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Submarine Cable Map

TeleGeography's comprehensive and regularly updated interactive map of the world's major submarine cable systems and landing stations.
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Fragments of Science
The history, present and future and nature of science and their relationship
Curated by Mariaschnee
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A better understanding of cell to cell communication

A better understanding of cell to cell communication | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Researchers of the ISREC Institute at the School of Life Sciences, EPFL, have deciphered the mechanism whereby some microRNAs are retained in the cell while others are secreted and delivered to neighboring cells.
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Scientists see the 'soul' of the Sun

Scientists see the 'soul' of the Sun | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Scientists have confirmed how the Sun makes 99 per cent of its energy.

They have detected subatomic particles called pp neutrinos, they report in the journal Nature.

The discovery, by an international team of scientists led by Assistant Professor Andrea Pocar of the University of Massachusetts, confirms existing theories that most of the Sun's total energy output is produced by proton-proton fusion in its core.

"Our experiment has taken a neutrino photograph of the Sun," says Pocar.

"We have basically confirmed that our understanding of the Sun is correct, by directly measuring the most abundant neutrino source in the Sun, those produced through pp fusion."

Stars, like the Sun, shine by fusing together hydrogen atomic nuclei called protons into helium. The process also produces photons of energy and pp neutrinos.

Neutrinos are virtually mass-less particles which barely interact with other matter, making them hard to detect."

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The Plan to Build a Massive Online Brain for All the World’s Robots

The Plan to Build a Massive Online Brain for All the World’s Robots | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
If you walk into the computer science building at Stanford University, Mobi is standing in the lobby, encased in glass. He looks a bit like a garbage can, with a rod for a neck and a camera for eyes. He was one of several robots developed at Stanford in the 1980s to study how machines

might learn to navigate their environment—a stepping stone toward intelligent robots that could live and work alongside humans. He worked, but not especially well. The best he could do was follow a path along a wall. Like so many other robots, his “brain” was on the small side.

Now, just down the hall from Mobi, scientists led by roboticist Ashutosh Saxena are taking this mission several steps further. They’re working to build machines that can see, hear, comprehend natural language (both written and spoken), and develop an understanding of the world around them, in much the same way that people do.

Today, backed by funding from the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, Google, Microsoft, and Qualcomm, Saxena and his team unveiled what they call RoboBrain, a kind of online service packed with information and artificial intelligence software that any robot could tap into. Working alongside researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, Brown University, and Cornell University, they hope to create a massive online “brain” that can help all robots navigate and even understand the world around them. “The purpose,” says Saxena, who dreamed it all up, “is to build a very good knowledge graph—or a knowledge base—for robots to use.”

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Tekrighter's curator insight, August 28, 10:01 AM

One of the most perplexing problems in science today is efficient integration of disparate data repositories. This is a step in the right direction.

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Evolutionary history of honeybees revealed by genomics

Evolutionary history of honeybees revealed by genomics | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

In a study published in Nature Genetics, researchers from Uppsala University present the first global analysis of genome variation in honeybees. The findings show a surprisingly high level of genetic diversity in honeybees, and indicate that the species most probably originates from Asia, and not from Africa as previously thought.

 

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is of crucial importance for humanity. One third of our food is dependent on the pollination of fruits, nuts and vegetables by bees and other insects. Extensive losses of honeybee colonies in recent years are a major cause for concern. Honeybees face threats from disease, climate change, and management practices. To combat these threats it is important to understand the evolutionary history of honeybees and how they are adapted to different environments across the world.

 

"We have used state-of-the-art high-throughput genomics to address these questions, and have identified high levels of genetic diversity in honeybees. In contrast to other domestic species, management of honeybees seems to have increased levels of genetic variation by mixing bees from different parts of the world. The findings may also indicate that high levels of inbreeding are not a major cause of global colony losses", says Matthew Webster, researcher at the department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University.

 

Another unexpected result was that honeybees seem to be derived from an ancient lineage of cavity-nesting bees that arrived from Asia around 300,000 years ago and rapidly spread across Europe and Africa. This stands in contrast to previous research that suggests that honeybees originate from Africa.


Reference: A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera, Nature Genetics, 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3077


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Proteins: New class of materials discovered

Proteins: New class of materials discovered | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Scientists have characterized a new class of materials called protein crystalline frameworks. Thanks to certain helper substances, in PCFs proteins are fixated in a way so as to align themselves symmetrically, forming highly stable crystals.
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Color hologram uses plasmonic nanoparticles to store large amounts of information

Color hologram uses plasmonic nanoparticles to store large amounts of information | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
(Phys.org) —In the 4th century, the Romans built a special glass cup, called the Lycurgus cup, that changes colors depending on which way the light is shining through it. The glass is made of finely ground silver and gold dust that produces a dichroic, or color-changing, effect. Although the makers ...
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Rock-eating microbes found buried in Antarctic lake

Rock-eating microbes found buried in Antarctic lake | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A large and diverse family of hearty rock-eating bacteria and other microorganisms live in a freshwater lake buried a half-mile beneath Antarctic ice, new research confirms.
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Scientifically charting culture: Humanity's cultural history captured in a 5-minute film

Scientifically charting culture: Humanity's cultural history captured in a 5-minute film | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

Video map of births and deaths shows rise and fall of cultural centers. All roads lead from Rome, according to a visual history of human culture built entirely from the birth and death places of notable people. The 5-minute animation provides a fresh view of the movements of humanity over the last 2,600 years.


Maximilian Schich, an art historian at the University of Texas at Dallas, and his colleagues used the Google-owned knowledge base, Freebase, to find 120,000 individuals who were notable enough in their life-times that the dates and locations of their births and deaths were recorded.

 

The list includes people ranging from Solon, the Greek lawmaker and poet, who was born in 637bc in Athens, and died in 557 bc in Cyprus, to Jett Travolta — son of the actor John Travolta — who was born in 1992 in Los Angeles, California, and died in 2009 in the Bahamas.

 

The team used those data to create a movie that starts in 600 bc and ends in 2012. Each person’s birth place appears on a map of the world as a blue dot and their death as a red dot. The result is a way to visualize cultural history — as a city becomes more important, more notable people die there. The work that the animated map is based on was reported on 31 July in Science1.

 

The animation reflects some of what was known already. Rome gave way to Paris as a cultural centre, which was eventually overtaken by Los Angeles and New York. But it also puts figures and dates on these shifts — and allows for precise comparisons. For example, the data suggest that Paris overtook Rome as a cultural hub in 1789.

 

Schich’s team also viewed their data in the context of data from the Google Ngram Viewer, which shows how often certain phrases or words were used in the general literature at a given time, an indication of the topics that might have been on people’s minds. The researchers used the Ngram data to identify events that might suggest the waxing or waning in importance of a hub.

 

They also did a similar experiment using data from various sources on the births and deaths of 150,000 artists. That revealed, for instance, that more architects than artists died in the French revolution.

 

Historians tend to focus in highly specialized areas, says Schich. “But our data allow them to see unexpected correlations between obscure events never considered historically important and shifts in migration.”

 
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Nikauly Vargas Arias's curator insight, August 15, 1:43 PM

Interesante corto de 5 minutos sobre producto de una novedosa investigación sobre la concentración del conocimiento en ciudades del mundo a lo largo de la historia. 

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Nano 'yarn' next step in biomedical implants

Nano 'yarn' next step in biomedical implants | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Imagine a pacemaker or bionic ear that doesn't require batteries but is powered by your very own cells.
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Computer simulations improve atom experiments

Computer simulations improve atom experiments | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
It is extremely difficult to conduct experiments with atoms, so many scientists use computer simulations, before they perform actual experiments in the laboratory. At a recent Danish quantum science conference, Danish and international scientists presented some of the newest methods in computer simulations with atoms.
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Tiny dust grains may be from interstellar space

Tiny dust grains may be from interstellar space | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Scientists believe they have captured the first samples of space dust that comes from beyond our solar system.
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Quantum Mechanics Reveals How We Are All Truly Connected

Quantum Mechanics Reveals How We Are All Truly Connected | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

 

In order to truly understand what is happening at a sub-atomic level when we think of someone or when we feel the lightness of love for another; we must first bridge the gap between the micro-world and the macro-world. This is much easier said than done, because the micro-world operates under significantly different laws. String Theory states that our universe is made up of tiny little string particles and waves. These strings are the building blocks of the universe we experience, and make up the multiverse and the 11 dimensions Albert Einstein predicted that exist in the multiverse.

Read more at: http://www.learning-mind.com/quantum-mechanics-reveals-how-we-are-all-truly-connected/

 

In order to truly understand what is happening at a sub-atomic level when we think of someone or when we feel the lightness of love for another; we must first bridge the gap between the micro-world and the macro-world. This is much easier said than done, because the micro-world operates under significantly different laws. String Theory states that our universe is made up of tiny little string particles and waves. These strings are the building blocks of the universe we experience, and make up the multiverse and the 11 dimensions Albert Einstein predicted that exist in the multiverse.

Read more at: http://www.learning-mind.com/quantum-mechanics-reveals-how-we-are-all-truly-connected/

 

In order to truly understand what is happening at a sub-atomic level when we think of someone or when we feel the lightness of love for another; we must first bridge the gap between the micro-world and the macro-world. This is much easier said than done, because the micro-world operates under significantly different laws. String Theory states that our universe is made up of tiny little string particles and waves. These strings are the building blocks of the universe we experience, and make up the multiverse and the 11 dimensions Albert Einstein predicted that exist in the multiverse.

Read more at: http://www.learning-mind.com/quantum-mechanics-reveals-how-we-are-all-truly-connected/

"In order to truly understand what is happening at a sub-atomic level when we think of someone or when we feel the lightness of love for another; we must first bridge the gap between the micro-world and the macro-world. This is much easier said than done, because the micro-world operates under significantly different laws. String Theory states that our universe is made up of tiny little string particles and waves. These strings are the building blocks of the universe we experience, and make up the multiverse and the 11 dimensions Albert Einstein predicted that exist in the multiverse"

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10 Amazing Inventions From Nikola Tesla That Changed The World

10 Amazing Inventions From Nikola Tesla That Changed The World | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Perhaps one of Tesla’s most famous inventions deals directly with energy, something that is the talk of many social and political conversations and something that could be free to everyone if we used Nikola Tesla’s invention. Over the years, as more and more people begin to recognize the game being played in our society, Nikola Tesla and his story has been becoming more and more popular. This is natural as the increase in people educating themselves outside of the education system leads them to amazing bits of information that otherwise stay hidden.
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We Use DNA to Predict Our Medical Futures, But it May Have More to Say About the Past

We Use DNA to Predict Our Medical Futures, But it May Have More to Say About the Past | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Improvements in DNA analysis are helping us rewrite the past and better grasp what it means to be human.
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The man who grew eyes

The man who grew eyes | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Growing nerve tissue and organs is a sci-fi dream. Moheb Costandi met the pioneering researcher who grew eyes and brain cells.
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How is earth connected to space?

How is earth connected to space? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

"That is one of the questions the researchers at the Birkeland Centre for Space Science are trying to answer.

BCSS has set out four prime areas of research:

Asymmetric Aurora: When and why are the aurora in the two hemispheres asymmetric?Dynamic Ionosphere: How do we get beyond the large-scale static picture of the ionosphere?Particle Precipitation: What are the effects of particle precipitation on the atmospheric system?Gamma-ray flashes: What is the role of energetic particles from thunderstorms in geospace?

Earth is, for the main part, connected to space via the magnetic poles. When electrically charged particles from space bombard our planet, visible light occurs; i.e. aurora borealis in the Northern hemisphere or aurora australis in the Southern hemisphere.

But as these electrically charged particles hit the atmosphere, this can interfere with communication systems. In addition, particle showers from space can lead to power outages and the destruction of transformers on the ground."

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X-ray laser probes tiny quantum tornadoes in superfluid droplets

X-ray laser probes tiny quantum tornadoes in superfluid droplets | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
An experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory revealed a well-organized 3-D grid of quantum 'tornadoes' inside microscopic droplets of supercooled liquid helium -- the first time this formation has been seen at such a tiny scale. The findings by an international research team provide new insight on the strange nanoscale traits of a so-called 'superfluid' state of liquid helium.
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What Lies Beneath Stonehenge?

What Lies Beneath Stonehenge? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A groundbreaking survey of the site has turned up tantalizing new clues to what really went on there
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The power of salt: Power generation from where river water and seawater meet

The power of salt: Power generation from where river water and seawater meet | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Where the river meets the sea, there is the potential to harness a significant amount of renewable energy, according to a team of mechanical engineers. The researchers evaluated an emerging method of power generation called pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), in which two streams of different salinity are mixed to produce energy. In principle, a PRO system would take in river water and seawater on either side of a semi-permeable membrane. Through osmosis, water from the less-salty stream would cross the membrane to a pre-pressurized saltier side, creating a flow that can be sent through a turbine to recover power.
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Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using Earth's magnetic field

Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using Earth's magnetic field | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Earth's magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments. Researchers have carried out nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using an ultra-low magnetic field comparable to Earth's magnetic field.
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Rare meteorite points to volcanism in early solar system

Rare meteorite points to volcanism in early solar system | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Volcanic activity was present on small asteroids in the first few million years after the solar system's birth, according to a new study.
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Birth of solar system triggered by dying giant?

Birth of solar system triggered by dying giant? | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
A red giant star rather than a supernova may have triggered the birth of the Sun and solar system. Also; hurricanes on Earth producing gamma-rays that are picked up in space, and over 100 geysers observed on Saturn's ice moon Enceladus.
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Egyptian mummification began before the Pharaohs

Egyptian mummification began before the Pharaohs | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
Prehistoric Egyptians practised mummification well before the time of the Pharaohs, suggests an analysis of resin-soaked linen.
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Diamonds in the sky

Diamonds in the sky | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it
This sparkling jewel box of stars is the globular cluster IC 4499.

A globular cluster is a tight glittering collection of thousands of old stars orbiting around a galaxy.

This one is located about 55,000 light years away on the outer halo of the Milky Way, beyond the galaxy's spiral arms.

The most massive stars appear blue or white - they are usually hotter and burn through their nuclear fuel faster than the smaller yellow or red stars.

The kaleidoscope of colours in this image was thought to be due to the different masses and ages of the individual stars.

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DNA Analysis Shows That Native American Genealogy Is One of the Most Unique in the World

DNA Analysis Shows That Native American Genealogy Is One of the Most Unique in the World | Fragments of Science | Scoop.it

The origin and history of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have been studied for years by researchers from different countries, and a recent DNA study showed that the genealogy of the western aboriginals is one of the most unique in the world.

The question of whether Native Americans derived from a single Asian population or from a number of different populations has been a subject of research for decades. Now, having compared the DNA samples from people of modern Native American and Eurasian groups, an international team of researchers concluded on the validity of the single ancestral population theory.

The study follows up on earlier research that found a unique variant of a genetic marker in the DNA of modern descendants of Native Americans. “While earlier studies have already supported this conclusion, what’s different about our work is that it provides the first solid data that simply cannot be reconciled with multiple ancestral populations,” said Kari Britt Schroeder of the University of California, one of the authors of the study.

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