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Gulf Stream Shift Identified - News - Hydro International

Gulf Stream Shift Identified - News - Hydro International | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI, USA) have discovered that the Gulf Stream diverged well to the north of its normal path last year, causing the warmer-than-usual ocean temperatures along the New England continental shelf ...
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Fragments of Science
The history, present and future and nature of science and their relationship
Curated by Mariaschnee
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A better understanding of cell to cell communication

A better understanding of cell to cell communication | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Researchers of the ISREC Institute at the School of Life Sciences, EPFL, have deciphered the mechanism whereby some microRNAs are retained in the cell while others are secreted and delivered to neighboring cells.
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'Bio-spleen' uses magnets to clean bad blood

'Bio-spleen' uses magnets to clean bad blood | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A device that uses magnets to extract bacteria, fungi and toxins from blood could one day throw a lifeline to patients with sepsis and other infections, researchers say.
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Scientists discover origins of cosmic dust

Scientists discover origins of cosmic dust | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"In a new study recently published in Nature, scientists from Aarhus University and the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen show how cosmic dust is created when giant stars explode as supernovas, sending massive shock waves into surrounding layers of compressed gas.

 

At the back of the violent shock waves the gasses cool down to such an extent that the particles condense, creating cosmic dust that in time turns into both planets and people.

 

The question about the creation of the cosmic dust has long puzzled scientists, but now we have the answer,” says lead author Christa Gall, postdoc at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Aarhus University and the Niels Bohr Institute of the University of Copenhagen.

 

“Our study shows that the cosmic dust is created quickly by the supernovas and in very large sizes. The large sizes mean that the following shock waves from the supernovas don’t tear the particles apart,” she says."

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The Physics of Productivity: Newton's Laws of Getting Stuff Done

The Physics of Productivity: Newton's Laws of Getting Stuff Done | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published his groundbreaking book, which described the three laws of motion and redefined the way the world looked at physics and science. These laws also work well as an interesting analogy for increasing your productivity, simplifying your work, and improving your life.
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Gigantic DNA-study reveals the rise and downfall of prehistoric Eskimos

Gigantic DNA-study reveals the rise and downfall of prehistoric Eskimos | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
In the largest study of ancient DNA from the Arctic, Danish scientists have mapped the story of the prehistoric people who lived in one of the harshest areas of the world.
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Scientists see the 'soul' of the Sun

Scientists see the 'soul' of the Sun | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Scientists have confirmed how the Sun makes 99 per cent of its energy.

They have detected subatomic particles called pp neutrinos, they report in the journal Nature.

The discovery, by an international team of scientists led by Assistant Professor Andrea Pocar of the University of Massachusetts, confirms existing theories that most of the Sun's total energy output is produced by proton-proton fusion in its core.

"Our experiment has taken a neutrino photograph of the Sun," says Pocar.

"We have basically confirmed that our understanding of the Sun is correct, by directly measuring the most abundant neutrino source in the Sun, those produced through pp fusion."

Stars, like the Sun, shine by fusing together hydrogen atomic nuclei called protons into helium. The process also produces photons of energy and pp neutrinos.

Neutrinos are virtually mass-less particles which barely interact with other matter, making them hard to detect."

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The Plan to Build a Massive Online Brain for All the World’s Robots

The Plan to Build a Massive Online Brain for All the World’s Robots | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
If you walk into the computer science building at Stanford University, Mobi is standing in the lobby, encased in glass. He looks a bit like a garbage can, with a rod for a neck and a camera for eyes. He was one of several robots developed at Stanford in the 1980s to study how machines

might learn to navigate their environment—a stepping stone toward intelligent robots that could live and work alongside humans. He worked, but not especially well. The best he could do was follow a path along a wall. Like so many other robots, his “brain” was on the small side.

Now, just down the hall from Mobi, scientists led by roboticist Ashutosh Saxena are taking this mission several steps further. They’re working to build machines that can see, hear, comprehend natural language (both written and spoken), and develop an understanding of the world around them, in much the same way that people do.

Today, backed by funding from the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, Google, Microsoft, and Qualcomm, Saxena and his team unveiled what they call RoboBrain, a kind of online service packed with information and artificial intelligence software that any robot could tap into. Working alongside researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, Brown University, and Cornell University, they hope to create a massive online “brain” that can help all robots navigate and even understand the world around them. “The purpose,” says Saxena, who dreamed it all up, “is to build a very good knowledge graph—or a knowledge base—for robots to use.”

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Tekrighter's curator insight, August 28, 7:01 AM

One of the most perplexing problems in science today is efficient integration of disparate data repositories. This is a step in the right direction.

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Evolutionary history of honeybees revealed by genomics

Evolutionary history of honeybees revealed by genomics | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

In a study published in Nature Genetics, researchers from Uppsala University present the first global analysis of genome variation in honeybees. The findings show a surprisingly high level of genetic diversity in honeybees, and indicate that the species most probably originates from Asia, and not from Africa as previously thought.

 

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is of crucial importance for humanity. One third of our food is dependent on the pollination of fruits, nuts and vegetables by bees and other insects. Extensive losses of honeybee colonies in recent years are a major cause for concern. Honeybees face threats from disease, climate change, and management practices. To combat these threats it is important to understand the evolutionary history of honeybees and how they are adapted to different environments across the world.

 

"We have used state-of-the-art high-throughput genomics to address these questions, and have identified high levels of genetic diversity in honeybees. In contrast to other domestic species, management of honeybees seems to have increased levels of genetic variation by mixing bees from different parts of the world. The findings may also indicate that high levels of inbreeding are not a major cause of global colony losses", says Matthew Webster, researcher at the department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University.

 

Another unexpected result was that honeybees seem to be derived from an ancient lineage of cavity-nesting bees that arrived from Asia around 300,000 years ago and rapidly spread across Europe and Africa. This stands in contrast to previous research that suggests that honeybees originate from Africa.


Reference: A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Nature Genetics, 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3077


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Proteins: New class of materials discovered

Proteins: New class of materials discovered | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Scientists have characterized a new class of materials called protein crystalline frameworks. Thanks to certain helper substances, in PCFs proteins are fixated in a way so as to align themselves symmetrically, forming highly stable crystals.
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Color hologram uses plasmonic nanoparticles to store large amounts of information

Color hologram uses plasmonic nanoparticles to store large amounts of information | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
(Phys.org) —In the 4th century, the Romans built a special glass cup, called the Lycurgus cup, that changes colors depending on which way the light is shining through it. The glass is made of finely ground silver and gold dust that produces a dichroic, or color-changing, effect. Although the makers ...
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Rock-eating microbes found buried in Antarctic lake

Rock-eating microbes found buried in Antarctic lake | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A large and diverse family of hearty rock-eating bacteria and other microorganisms live in a freshwater lake buried a half-mile beneath Antarctic ice, new research confirms.
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Scientifically charting culture: Humanity's cultural history captured in a 5-minute film

Scientifically charting culture: Humanity's cultural history captured in a 5-minute film | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Video map of births and deaths shows rise and fall of cultural centers. All roads lead from Rome, according to a visual history of human culture built entirely from the birth and death places of notable people. The 5-minute animation provides a fresh view of the movements of humanity over the last 2,600 years.


Maximilian Schich, an art historian at the University of Texas at Dallas, and his colleagues used the Google-owned knowledge base, Freebase, to find 120,000 individuals who were notable enough in their life-times that the dates and locations of their births and deaths were recorded.

 

The list includes people ranging from Solon, the Greek lawmaker and poet, who was born in 637bc in Athens, and died in 557 bc in Cyprus, to Jett Travolta — son of the actor John Travolta — who was born in 1992 in Los Angeles, California, and died in 2009 in the Bahamas.

 

The team used those data to create a movie that starts in 600 bc and ends in 2012. Each person’s birth place appears on a map of the world as a blue dot and their death as a red dot. The result is a way to visualize cultural history — as a city becomes more important, more notable people die there. The work that the animated map is based on was reported on 31 July in Science1.

 

The animation reflects some of what was known already. Rome gave way to Paris as a cultural centre, which was eventually overtaken by Los Angeles and New York. But it also puts figures and dates on these shifts — and allows for precise comparisons. For example, the data suggest that Paris overtook Rome as a cultural hub in 1789.

 

Schich’s team also viewed their data in the context of data from the Google Ngram Viewer, which shows how often certain phrases or words were used in the general literature at a given time, an indication of the topics that might have been on people’s minds. The researchers used the Ngram data to identify events that might suggest the waxing or waning in importance of a hub.

 

They also did a similar experiment using data from various sources on the births and deaths of 150,000 artists. That revealed, for instance, that more architects than artists died in the French revolution.

 

Historians tend to focus in highly specialized areas, says Schich. “But our data allow them to see unexpected correlations between obscure events never considered historically important and shifts in migration.”

 
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Nikauly Vargas Arias's curator insight, August 15, 10:43 AM

Interesante corto de 5 minutos sobre producto de una novedosa investigación sobre la concentración del conocimiento en ciudades del mundo a lo largo de la historia. 

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Nano 'yarn' next step in biomedical implants

Nano 'yarn' next step in biomedical implants | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Imagine a pacemaker or bionic ear that doesn't require batteries but is powered by your very own cells.
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The Miracle of 528 Hz Solfeggio & Fibonacci Numbers

The Miracle of 528 Hz Solfeggio & Fibonacci Numbers | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"Solfeggio tones create music to calm an overactive mind and send us towards connecting with the divine.According to Dr. Leonard Horowitz, 528 Hertz is a frequency that is central to the “musical mathematical matrix of creation.” More than any sound previously discovered, the “LOVE frequency” resonates at the heart of everything. It connects your heart, your spiritual essence, to the spiraling reality of heaven and earth. .…"

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Study traces ecological collapse over 6,000 years of Egyptian history

Study traces ecological collapse over 6,000 years of Egyptian history | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Depictions of animals in ancient Egyptian artifacts have helped scientists assemble a detailed record of the large mammals that lived in the Nile Valley over the past 6,000 years. A new analysis of this record shows that species extinctions, probably caused by a drying climate and growing human population in the region, have made the ecosystem progressively less stable.
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Your Fingertips Perform Brain-like Calculations

Your Fingertips Perform Brain-like Calculations | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Fingertips encode information about an object's shape – a function thought to be performed by the cerebral cortex – before it ever reaches the brain.
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Brain-to-brain verbal communication in humans achieved for the first time

Brain-to-brain verbal communication in humans achieved for the first time | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A team of researchers has successfully achieved brain-to-brain human communication using non-invasive technologies across a distance of 5,000 miles.
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We Use DNA to Predict Our Medical Futures, But it May Have More to Say About the Past

We Use DNA to Predict Our Medical Futures, But it May Have More to Say About the Past | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Improvements in DNA analysis are helping us rewrite the past and better grasp what it means to be human.
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The man who grew eyes

The man who grew eyes | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Growing nerve tissue and organs is a sci-fi dream. Moheb Costandi met the pioneering researcher who grew eyes and brain cells.
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How is earth connected to space?

How is earth connected to space? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"That is one of the questions the researchers at the Birkeland Centre for Space Science are trying to answer.

BCSS has set out four prime areas of research:

Asymmetric Aurora: When and why are the aurora in the two hemispheres asymmetric?Dynamic Ionosphere: How do we get beyond the large-scale static picture of the ionosphere?Particle Precipitation: What are the effects of particle precipitation on the atmospheric system?Gamma-ray flashes: What is the role of energetic particles from thunderstorms in geospace?

Earth is, for the main part, connected to space via the magnetic poles. When electrically charged particles from space bombard our planet, visible light occurs; i.e. aurora borealis in the Northern hemisphere or aurora australis in the Southern hemisphere.

But as these electrically charged particles hit the atmosphere, this can interfere with communication systems. In addition, particle showers from space can lead to power outages and the destruction of transformers on the ground."

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X-ray laser probes tiny quantum tornadoes in superfluid droplets

X-ray laser probes tiny quantum tornadoes in superfluid droplets | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
An experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory revealed a well-organized 3-D grid of quantum 'tornadoes' inside microscopic droplets of supercooled liquid helium -- the first time this formation has been seen at such a tiny scale. The findings by an international research team provide new insight on the strange nanoscale traits of a so-called 'superfluid' state of liquid helium.
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What Lies Beneath Stonehenge?

What Lies Beneath Stonehenge? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A groundbreaking survey of the site has turned up tantalizing new clues to what really went on there
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The power of salt: Power generation from where river water and seawater meet

The power of salt: Power generation from where river water and seawater meet | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Where the river meets the sea, there is the potential to harness a significant amount of renewable energy, according to a team of mechanical engineers. The researchers evaluated an emerging method of power generation called pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), in which two streams of different salinity are mixed to produce energy. In principle, a PRO system would take in river water and seawater on either side of a semi-permeable membrane. Through osmosis, water from the less-salty stream would cross the membrane to a pre-pressurized saltier side, creating a flow that can be sent through a turbine to recover power.
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Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using Earth's magnetic field

Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using Earth's magnetic field | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Earth's magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments. Researchers have carried out nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using an ultra-low magnetic field comparable to Earth's magnetic field.
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Rare meteorite points to volcanism in early solar system

Rare meteorite points to volcanism in early solar system | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Volcanic activity was present on small asteroids in the first few million years after the solar system's birth, according to a new study.
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