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Rescooped by Richard Hamelin from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast

Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast | Forest health | Scoop.it
Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche.

Via Francis Martin
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Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America

Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America | Forest health | Scoop.it
Tree diseases cause unsightly blemishes to appear on your trees as well as cause death in many that are affected. Here is a list of the top 10 tree dise......
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Lists are always faulty: comandra blister rust but not white pine blister rust?
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Gene expression profiling of candidate virulence factors in the laminated root rot pathogen Phellinus sulphurascens

Background Phellinus sulphurascens is a fungal pathogen that causes laminar root rot in conifers, one of the most damaging root diseases in western North America. Despite its importance as a forest pathogen, this fungus is still poorly studied at the genomic level. An understanding of the molecular events involved in establishment of the disease should help to develop new methods for control of this disease.Results We generated over 4600 expressed sequence tags from two cDNA libraries constructed using either mycelia grown on cellophane sheets and exposed to Douglas-fir roots or tissues from P. sulphurascens-infected Douglas-fir roots. A total of 890 unique genes were identified from the two libraries, and functional classification of 636 of these genes was possible using the Functional Catalogue (FunCat) annotation scheme. cDNAs were identified that encoded 79 potential virulence factors, including numerous genes implicated in virulence in a variety of phytopathogenic fungi. Many of these putative virulence factors were also among 82 genes identified as encoding putatively secreted proteins. The expression patterns of 86 selected fungal genes over 7 days of infection of Douglas-fir were examined using real-time PCR, and those significantly up-regulated included rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, 1,4-benzoquinone reductase, a cyclophilin, a glucoamylase, 3 hydrophobins, a lipase, a serine carboxypeptidase, a putative Ran-binding protein, and two unknown putatively secreted proteins called 1 J04 and 2 J12. Significantly down-regulated genes included a manganese-superoxide dismutase, two metalloproteases, and an unknown putatively secreted protein called Ps0058.Conclusions This first collection of Phellinus sulphurascens EST sequences and its annotation provide an important resource for future research aimed at understanding key virulence factors of this forest pathogen. We examined the expression patterns of numerous fungal genes with potential roles in virulence, and found a collection of functionally diverse genes that are significantly up- or down-regulated during infection of Douglas-fir seedling roots by P. sulphurascens.
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The Infection Biology of Sphaerulina musiva: Clues to Understanding a Forest Pathogen

The Infection Biology of Sphaerulina musiva: Clues to Understanding a Forest Pathogen | Forest health | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi

Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Gene discovery for enzymes involved in limonene modification or utilization by the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

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Fungus, pests take toll on region's ponderosas - Spokesman.com ...

Fungus, pests take toll on region's ponderosas - Spokesman.com ... | Forest health | Scoop.it
“Tags:Department of Natural Resourcesforest healthGuy GiffordHigh Drive BluffKent MolinePaul Zambinoponderosa pineSteve McConnelltree pathogensWashington State University Extension. You have viewed free articles or blogs allowed within a 30-day ...”
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Tree disease sweeps through Everglades - Sun-Sentinel

Tree disease sweeps through Everglades - Sun-Sentinel | Forest health | Scoop.it
“Tree disease sweeps through Everglades Sun-Sentinel A plant disease blazing through South Florida is killing off swamp bay trees, an important part of the architecture of the Everglades that provides food for a vast range of wildlife and...”
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Beating the beetles

Beating the beetles | Forest health | Scoop.it
The Arnold Arboretum celebrates a successful collaboration with the U.S. government to prevent tree destruction by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle.
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Rescooped by Richard Hamelin from Diagnostic activities for plant pests
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The development of a species-specific test to detect Hymenoschyphus pseudoalbidus in ash tissues - Gherghel et al.- 2013 - Forest Pathology

The development of a species-specific test to detect Hymenoschyphus pseudoalbidus in ash tissues - Gherghel et al.- 2013 - Forest Pathology | Forest health | Scoop.it

 Seven pairs of primers (SSR38, SSR58, SSR114, SSR198, SSR206, SSR211 and SSR212) were found to bind only to the genome of H. pseudoalbidus, but not to the genome of H. albidus or to 52 different fungal endophytes isolated from F. excelsior and F. angustifolia. Using these seven primer pairs, H. pseudoalbidus was identified in fruiting bodies and different types of ash tissues including dead leaves, dead petioles and discoloured or non-discoloured wood. Along one twig, H. pseudoalbidus was detected at different levels of intensity, which depended on the distance from symptomatic tissue. The detection limit was 0.9–1.8 pg of genomic DNA per PCR. Of 50 analysed commercially available seedlings, six were infected with H. pseudoalbidus. Two SSR loci (SSR198 and SSR211) showed fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that the new primers not only provide an easy and inexpensive means of detecting H. pseudoalbidus in ash tissues, but can also provide information on the genetic heterogeneity of the species.


Via Petter Françoise
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Petter Françoise's curator insight, April 23, 2014 1:19 AM

An EPPO DP on Hymenoschyphus pseudoalbidus was approved in 2013

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epp.12061/pdf

Rescooped by Richard Hamelin from Plant Pathogenomics
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bioRxiv: Crowdsourced analysis of ash and ash dieback through the Open Ash Dieback project: A year 1 report on datasets and analyses contributed by a self-organising community (2014)

bioRxiv: Crowdsourced analysis of ash and ash dieback through the Open Ash Dieback project: A year 1 report on datasets and analyses contributed by a self-organising community (2014) | Forest health | Scoop.it

Ash dieback is a fungal disease of ash trees caused by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus that has swept across Europe in the last two decades and is a significant threat to the ash population. This emergent pathogen has been relatively poorly studied and little is known about its genetic make-up. In response to the arrival of this dangerous pathogen in the UK we took the unusual step of providing an open access database and initial sequence datasets to the scientific community for analysis prior to performing an analysis of our own. Our goal was to crowdsource genomic and other analyses and create a community analysing this pathogen. In this report on the evolution of the community and data and analysis obtained in the first year of this activity, we describe the nature and the volume of the contributions and reveal some preliminary insights into the genome and biology of H. pseudoalbidus that emerged. In particular our nascent community generated a first-pass genome assembly containing abundant collapsed AT-rich repeats indicating a typically complex genome structure. Our open science and crowdsourcing effort has brought a wealth of new knowledge about this emergent pathogen within a short time-frame. Our community endeavour highlights the positive impact that open, collaborative approaches can have on fast, responsive modern science.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Niklaus Grunwald's curator insight, April 26, 2014 12:46 PM

An example of crowdsourcing genomics ...

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Drunken Trees: Dramatic Signs of Climate Change

Drunken Trees: Dramatic Signs of Climate Change | Forest health | Scoop.it
As the permafrost melts in the north, forests no longer grow straight.
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Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin...

Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin... | Forest health | Scoop.it
The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales) are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups.
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Tree diseases finally addressed in new practical guidebook

Tree diseases finally addressed in new practical guidebook | Forest health | Scoop.it
Winnipeg, Canada (PRWEB) July 16, 2014. From consulting urban forester Michael Allen comes a brand-new picture book that addresses hundreds of questions about tree diseases. “Dr. Tree's Guide to the Common ...
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Back to the future: natural history and the way forward in modern fungal ecology

'Paradoxically, as these extensive datasets accumulate we are often at a loss for interpretation due to the lack of basic autecology and natural history information for most 'fungi. As a result we are in danger of learning less and about more and more.
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Moving beyond the GM Debate

Moving beyond the GM Debate | Forest health | Scoop.it
PLOS Biology is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that features works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science, from molecules to ecosystems, including works at the interface with other disciplines.
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UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders | UAS VISION

UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders | UAS VISION | Forest health | Scoop.it
“UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders http://t.co/Xmc9ytluE5”;
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Pathogenicity of Phytophthora pluvialis to Pinus radiata and its relation with red needle cast disease in New Zealand - Springer

Pathogenicity of Phytophthora pluvialis to Pinus radiata and its relation with red needle cast disease in New Zealand - Springer | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Nari Williams's curator insight, July 8, 2014 9:01 PM

Link to paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0006-7

 

Check out our other RNC publications:

Decline in vitality of propagules of Phytophthora pluvialis and Phytophthora kernoviae and their inability to contaminate or colonise bark and sapwood in Pinus radiata export log simulation studies. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0007-6

 

The use of adjuvants to improve uptake of phosphorous acid applied to Pinus radiata needles for control of foliar Phytophthora diseases. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0008-5/fulltext.html

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Population structure of the invasive forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - Gross - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library

Population structure of the invasive forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - Gross - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Trees On The Move As Temperature Zones Shift 3.8 Feet A Day

Trees On The Move As Temperature Zones Shift 3.8 Feet A Day | Forest health | Scoop.it
To keep pace with the present rate of temperature change, plants and animals have to migrate poleward a few feet a day, according to a team of ecologists. If they can't, they may not survive.

Via Meristemi
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Genome-wide association implicates numerous genes underlying ecological trait variation in natural populations of Populus trichocarpa - McKown - 2014 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Genome-wide association implicates numerous genes underlying ecological trait variation in natural populations of Populus trichocarpa - McKown - 2014 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Mining Herbaria for Plant Pathogen Genomes: Back to the Future

Mining Herbaria for Plant Pathogen Genomes: Back to the Future | Forest health | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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