Researchers of the ISREC Institute at the School of Life Sciences, EPFL, have deciphered the mechanism whereby some microRNAs are retained in the cell while others are secreted and delivered to neighboring cells.
In a discovery that experts say could revolutionise fuel cell technology, scientists have found that graphene, the world's thinnest, strongest and most impermeable material, can allow protons to pass through it.
On the 155th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin's iconic work, On the Origin of the Species, 16,000 high-resolution images of his research on evolution have been released online to the public. This week, 155 years ago, Charles Darwin...
In the new work, an international team of researchers tried an alternative approach: rather than a stack of single molecules, they stored charges in a single layer of a complex molecular cage. The cage was formed by a metal oxide having the formula metal18O54—for this work, the metal of choice was tungsten. This molecule forms a cage-like structure approximately a single nanometer on a side. Inside, they placed two molecules of selenium trioxide, which normally carries extra electrons, giving it a charge of negative four.
When two electrons are removed, the selenium trioxide molecules form a bond between them, creating a single molecule of Se2O6. Further charges can be exchanged with the metal oxide cage. Collectively, this behavior allows electrons to be stored within these caged molecules. And, as the authors note, the molecule is stable up to temperatures of 600 degrees Celsius, meaning it can be used with a variety of processing methods.
Deep in the Cambodian jungle lie the remains of a vast medieval city, which was hidden for centuries. New archaeological techniques are now revealing its secrets - including an elaborate network of temples and boulevards, and sophisticated engineering.
Engineers have figured out how to make "nanolobes"—rounded crystals with no facets.
"The discovery could one day lead to 3D-printed medications that absorb better into the body.
Both the crystals’ shape and the way they’re made—using organic vapor jet printing—have other promising applications, researchers say. The geometry could potentially be useful to guide light in advanced LEDs, solar cells, and nonreflective surfaces."
Life is pretty interesting, and at the microscopic scale, it can also be beautiful, strange, intriguing, frightening and gross. The winning photos and videos from this year’s Olympus BioScapes competition span the whole range. From rat brains to butter daisies to weevils and barnacle appendages, these microscope photos will amaze. First prize this year went…
Maxwell had postulated that light was an electromagnetic wave. Hertz showed that there was likely an entire universe of invisible electromagnetic waves that behave just as visible light does and that move through space at the same speed. This revelation was enough, by inference, for many to accept that light itself is an electromagnetic wave.
Lodge’s disappointment at being scooped was more than compensated by the beauty and completeness of Hertz’s work. Lodge and FitzGerald worked to popularize Hertz’s findings, presenting them before the British Association. Almost immediately, Hertz’s work went on to inform the development of wireless telegraphy. The earliest incarnations of the technology employed transmitters much like the broadband spark-gap devices Hertz used.
Eventually scientists accepted that waves could travel through nothing at all. And the concept of a field, at first distasteful because it lacked any mechanical parts to make it work, became central to much of modern physics.
There was much more to come. But even before the close of the 19th century, thanks to the dogged efforts of a few dedicated enthusiasts, Maxwell’s legacy was secure.
Scientists have found that transplanting a microbe that occurs naturally in eastern cottonwood trees boosts the ability of willow and lawn grass to withstand the effects of the industrial pollutant phenanthrene.
Because the plants can then take up 25 to 40 percent more of the pollutant than untreated plants they could be useful in phytoremediation, the process of using plants to remove toxins from contaminated sites, without all the environmentalist political lobbying drama of using genetically modified plants to do the same thing.
The microbe from the cottonwood was encouraged to colonize the roots of willows simply by dipping rooted and trimmed cuttings in solutions with the microbe. Grasses were treated with microbes in solution as seeds sprouted in soil. Once integrated into the plants, the microbe supplemented their own microbial defenses.
In a paper published in PNAS on Monday November 24, scientists laid out a robust new framework based on in situ observations that will allow scientists to describe and understand how phytoplankton assimilate limited concentrations of phosphorus, a key nutrient, in the ocean in ways that better reflect what is actually occurring in the marine environment. This is an important advance because nutrient uptake is a central property of ocean biogeochemistry, and in many regions controls carbon dioxide fixation, which ultimately can play a role in mitigating climate change.
"Until now, our understanding of how phytoplankton assimilate nutrients in an extremely nutrient-limited environment was based on lab cultures that poorly represented what happens in natural populations," explained Michael Lomas of Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, who co-led the study with Adam Martiny of University of California - Irvine, and Simon Levin and Juan Bonachela of Princeton University. "Now we can quantify how phytoplankton are taking up nutrients in the real world, which provides much more meaningful data that will ultimately improve our understanding of their role in global ocean function and climate regulation."
To address the knowledge gap about the globally-relevant ecosystem process of nutrient uptake, researchers worked to identify how different levels of microbial biodiversity influenced in situ phosphorus uptake in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Specifically, they focused on how different phytoplankton taxa assimilated phosphorus in the same region, and how phosphorus uptake by those individual taxa varied across regions with different phosphorus concentrations. They found that phytoplankton were much more efficient at assimilating vanishingly low phosphorus concentrations than would have been predicted from culture research. Moreover, individual phytoplankton continually optimized their ability to assimilate phosphorus as environmental phosphorus concentrations increased. This finding runs counter to the commonly held, and widely used, view that their ability to assimilate phosphorus saturates as concentrations increase.
"Prior climate models didn't take into account how natural phytoplankton populations vary in their ability to take up key nutrients, "said Martiny. "We were able to fill in this gap through fieldwork and advanced analytical techniques. The outcome is the first comprehensive in situ quantification of nutrient uptake capabilities among dominant phytoplankton groups in the North Atlantic Ocean that takes into account microbial biodiversity."
"These features are almost certainly the result of young planet-like bodies that are being formed in the disc. This is surprising since such young stars are not expected to have large planetary bodies capable of producing the structures we see in this image," said Stuartt Corder, ALMA Deputy Director.
"When we first saw this image we were astounded at the spectacular level of detail. HL Tauri is no more than a million years old, yet already its disc appears to be full of forming planets. This one image alone will revolutionize theories of planet formation," explained Catherine Vlahakis, ALMA Deputy Program Scientist and Lead Program Scientist for the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign.
By setting up two event horizons, one black and one white hole, Steinhauer hoped to reinforce the Hawking radiation produced, making it strong enough to be observed.
That’s because the Hawking radiation particle that gets pulled inside the black hole, while its partner escapes, falls down within the black hole to the surface of the inner horizon, the white hole. But it can’t enter the white hole, and so it bounces, back up toward the black hole’s horizon. When it reaches the horizon, it bounces back down—but not before generating another particle outside the horizon, which is able to escape.
This process repeats, and the overall net effect is an exponential amplification of the Hawking radiation, an effect that is very similar to the process taking place inside a laser. In Steinhauer’s experiment, he observed an exponential ramping up of the simulated Hawking radiation.
How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people — first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being o
As the introduction to the "Outside the Box with Dr. Naidu" series, this film was made to explain the role of five cosmic keys -fire, air, water, ether, terrain - in the evolution of life on Earth. These cosmic keys can be recategorized into four quadrants -bio-REDOX, bio-REPLENISHMENT, bio-RHYTHM, bio-FORMAT- which work in harmony to operate and conduct the "Symphony of Life". The theme of the film is that you are a part of the universe and the universe is a part of you.…