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Science: Plant probiotics to the rescue (2016)

Science: Plant probiotics to the rescue (2016) | Food Security | Scoop.it

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PLOS Pathogens: Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid (2016) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene expression, iii) callose deposition, and iv) enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast). Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA), which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor.


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PLOS Pathogens: Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid (2016) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene expression, iii) callose deposition, and iv) enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast). Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA), which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor.


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Anses Evaluation of EU measures against pine wood nematodes

Anses Evaluation of EU measures against pine wood nematodes | Food Security | Scoop.it

Anses recently published an opinion (in French) on the efficacy of measures (clear cut) as described by the implementing decision

2012/535/EU of 26 September 2012. It concluded that clear cut does not allow the eradication of B. xylophilus in pine continuous forests.
It recommends to increase resources for early detection of  the nematode (in insect vectors or in trees) in combination with sanitation felling gradually with the development of the ouutbreak. The containment of the outbreak on a broad geographical scale will only be effective if these measures are coupled with a rigorous application of European regulations regarding treatment and timber transportation, to avoid long-distance introductions.

 

 

Anses 2015 AVIS et rapport de l'Anses relatifs à « la stratégie de lutte imposée par la décision d’exécution 2012/535/UE du 26 septembre 2012 relative à la mise en place de mesures d’urgence destinées à prévenir la propagation dans l’Union Européenne de Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (nématode du pin) »

https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/SVEG2014sa0103Ra.pdf


Via Muriel Suffert, nematodes
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G3: Meeting Report: Fungal Genomics Meets Social Media: Highlights of the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference at Asilomar (2015)

G3: Meeting Report: Fungal Genomics Meets Social Media: Highlights of the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference at Asilomar (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

The 28th Fungal Genetics Conference was held March 17−22, 2015, at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California (http://www.genetics-gsa.org/fungal/2015/index.shtml). Arguably the most popular of international fungal genetics conferences, the Asilomar meeting reached its registration cap 2 days before the early bird deadline, with 910 participants from 35 countries.

 

One striking feature of this year’s meeting was the high level of Twitter participation. On the basis of analytics from the health care social media analytics company Symplur (http://www.symplur.com/healthcare-hashtags) the hashtag #Fungal15 racked up 3456 tweets from 349 participants, and tweets were seen by more than 3 million others.

 

As is traditional, the meeting co-organizers have been asked to summarize highlights of the conference. As is also traditional, such a summary is a nearly impossible task with 20 plenary talks, 216 concurrent talks, and 662 posters to be considered. In recognition of the high level of social media participation and to give greater coverage, scientific co-chairs Michelle Momany (University of Georgia) and Antonio Di Pietro (University of Cordoba, Spain) invited the top tweeters to join us in picking highlights of the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference. Even so, these highlights were not able to cover all the terrific science at the meeting.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Syria's most unconventional weapon: wheat

Syria's most unconventional weapon: wheat | Food Security | Scoop.it
Beirut: In the fall of 2012, fighters from the Free Syrian Army took over Eastern Ghouta, a semiagricultural area about eight miles northeast of Damascus. Government forces responded by placing the area under siege, cutting off water, electricity, gas, medical assistance and bread.

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Australia: Research closer to stagnospora nodorum blotch resistant wheat

Australia: Research closer to stagnospora nodorum blotch resistant wheat | Food Security | Scoop.it

THE secret to beating a fungus stripping WA growers of about $108 million a year is close to the breeding stage after almost 15 years of research.

Department of Agriculture and Food senior research officer Michael Francki will deliver stagnospora nodorum blotch (SNB) resistant germplasm to breeders in 2017, if there are successful trials next year.


Via CIMMYT, Int.
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Model livestock information systems

Model livestock information systems | Food Security | Scoop.it
Attentive readers will know I occasionally take swipes at the state of genetic resources information systems, both in the crops and domestic livestock areas.

Via Luigi Guarino
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Italy: a book about "Microgreens" available on demand - FreshPlaza

Italy: a book about "Microgreens" available on demand - FreshPlaza | Food Security | Scoop.it
FreshPlaza is the number one portal for the fresh produce industry, offering the latest news, job advertisements, pricewatch, and photo albums

Via Luigi Guarino
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Pineapple genome offers insight into photosynthesis in drought-tolerant plants

Pineapple genome offers insight into photosynthesis in drought-tolerant plants | Food Security | Scoop.it
By sequencing its genome, scientists are homing in on the genes and genetic pathways that allow the juicy pineapple plant to thrive in water-limited environments. The new findings, reported in the journal Nature Genetics, also open a new window on the complicated evolutionary history of grasses like sorghum and rice, which share a distant ancestor with pineapple.
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Feeding the Developing World: Six Major Challenges

Feeding the Developing World: Six Major Challenges | Food Security | Scoop.it
Today, one in nine of the world’s 7.3 billion people — more than 800 million men, women and children — don’t get enough to eat, despite the fact that more than enough food is produced daily to feed everyone on Earth (at least based on calories).

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Eric Larson's curator insight, February 28, 8:40 AM

How do you solve this problem?

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Screening genetic resources of Capsicum peppers in their primary centre of diversity in Bolivia and Peru

Screening genetic resources of Capsicum peppers in their primary centre of diversity in Bolivia and Peru | Food Security | Scoop.it

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Cellular Microbiology: Rust fungal effectors mimic host transit peptides to translocate into chloroplasts (2015)

Cellular Microbiology: Rust fungal effectors mimic host transit peptides to translocate into chloroplasts (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Parasite effector proteins target various host cell compartments to alter host processes and promote infection. How effectors cross membrane-rich interfaces to reach these compartments is a major question in effector biology. Growing evidence suggests that effectors use molecular mimicry to subvert host cell machinery for protein sorting. We recently identified CTP1 (chloroplast-targeted protein 1), a candidate effector from the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina that carries a predicted transit peptide and accumulates in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Here, we show that the CTP1 transit peptide is necessary and sufficient for accumulation in the stroma of chloroplasts. CTP1 is part of a Melampsora-specific family of polymorphic secreted proteins. Two members of that family, CTP2 and CTP3, also translocate in chloroplasts in a N-terminal signal-dependent manner. CTP1, CTP2 and CTP3 are cleaved when they accumulate in chloroplasts, while they remain intact when they do not translocate into chloroplasts. Our findings reveal that fungi have evolved effector proteins that mimic plant-specific sorting signals to traffic within plant cells.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Science: Plant probiotics to the rescue (2016)

Science: Plant probiotics to the rescue (2016) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Molecular Plant: Natural variation in tomato reveals differences in the recognition of AvrPto and AvrPtoB effectors from Pseudomonas syringae (2016)

Molecular Plant: Natural variation in tomato reveals differences in the recognition of AvrPto and AvrPtoB effectors from Pseudomonas syringae (2016) | Food Security | Scoop.it

The Pto protein kinase from Solanum pimpinellifolium interacts with Pseudomonas syringae effectors AvrPto or AvrPtoB to activate effector-triggered immunity. The previously solved crystal structures of the AvrPto-Pto and AvrPtoB-Pto complexes revealed that Pto binds each effector through both a shared and a unique interface. Here we use natural variation in wild species of tomato to further investigate Pto recognition of these two effectors. One species, Solanum chmielewskii, was found to have many accessions that recognize only AvrPtoB. The Pto ortholog from one of these accessions was responsible for recognition of AvrPtoB and it differed from Solanum pimpinellifolium Pto by just 14 amino acids, including two in the AvrPto-specific interface, glutamate-49/glycine-51. Converting these two residues to those in Pto (histidine-49/valine-51) did not restore recognition of AvrPto. Subsequent experiments revealed that a single substitution of a histidine-to-aspartate at position 193 in Pto, which is not near the AvrPto-specific interface, was sufficient for conferring recognition of AvrPto in plant cells. The reciprocal substitution of aspartate-to-histidine-193 in Pto abolished AvrPto recognition, confirming the importance of this residue. Our results reveal new aspects about effector recognition by Pto and demonstrate the value of using natural variation to understand the interaction between resistance proteins and pathogen effectors.


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CIMMYT wheat scientist Ravi Singh receives honor for wheat genetics, breeding

CIMMYT wheat scientist Ravi Singh receives honor for wheat genetics, breeding | Food Security | Scoop.it
Scientist and wheat breeder Ravi Singh gives a talk during an International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center training day in Toluca, Mexico, in 2013. Singh was named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) this week. CIMMYT/Julie Mollins

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Manicks's curator insight, December 18, 2015 5:32 PM
Silent revolutionar
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Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015)

Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Secreted peroxidases are well-known components of damage-induced defense responses in plants. A recent study in Nature ( Turrà et al., 2015) has revealed that these enzymes can inadvertently serve as reporters of wounded sites and constitute an “Achilles heel,” allowing adapted pathogens to track and enter host tissue.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, December 10, 2015 9:47 AM

Secreted peroxidases are well-known components of damage-induced defense responses in plants. A recent study in Nature ( Turrà et al., 2015) has revealed that these enzymes can inadvertently serve as reporters of wounded sites and constitute an “Achilles heel,” allowing adapted pathogens to track and enter host tissue.

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Cover: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development: Genomes and evolution (2015)

Cover: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development: Genomes and evolution (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Convergence towards a similar genome architecture in phylogenetically unrelated plant pathogens. The fl anking distance between neighboring genes provides a measurement of local gene density and is displayed as a color-coded heat map based on a whole genome analysis of the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. In addition, the figure displays the distribution of Avr effector genes of L. maculans and P. infestans according to the length of their 50 and 30 flanking intergenic regions. Note how in both cases the Avr effector genes primarily occupy the gene sparse regions of the genome. (See the paper of Suomeng Dong, Sylvain Raffaele and Sophien Kamoun.)


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Nature Genetics: A recently evolved hexose transporter variant confers resistance to multiple pathogens in wheat (2015)

Nature Genetics: A recently evolved hexose transporter variant confers resistance to multiple pathogens in wheat (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

As there are numerous pathogen species that cause disease and limit yields of crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), single genes that provide resistance to multiple pathogens are valuable in crop improvement1, 2. The mechanistic basis of multi-pathogen resistance is largely unknown. Here we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and transformation to isolate the wheat Lr67 gene, which confers partial resistance to all three wheat rust pathogen species and powdery mildew. The Lr67 resistance gene encodes a predicted hexose transporter (LR67res) that differs from the susceptible form of the same protein (LR67sus) by two amino acids that are conserved in orthologous hexose transporters. Sugar uptake assays show that LR67sus, and related proteins encoded by homeoalleles, function as high-affinity glucose transporters. LR67res exerts a dominant-negative effect through heterodimerization with these functional transporters to reduce glucose uptake. Alterations in hexose transport in infected leaves may explain its ability to reduce the growth of multiple biotrophic pathogen species.


News & Views at http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n12/full/ng.3456.html


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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A newsletter to conjure with

Well, I thought we had our finger on the agricultural biodiversity pulse, but this one is a new one on us:
Agrobiodiversity@knowledged is a joint Hivos and Oxfam Novib Knowledge Programme initiated in 2011.

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Australasian Plant Disease Notes, Volume 10, Issue 1 - Springer

Australasian Plant Disease Notes, Volume 10, Issue 1 - Springer | Food Security | Scoop.it
Food Security's insight:

Australasian Plant Disease Notes. Volume 10 Number 1 is now available online.

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Power to choose - The Kathmandu Post

Power to choose - The Kathmandu Post | Food Security | Scoop.it
Community seeds banks should be established across the country to help farmers retain control over their seeds

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#EffecTours2015 Insects, pathogens, and plant reprogramming: from effector molecules to ecology, Tours, France, October 5-7, 2015

#EffecTours2015 Insects, pathogens, and plant reprogramming: from effector molecules to ecology, Tours, France, October 5-7, 2015 | Food Security | Scoop.it

The world’s rapidly expanding populations have created a sense of urgency regarding global agricultural output, which needs to expand by at least 70% by the year 2050. Plants will provide a significant proportion of the world’s food supply. This international conference focuses on a group of plant enemies that have an unique style of attack. Instead of simply removing plant tissue, survival, growth and reproduction are enhanced by manipulating the plant to create specialized nutritional resources. This attack strategy can have serious consequences for both natural and agro-ecosystems. Mechanisms of reprogramming host plants remain largely unknown but clearly involve secreted effectors that are applied during attack. Options for defense against reprogrammers include effector-triggered immunity. Historically the phylogenetically diverse plant enemies that reprogram plants have been studied by different groups. This interdisciplinary meeting will bring together the complementary strengths of key international laboratories to discuss advances in our understanding of the enemies that reprogram plants and their associated symbionts, the options that plants have for their defense, and the evolutionary potential of enemies to adapt to plant defense.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Bernadette Cassel's curator insight, October 2, 2015 5:51 AM


SUR VARIÉTÉS ENTOMOLOGIQUES
From www.lestudium-ias.com - September 27, 8:02 PM :


[Conférence] Insectes & Plantes : le secret de la jeunesse éternelle

                    

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Australia: Wheat royalties aiding research

Australia: Wheat royalties aiding research | Food Security | Scoop.it
WHEAT breeding in Australia has grown leaps and bounds since the influx of private sector involvement and is closely being watched by countries looking to emulate its success.

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Cellular Microbiology: Rust fungal effectors mimic host transit peptides to translocate into chloroplasts (2015)

Cellular Microbiology: Rust fungal effectors mimic host transit peptides to translocate into chloroplasts (2015) | Food Security | Scoop.it

Parasite effector proteins target various host cell compartments to alter host processes and promote infection. How effectors cross membrane-rich interfaces to reach these compartments is a major question in effector biology. Growing evidence suggests that effectors use molecular mimicry to subvert host cell machinery for protein sorting. We recently identified CTP1 (chloroplast-targeted protein 1), a candidate effector from the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina that carries a predicted transit peptide and accumulates in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Here, we show that the CTP1 transit peptide is necessary and sufficient for accumulation in the stroma of chloroplasts. CTP1 is part of a Melampsora-specific family of polymorphic secreted proteins. Two members of that family, CTP2 and CTP3, also translocate in chloroplasts in a N-terminal signal-dependent manner. CTP1, CTP2 and CTP3 are cleaved when they accumulate in chloroplasts, while they remain intact when they do not translocate into chloroplasts. Our findings reveal that fungi have evolved effector proteins that mimic plant-specific sorting signals to traffic within plant cells.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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