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SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR FUNGI CAUSING ROOT ROT ON DATE PALM AND THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN EGYPT

SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR FUNGI CAUSING ROOT ROT ON DATE PALM AND THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN EGYPT | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Date palms under the Egyptian conditions are subjected to infection with different diseases caused by many soil-borne pathogenic fungi which may cause considerable losses in the offshoots and trees. A survey was carried out during four years 2005-2008 in seven governorates. Aswan governorate showed the highest disease severity (45.00%), followed by Luxor (37.50%), Behaera (30.50%), Marsa-Matrouh (25.00%), Ismailia (5.00%), Sharkyia (3.75%) and Giza (2.50%). Isolation and identification of associated fungi showed that the most frequent fungi were Fusarium spp. and Thielaviopsis paradoxa, while the least frequent were Botrydiplodia theomromae and Rhizctonia solani. The most virulent fungi were F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. solani and T. paradoxa which were responsible for the root rot incidence that started with gradual yellowing that reached the palm tip followed by quick death. All the tested cultivars were susceptible to infection by the isolated pathogenic fungi. Hayany cultivar was the most susceptible to infection, followed by Sammany cultivar. While Zaghloul cultivar was the least susceptible.
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EFFICIENCY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS, NATURAL OILS, BIOFUNGICIDES AND FUNGICIDES AGAINST ROOT ROT DISEASE OF DATE PALM

EFFICIENCY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS, NATURAL OILS, BIOFUNGICIDES AND FUNGICIDES AGAINST ROOT ROT DISEASE OF DATE PALM | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Several soilborne fungi were isolated from root rots of date palm trees and offshoots, including: Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, F. solani, Thilaviopsis paradoxa, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizoctonia solani. In vitro testing, the efficacy of plant extract Marjoram at 100% was the most effective against pathogenic fungi, while garlic as essential oil at 500 ppm and jojoba as fixed oil at 500 ppm were the most effective against pathogenic fungi. Plant-Guard at 3.5 ml/L was the most effective against pathogenic fungi. Topsin M70 was the most effective against pathogenic fungi in vitro. In greenhouse Topsin M70 was the most effective to decreased root rot of date palm.
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DATE PALM DISEASES أمراض نخيل البلح

DATE PALM DISEASES أمراض نخيل البلح | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
   DATE PALM DISEASES أمراض نخيل البلح فى الوطن العربى -         ينتمى نخيل البلح Phoenix dactylifera L. الى الرتبة النخيلية Palmae والى العائلة Arecaceae والى الجنس Phoenix  والى النوع  dactylifera ، وتعد العائلة النخيلية من اقدم اشجار الفاكهة فى العالم وتضم هذه العائلة حوالي 220 جنسا وحوالي 2600 نوعا. وتنتشر ز راعة النخیل في المناطق الاستوائیة وشبه الاستوائیة وتحت الاستوائیة ،و ز راعة نخیل البلح قد ارتبطت تاریخیا بالوطن العربي لذا یعد الموطن الأصلي لنخیل التمر وخاصة فى منطقة  شط الخليج العربى ومنها انتقل إلى جمیع المناطق ذات الجو الملائم لزراعته. -         تتعرض اشجار النخيل للاصابة بالعديد من الامراض فى جميع مراحل نموها، وتختلف المسببات المرضية وشدتها من منطقة الى اخرى حسب الظروف البيئية والمناخية والاصناف والخدمة البستانية. وفيما يلى الامراض التى تصيب اشجار النخيل:
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Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defense

Different shades of JAZ during plant growth and defense | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Ever since their discovery as key regulators of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway (Chini et al., 2007; Thines et al., 2007; Yan et al., 2007), repressor proteins of the JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) family have been rising stars in research on hormonal regulation of plant growth and defense. In plant cells, JAZ repressor proteins interact with an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (SCFCOI1) that together function as a JA receptor. In resting cells, JAZs block the activity of transcriptional regulators of JA responses by physically binding to them. Upon perception of bioactive JAs, JAZ proteins are rapidly degraded via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome-dependent proteolytic pathway. This releases the JAZ-bound transcription factors, resulting in the activation of downstream JA responses (Fig. 1a). JAs play a dominant role in regulating defense responses against herbivorous insects and necrotrophic pathogens, and in adaptive responses to beneficial soilborne microbes (Wasternack & Hause, 2013; Pieterse et al., 2014). In addition, JAs have a signal function in a myriad other processes, including abiotic stress reactions and plant growth responses to environmental cues (Wasternack & Hause, 2013). The JA pathway functions in the context of a complex network of hormone-regulated signaling pathways that, depending on the environmental or developmental condition, can act antagonistically or synergistically on each other to finely balance resource allocation between growth and defense and minimize fitness tradeoffs (Pieterse et al., 2012; Vos et al., 2013). In the process of balancing plant growth and defense, gibberellins (GAs) have emerged as dominant antagonists of the JA signaling output (Hou et al., 2013).

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Beahrs Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) at UC Berkeley- 2014 Summer course on "Sustainable Environmental Management"- Application Period Now Open!

Beahrs Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) at UC Berkeley- 2014 Summer course on "Sustainable Environmental Management"- Application Period Now Open! | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, November 24, 2013 5:34 AM
2014 summer course
Sustainable Environmental Management: July 6 – July 26
Application Period Now Open!

"The Beahrs Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) at the University of California, Berkeley, offers a unique learning opportunity for mid-career practitioners and decision-makers to broaden their knowledge and perspectives on environmental and natural resource science, policy, management, and leadership. Through exposure to innovative sustainability approaches and dialogue, ELP participants develop the tools and skills necessary to meet environmental goals that also reduce poverty and social conflict. Established in August 2000 with seed funding from UC Berkeley alumni Carolyn and Richard Beahrs, the ELP offers an annual three week summer certificate course at UC Berkeley, and coordinates the Berkeley ELP Alumni Network with nearly 500 members from over 100 countries. The ELP also supports post-training  conservation and sustainable development collaborative projects with alumni, their organizations and the UC Berkeley community of faculty, staff, and students."

 

Learn more: http://beahrselp.berkeley.edu/

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VIB International PhD Program in Life Sciences-Belgium. The call for applications 2014 is open. Deadline for application: 15 February 2014

VIB International PhD Program in Life Sciences-Belgium. The call for applications 2014 is open. Deadline for application: 15 February 2014 | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, October 31, 2013 10:23 AM

VIB is offering 8 PhD scholarships for international life sciences PhD students.

Apply now to kick-start your scientific career in a center of excellence, backed by first class research facilities and training in our multidisciplinary, international scientific community. VIB scientists work at the frontlines of molecular biology, cell biology, developmental biology, structural biology, plant systems biology, genetics, biochemistry and microbiology.
VIB is a life sciences research center in Flanders, Belgium, in the heart of Europe.

Selected candidates for the VIB International PhD Program will be fully funded with a yearly net salary of €25.000 and are expected to start in October 2014.

Download the Pdf of our Poster advertisement! 

Deadline for application: 15 February 2014, 11:59 pm GMT

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A Pathway to Flowering—Why Staying Cool Matters

A Pathway to Flowering—Why Staying Cool Matters | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

Temperature is one of the most important cues that plants use to flower at the right time of the year—a process crucial for adaptation and reproductive success. We live in a world where climate change is already affecting our everyday lives and where, in the not too distant future, we will likely face huge challenges associated with increasing global temperatures (1). One of these challenges is to understand how flowering and growth of agricultural crops and trees will be affected by changing temperatures. The report by Lee et al. on page 628 of this issue (2), together with a recently published paper by Posé et al. (3), provide insight into the basic mechanisms controlling temperature regulation of plant growth and development.


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The role of ectomycorrhizas in heavy metal stress tolerance of host plants

The role of ectomycorrhizas in heavy metal stress tolerance of host plants | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

Ectomycorrhizas (EMs) are mutualistic associations between certain soil fungi and higher plants. EMs can modulate the cellular, physiological and molecular processes of host plants, resulting in altered responses of the colonized plants to heavy metals. Progress in elucidating the role of EMs in modulating heavy metal tolerance of host trees is reviewed. In the last decade, a number of ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates and host plants have been characterized for their tolerance to heavy metals. Additionally, the cellular processes have been investigated with regard to heavy metal uptake, transport, distribution, toxicity and detoxification by ectomycorrhizal fungi and/or host plants. At the cellular level, mechanisms of heavy metal detoxification include (i) binding of heavy metals to cell wall and extracellular exudates, (ii) decreased uptake and/or pumping metal ions out of cytosol, (iii) chelation of metal ions in cytosol, (iv) compartmentation of metals in vacuoles or other subcellular structures, and (v) repair of damaged biomolecules. The efficiency of these protective measures is often increased by EMs, resulting in improved physiological status and rescued growth. While physiological and cellular responses to heavy metals have been well studied, experimental data on the underlying molecular mechanisms, especially those induced by the interaction of ectomycorrhizal fungi and hosts, are scattered. Progress in genome sequencing of EM partners has revealed the importance of metal transporters in mediating tolerance. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms is essential for effective application of selected fungal isolates and hosts to improve the efficiency of bioremediation on heavy metal polluted sites.


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[Call for applicants 2013/2014] Public Competition for Admission to the PhD Courses of the University of Milan Academic Year 2013/2014. Deadline November 29, 2013

[Call for applicants 2013/2014] Public Competition for Admission to the PhD Courses of the University of Milan Academic Year 2013/2014. Deadline November 29, 2013 | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

http://www.unimi.it

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Ecosystem services inclusive strategic environmental assessment

Ecosystem services inclusive strategic environmental assessment | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Available online 1 February 2013 Publication year: 2013 Source:Environmental Impact Assessment Review A consistent framework to address biodiversity, ecosystem services and their societal values is now established with the MEA...

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Science Weekly Extra podcast: water and food sustainability - The Guardian

Science Weekly Extra podcast: water and food sustainability - The Guardian | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Science Weekly Extra podcast: water and food sustainability The Guardian In the first of our panel discussions on the water, food and energy nexus, the Guardian's Jo Confino explores the connections between water and food with Sir Gordon Conway...

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Biological Control of Date Palm Root Rots Disease Using Egyptian Isolates of Streptomycetes

Biological Control of Date Palm Root Rots Disease Using Egyptian Isolates of Streptomycetes | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Date palm trees are exposed to infection with different diseases caused by many soil-borne pathogenic fungi that may cause considerable losses in the offshoots and trees. This study was carried out on five cvs. of date palm during two years in Aswan and New Valley governorates. Isolation and identification of associated fungi showed that the most frequent fungi were Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and Thielaviopsis paradoxa while the least frequent was Phytophthora sp. The cultivars were differed susceptible to infection by the isolated pathogenic fungi. Barhey cultivar was the most susceptible to infection, followed by Gondaila, Siwey and Partmoda cultivars, while Sakkoty cultivar was the least susceptible. Seven streptomycetes were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy date palm cultivated in Aswan governorate. Streptomycetes were namated viz. Streptomyces bobilii (isolate A1, A5 and A7), Streptomyces grisiobrunneus (isolate A2 and A3), Streptomyces albolongus (isolate A4 and A6). Three isolates A1, A6 and A3 of them gave highest results in vitro and in greenhouse experiments against soil-borne pathogenic fungi compared with negative and positive control. The obtained results showed that Streptomyces had the highest efficacy on root rots of date palm. This is the first study done to use actinomycetes against soil-borne pathogenic fungi that caused root rots of date palm.
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INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, SALINITY AND ROOT EXUDATES ON INCIDENCE AND DISEASE SEVERITY OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE THAT CAUSED ROOT ROT OF DATE PALM OFFSHOOTS AND BIOCONTROLLING

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, SALINITY AND ROOT EXUDATES ON INCIDENCE AND DISEASE SEVERITY OF LASIODIPLODIA THEOBROMAE THAT CAUSED ROOT ROT OF DATE PALM OFFSHOOTS AND BIOCONTROLLING | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
The decline disease in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) has become one of the most severe problems in date palm offshoots of the Egypt. Our previous studies have established that Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Syn: Botryodiplodia theobromae) is one of the fungi causing root rot diseases. This study was carried out in three governorates Bani-suef, Behara and Kaluobia. A survey of governorates was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to collect the root-rotted samples from rhizosphere of declined date palm offshoot and trees. Behara was the most affected governorate with 25.5% disease severity, while in Kaluobia it was 14.5% and in Bani-suef it was 13%. Bartamoda cultivar was the least susceptible to infection by the pathogenic fungus followed by Sakoty, Siwey, Sammany and Zaghloul. L. theobromae was most abundantly isolated fungal pathogen. Colony growth of L. theobromae was maximum at 35ºC and optimum temperature for disease incidence and severity was 30ºC. Relative humidity percentage of 70% is best for the growth of L. theobromae, while the optimum Rh% for disease incidence and severity it was 60%. Water salinity (ECw) at the concentration 15.63 ds/m2 was reduction linear growth of L. theobromae to 17.03%, while at water salinity concentration increased the severity of all cultivars tested. Root exudates from Bartamoda cv. the most effective on growth rate of L. theobromae at concentration 10%, it was reduction linear growth to 41.30%. Jojoba oil proved the best bioagent in vitro suppressing the growth of L. theobromae showing reduction of linear growth to 83.33% at 500 ppm. Plant guard was found the second most effective reduction to 52.96%. Marjoram showed the least efficacy against L. theobromae in all concentrations. Experiments in greenhouse to control the root rot disease proved the Jojoba oil gave the best results to decreased disease severity, followed by Plant guard and the least was Marjoram against L. theobromae at all cultivars tested.
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CIHEAM Call for Proposal | Watch Letter 33 " on “The Invasive Species in the Mediterranean: challenges and risks” - CIHEAM-MAIB Community-Former Trainees Network (FTN)

CIHEAM Call for Proposal | Watch Letter 33 " on “The Invasive Species in the Mediterranean: challenges and risks” - CIHEAM-MAIB Community-Former Trainees Network (FTN) | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
FTN is the Alumni Network of CIHEAM-Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari

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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, January 29, 2015 10:25 AM

Ciheam Watch letter N° 33 on Call for Proposals Invasive species in the Mediterranean: challenges and risks | To be published in June 2015  | 

Download the call here: http://www.ciheam.org/images/CIHEAM/PDFs/Publications/LV/wl33%20-%20call%20-%20january%202015.pdf

Further info. :  Sebastien ABIS abis@ciheam.org

 Administrator | CIHEAM General Secretariat

+33 (0)1 53 23 91 19 | 11 rue Newton - 75116 Paris - France

 

Background

Against a background of ever more intensive trade links, the ever-growing mobility of global populations and extreme climate change, ecosystems and crops are becoming ever more fragile, especially thanks to so-called invasive (or invading) species. Many of them successfully adapt to the places they conquer
and can modify ecosystems to a considerable extent. In consequence, they are becoming a growing problem for countries, as they affect key sectors of their economies and present a series of emerging risks. This is especially true of the countries of Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
In 1992, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was already warning of the damage and risks to ecosystems, habitats and plant and animal species represented by these invasive alien species. The CBD considers invasive alien species to be those whose introduction or spread outside their natural habitat
endangers biological diversity. A species is said to be invasive or invading when, establishing and reproducing itself in a geographical area to which it is not native, it becomes a disturbance agent and damages biological diversity.
The CIHEAM Watch Letter No. 33 proposes to examine the emerging challenges and risks related to invasive species, especially for agriculture, food security and the environment. It seeks to identify approaches to enhance and benefit from
knowledge of relevance to this phenomenon. It focuses on the resources used and actions taken to strengthen bilateral, regional and international cooperation in the frame work of an optimal approach involving adaptation and prevention.
Included among the many problems which this issue seeks to address are the following:
- How can we reconcile combating invasive species and protection of the environment?
- Why are these invasive species a source of concern to Mediterranean countries at the present time?
- What projects are already being implemented to tackle the problems caused by invasive species? What innovative initiatives have there been in this field?
- What is the impact of invasive species on health, the environment and the economy (agriculture, fishing, fruit-growing, forestry…)?
- How is food security endangered by the increase in the number of invasive species?
- How can we combat these species effectively? What prevention strategies could we develop to deal with the problems they cause?
These questions are ideas for reflection, opening the way to other suggestions that could come from experts and others involved in the Mediterranean Region.
In particular, they are an invitation to suggest analyses related to one of the immediate concerns, the Xylella fastidiosa which is affecting olive trees in the Mediterranean

Learn more

 http://www.ciheam.org/images/CIHEAM/PDFs/Publications/LV/wl33%20-%20call%20-%20january%202015.pdf

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إنطلاق أول بوابة عربية للأخبار الفلاحية | البوابة العربية لأخبار الفلاحة

إنطلاق أول بوابة عربية للأخبار الفلاحية | البوابة العربية لأخبار الفلاحة | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, February 15, 2014 5:38 AM

ندعوكم للمساهمة في

موقع البوابة العربية لأخبار الفلاحة
عبر تزويدنا بأخبار إنجازاتكم، نشاطاتكم، وجديد منتجاتكم إن كنتم مؤسسة تجارية أو انتاجية ، أو نشاطاتكم وجديد مؤتمراتكم إن كنتم جامعة، أو المساهمة بمقالات ثقافية وعلمية، وإعداد التقارير عن هذا القطاع، أو نشر ملخصات أبحاثكم ودراساتكم ذات العلاقة، إن كنتم أساتذة جامعيين أو خبراء في الميدان الفلاحي و الزراعي وترغبون بالمشاركة معنا، حتى ننشرها على موقعنا أولا بأول .
ملاحظات عامة:
1- مراعاة الأمانة العلمية والمصداقية عند كتابة المقالات والتقارير وملخصات الأبحاث. شاكرين جهودكم معنا في دعم العلم و المعرفة و التنوير .
يمكنكم مراسلتنا عبر البريد الالكتروني : sitealfilaha@gmail.com

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11th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology- September 8-13, 2014- Cracow, POLAND

11th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology- September 8-13, 2014- Cracow, POLAND | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

http://www.efpp2014-cracow.pl/


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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, October 30, 2013 6:38 AM

11th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology

11 th Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology...
8-13 September 2014 -Cracow, POLAND
Healthy plants — healthy people
Inviatation: http://www.efpp11-krakow.pl/

 

"The 10th conference of the EFPP IPM 2.0 — Towards future-proof crop protection in Europe 1- 5 October 2012, organised in Wageningen by the KNPV was a great success. It was the first multidisciplinary conference on the new EU-policy to increase IPM in the member states by National Action Plans. More than 150 participants from about 25 countries discussed all principles of IPM in three phases."

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VIB International PhD Program in Life Sciences-Belgium. The call for applications 2014 is open. Deadline for application: 15 February 2014

VIB International PhD Program in Life Sciences-Belgium. The call for applications 2014 is open. Deadline for application: 15 February 2014 | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

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Ciheam-Bari FTN Press-Review's curator insight, October 31, 2013 10:23 AM

VIB is offering 8 PhD scholarships for international life sciences PhD students.

Apply now to kick-start your scientific career in a center of excellence, backed by first class research facilities and training in our multidisciplinary, international scientific community. VIB scientists work at the frontlines of molecular biology, cell biology, developmental biology, structural biology, plant systems biology, genetics, biochemistry and microbiology.
VIB is a life sciences research center in Flanders, Belgium, in the heart of Europe.

Selected candidates for the VIB International PhD Program will be fully funded with a yearly net salary of €25.000 and are expected to start in October 2014.

Download the Pdf of our Poster advertisement! 

Deadline for application: 15 February 2014, 11:59 pm GMT

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Spatiotemporal signalling in plant development : Nature Reviews Genetics

Spatiotemporal signalling in plant development : Nature Reviews Genetics | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

Plants, being sessile organisms, need to respond to changing environments, and as a result they have evolved unique signalling mechanisms that allow rapid communication between different parts of the plant. The signalling mechanisms that direct plant development include long-range effectors, such as phytohormones, and molecules with a local intra-organ range, such as peptides, transcription factors and some small RNAs. In this Review, we highlight recent advances in understanding plant signalling mechanisms and discuss how different classes of signalling networks can integrate with gene regulatory networks and contribute to plant development. In some cases, we also address the evolutionary context of mechanisms and discuss possible links between the lifestyle of plants and selection for different signalling mechanisms.


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Plant cell wall in pathogenesis, parasitism and symbiosis

Plant cell wall in pathogenesis, parasitism and symbiosis | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it

The cell wall is a complex structure mainly composed of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a cohesive hemicellulose and pectin matrix. Cell wall structural proteins, enzymes and their inhibitors are also essential components of plant cell walls. They are involved in the cross-link of cell wall polysaccharides, wall structure, and the perception and signaling of defense-related elicitors at the cell surface. In the outer part of the epidermal cells, the polysaccharides are coated by the cuticle, consisting of hydrophobic cutin, suberin and wax layers. Lignin, a macromolecule composed of highly cross-linked phenolic molecules, is a major component of the secondary cell wall. The cell wall is the first cell structure on which interactions between plants and a wide range of other organisms, including insects, nematodes, pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms take place. It not only represents a barrier that limits access to the cellular contents that provide a rich nutrient source for pathogens but serves as a source of elicitors of plant defense responses released upon partial enzymatic degradation of wall polysaccharides during infection. Modification of the plant cell wall can also occur at the level of plasmodesmata during virus infection as well as during abiotic stresses. The fine structure and composition of the plant cell wall as well as the regulation of its biosynthesis can thus strongly influence resistance and susceptibility to pathogens. We welcome research papers, short communications, reviews, and methods focused on the impact of cell wall during plant stresses and symbiotic interactions.


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HOME & GARDEN

HOME & GARDEN | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Using Milk to Prevent Powdery Mildew on Squash (Using Milk to Prevent Powdery Mildew on Squash http://t.co/NktqrNjB2L)
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Agriculture Ministry teams up with UN's FAO to combat locusts - Egypt Independent

Agriculture Ministry teams up with UN's FAO to combat locusts - Egypt Independent | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
Agriculture Ministry teams up with UN's FAO to combat locusts Egypt Independent On Monday, Ragab Bakry, head of a state body under the Agriculture Ministry that controls pests, said the FAO is helping to organize efforts in several African...

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Bioversity International: Publication

Bioversity International: Publication | Forecasting powdery mildew of grapevine | Scoop.it
The book Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons: Challenges in International Law and Governance investigates how the collective pooling and management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can be supported ...

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