made it happen.
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