FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA......
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Toward a New Scenario in Agricultural Sustainability Certification? The Response of the Indonesian National Government to Private Certification

Wijaya, A ; Glasbergen, P.
Journal of Environment & Development, 2016

Abstract: This article discusses a new development in the relationships between private sustainability standards and governments, one in which Southern governments reclaim the authority from mainly Northern-based businesses and nongovernmental organizations. It examines how the Indonesian government, a forerunner in this field, responds to the private certification of palm oil. The results of this in-depth study are compared with similar trends in the coffee and cocoa sectors in Indonesia. The article observes that a change takes place from a nonresponsive stance, a modest involvement in terms of sustaining the implementation of private certifications, to an active development of alternative public national standards and certifications. The article defines some factors that facilitate the development of Southern public standards as an addition or alternative to private regulations and reviews the implications for the future of private standards and certification.
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International Standards Certification, Institutional Voids and Exports from Developing Country Firms

Goedhuys, M. ; Sleuwaegen, L.
International Business Review, online first, 6 May 2016

Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of International Standards Certification (ISC) on the export participation and the scale of exports of firms based in 89 developing or transition countries. We conceptualise ISC as an endogenous institutional advantage, which bridges institutional voids in the country and helps firms to export. The empirical results show that certified firms are more likely to export, and to export on a larger scale. The impact of ISC runs through two channels: productivity and transaction cost economies. We show that certification plays an important role in bringing down transaction costs in international markets, while also maintaining and raising efficiency. This finding is reinforced by additional evidence, suggesting that ISC matters more for the export participation of domestic firms than for foreign firms and is of greater importance for firms based in countries characterised by severe institutional voids.
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International Diffusion of Food Safety Standards: The Role of Domestic Certifiers and International Trade

Rezgar, M. ; Yuqing, Z.
Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, February 6-9, 2016.

 

Abstract: We examined the cross-national adoption of six major private food safety standards, focusing on the role of certifiers and international trade. Results based on a negative binomial model show that the number of domestic certification bodies, total food exports, and the proportion of food exports to North America had a positive effect on a country’s adoption of food safety standards. We also found that distance creates product differentiation for standards and therefore disadvantages developing countries in Africa and Asia for adopting standards. Providing these countries with better access to certifiers can alleviate this geographic disadvantage.

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North-South Standards Harmonization and International Trade

Disdier, A.C. ; Fontagné, L. ; Cadot, O.

World Bank Economic Review, vol. 29, n° 2, 2015, 327-352

 

Abstract: Recent years have seen a surge in economic integration agreements (EIAs) and the development of non-tarif measures (NTMs). As a consequence, a growing number of EIAs include provisions on NTMs. However, little attention has been given in the literature to the effects of NTM liberalization in the context of EIAs. In this paper, we focus on provisions for technical regulations and analyze whether the North-South harmonization of technical barriers affects international trade. Using a gravity equation, it tests whether, as a result of the deep
integration associated with standards provisions included in the EIA, the Southern partners’ trade expands with the North, but at the expense of their trade with non-bloc Southern partners. Empirical results provide strong support for this conjecture. Moreover, harmonization on the basis of regional standards negatively impacts the exports of developing countries to the North

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The Role of Proximity and Standards in Guaranteeing Vegetable Safety in Vietnam. In World Food Policy, vol. 2, n°1, 2015, 52-77

The Role of Proximity and Standards in Guaranteeing Vegetable Safety in Vietnam. In World Food Policy, vol. 2, n°1, 2015, 52-77 | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it
In this third issue, World Food Policy (WFP) presents articles, featuring global perspectives on food as well as food policies in regional and national contexts – ranging from Latin America to Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The roles of cross-continent actors are also explored in terms of implications for policy intervention. Several articles revisit or take issue with the phenomenon with which food policy experts are well familiar– the green revolution – but their arguments interestingly reflect
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Small Farmers, Standards, Value Chains, and Structural Change: Panel Evidence from Bulgaria

Small Farmers, Standards, Value Chains, and Structural Change: Panel Evidence from Bulgaria | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Van Herck, K. ; Swinnen, J.

British Food Journal, vol. 117, n° 10, 2015

 

Originality/value :

– The study is one of the first to use panel data to analyse the impact of standards on the survival and growth of small farms in value chains. The authors analyse the determinants of farm survival and growth in the Bulgarian dairy sector in the period 2003-2009, using panel surveys of 296 dairy farm households in the North and South Central Region of Bulgaria and panel data from interviews with dairy companies. The findings are relevant beyond the Bulgarian dairy sector as supply chain modernisation and changes in quality regulations are taken place in many other transition and developing countries

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Voluntary Traceability Standards: Which is the Role of Risk?

Stranieri, S. ; Banterle, A.
Communication at the 29th International Conference of Agricultural Economists, Milan, ITA, Août 2015

 

Keywords: Voluntary traceability standards, relational risk, Performance risk, Ordinal regression analysis

 

 

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Tackling the Climate Change Challenge: What Roles for Certification and Ecolabels?

Tackling the Climate Change Challenge: What Roles for Certification and Ecolabels? | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Lemeilleur, S. ; Balineau, G.

Chapter in : Climate Change and Agriculture Worldwide, Quae/Springer, 2016, 289-299


Abstract: Certification and ecolabelling are forms of private governance meant to reflect sustainable development issues. These instruments encourage ‘good’ environmental and social practices, many of which are akin to climate change mitigation and adaptation approaches. To make it clear how effective they can be in that role, we present them here, recalling that they are at once standards for best practices, by definition supposed to inform and guide stakeholders’ choices, and market incentives (bonuses, minimum prices, etc.) to change production practices. Despite their advantages, voluntary sustainability standards are proving to be ambiguous tools for meeting the challenges of climate change.

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The Ability of Organisations to Adopt Foreign Trade Standards

Malte Ehrich ; Sebastian HESS

RTG 1666 GlobalFood "Transformation of Global Agri-Food Systems: Trends, Driving Forces, and Implications for Developing Countries, Octobre 2015, 14 p.

 

Abstract: Recent empirical studies argue that the implementation of quality standards among agricultural exporters has the character of a fixed cost. However, this can be misleading if fixed costs are only understood in terms of required investments. Instead, we argue that standard adoption is the result of exporting countries’ private and public organisations managing to solve the  standard  implementation  problem.  We demonstrate  that a newly developed  theoretical approach  to  the  role  of  problem  solving in the  production  process can be interpreted  as  a model of a country’s ability to implement foreign trade standards. Predictions of this model are tested within a gravity framework: we compare doing business indicators as proxies for the  institutional  characteristics  of  countries  that  successfully  export fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, and vegetables to the  EU (as  a  high  standard  market)  against  characteristics  of countries that serve  all  markets.  Results  indicate  that  institutional  characteristics  like  e.g. starting a business, enforcing contracts, and getting credits are more relevant for exports to markets with relatively high quality standards than for overall exports.

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Results of the Global Survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards

FIBL, IISD, ITC (2015). Powerpoint presented at the Trade for Sustainable Development Forum 2015, Building Sustainable Supply Chains, 01-02/10/2015, Geneva, 4 p.

 

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The Politics of Meta-Governance in Transnational Private Sustainability Governance

The Politics of Meta-Governance in Transnational Private Sustainability Governance | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Luc Fransen
Policy Sciences, vol. 48, n° 3, sept 2015, 293-317

 

Abstract: In order to address challenges resulting from interactions between transnational private sustainability standard organizations, initiatives emerge that meta-govern these standards. Contrary to prevailing understandings in public policy literature, such meta-governance initiatives are mostly run by nongovernmental rather than governmental actors. While literature presents the sustainability standards field as predominantly governed by one meta-governor, ISEAL, it is hardly recognized that, alongside ISEAL, rival meta-governance initiatives are proliferating. These initiatives occur in similar sectors and issue fields, use quite similar modes of meta-governance and interact with each other. This paper explains the multiple emergence of meta-governance in the governance of sustainability standards in agriculture. It shows how meta-governance efforts are developed by political coalitions of nongovernmental actors with divergent views on and priorities in making production more sustainable. It therefore reveals the mechanism through which meta-governance of coordination problems among cross-border self-organizing governance arrangements may end up reproducing these coordination problems, rather than addressing them.

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Steps in the Right Direction: Understanding European Sustainability Food Labels

Abstract: The challenge of feeding 9.55 billion people by 2050 is interwoven with the sustainability challenge, e.g. climate change, eutrophication, biodiversity loss, as well as social issues. These factors are effecting the ability to produce enough food for an increasing population, while the food system itself is a contributor to the declining capacities of the ecosystems. This thesis identifies Sustainability Food Labeling and Certification as one tool to promote more sustainable production and encourage conscious consumption. The complexity of the problem requires a strategic approach to strive towards sustainability. Therefore this thesis examines European Food Labels to gain understanding of the extent to which they address the sustainability challenge and how this could be improved by a Strategic Sustainable Development approach. Data was obtained through a document analysis of certification schemes and websites; and interviews with labeling bodies and platforms. The analysis revealed some weaknesses including definitions of sustainability which were found to be too general, a focus on mainly environmental sustainability, and little cooperation between labeling bodies. Using these findings, suggestions were drawn to foster a strategic approach. The recommendations call for a concrete definition of sustainability, a broader inclusion of social sustainability and greater cooperation between labels.

 

Gossenberger, J. ; Härnby, F. ; Sander, L.

Thesis submitted for completion of Master of Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden, 2015, 78 p.

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Transformative Capacities of Global Private Sustainability Standards: A Reflection on Scenarios in the Field of Agricultural Commodities

Transformative Capacities of Global Private Sustainability Standards: A Reflection on Scenarios in the Field of Agricultural Commodities | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Glasbergen, P. ; Schouten, G.

Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 2015, n° 58, 85-101

 

Abstract: Since the mid-1990s, private sustainability standards and certification schemes have aimed to introduce a new paradigm in the trade of agricultural commodities. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty about the transformative capacity of these arrangements. This paper discusses three plausible scenarios for the future of governance in the field of sustainable agriculture: leaving it to the market; bringing the state back in; and new forms of meta-governance. These scenarios are evolving concurrently but also build upon each other. Contingencies that are important are consumer power, the proliferation of corporate social responsibility, and the enclosure of new markets for sustainable products. It is concluded that, because of their limitations, none of the scenarios will be able to realise a system change on its own.

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Quelle place pour les normes privées de durabilité dans les échanges commerciaux ? | Alim'agri

Quelle place pour les normes privées de durabilité dans les échanges commerciaux ? | Alim'agri | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it
Barjolle, D. ; Coste, J. ; Djama, M. ; Doussan, I. ; Gueneau, S. ; Renard, OK ; Selvaradj, S.
Rapport final IRAM/CIRAD/INRA, janvier 2016, 92 p.

Le ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt (MAAF) souhaite approfondir sa connaissance des « normes privées de durabilité » (NPD), qui prennent une place croissante dans les échanges mondiaux de produits agricoles et agroalimentaires : qui sont les acteurs en présence, les produits et les volumes concernés, quels sont les enjeux pour la France ? Cette étude vise ainsi à « améliorer la connaissance des intérêts, des limites et des marges de manoeuvre liés au développement des normes privées de durabilité dans les échanges commerciaux internationaux, afin de formuler en conséquence des recommandations stratégiques pour la France et le ministère de l’agriculture, de l’agroalimentaire et de la forêt »
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Private Sustainability Standards in the Ugandan Coffee Sector: Empty Promises or Catalysts for Development?

Ayoti, K.T. ; Maertens, M. Bioeconomics Working Paper Series 2016/3, 28 p.
Abstract: In this paper we investigate whether private sustainability standards in the coffee sector in Uganda live up to the promises they make to consumers to improve the welfare and productivity of smallholder farmers. We use cross-sectional household survey data from Eastern Uganda and instrumental variable methods to reveal how participation in two different coffee certification schemes affects smallholders. We find that smallholder participation in a double Fairtrade - Organic certification scheme neither increases producer income, nor reduces poverty. While certified producers do receive higher coffee prices, the certificate results in lower land and labour productivity and the price premium does not compensate for that. For participation in a triple Utz - Rainforest Alliance - 4C certification scheme, we find increases in coffee income, in land and labour productivity but no significant impact on poverty reduction. The results imply that almost a decade after their introduction, the certification schemes have failed to contribute to poverty reduction in a region that is faced with a high incidence of poverty. The results indicate that a price premium to producers is neither necessary, nor sufficient, for private sustainability standards to contribute to rural incomes, and that yields are more important than prices in increasing net returns to coffee farmers. In areas with degraded soils and low average yields, FT certification focusing on fair producer prices, might be better for smallholder coffee farmers when combined with standards that focus on good agricultural practices and productivity growth, such as Utz, than when combined with Organic standards. The results put doubt on the sincerity of private sustainability standards and the justification of the price premium consumers pay for certified products, as standards may not always live up to the expectations they create. .
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The Emergence of Southern Standards in Agricultural Value Chains: A New Trend in Sustainability Governance?

The Emergence of Southern Standards in Agricultural Value Chains: A New Trend in Sustainability Governance? | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Schouten, G. ; Bitzer, V.

Ecological Economics, vol. 120, december 2015, 175-184

 

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to understand and trace the emergence of Southern standards in global agricultural value chains. While the trend towards private standards established by developed country or ‘Northern’ actors has received significant attention in the literature, recently an emergent counter-trend can be observed which manifests in the development of standards by Southern producer country actors. This may be attributed to the perceived lack of legitimacy of global standards, especially from a Southern perspective. The paper therefore applies a legitimacy perspective to analyse the emergence of new Southern standards in Indonesian and Malaysian palm oil, Brazilian soy and South African fruit production. The analysis reveals that Southern standards both target different audiences to obtain legitimacy and rely on different sources of legitimacy as compared to established Northern standards. This is done explicitly in order to create cognitive and moral distance to Northern standards and ultimately to reclaim the issue areas occupied by Northern standards. The paper discusses and reflects on the implications of the emergence of Southern standards for sustainability governance and concludes with the identification of future research opportunities on Southern standards.

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Avec le bio vers une agriculture moderne et durable

Niggli, U. ; Plagge, J. ; Fertl, T. et al., septembre 2015, 36 p.

 

Résumé : La Fédération internationale des mouvements d’agriculture biologique (IFOAM Organic International) a lancé lors de la foire spécialisée Biofach 2014 l’idée d’une agriculture biologique 3.0. L’occasion était fournie par un sentiment largement répandu que
l'agriculture biologique, malgré ses grandes réussites, se trouvait toujours dans une niche tout en ayant l’obligation de mieux s’orienter en fonction des défis à venir. La discussion qui a suivi le lancement de cette idée a provoqué d’une part une réflexion sur l’évolution passée et actuelle de l'agriculture biologique et d’autre part un débat dynamique sur les potentielles perspectives d’avenir. Les défis que l'agriculture et la filière agroalimentaire biologiques doivent relever se situent avant tout:

- dans la faible croissance de la production agricole, surtout en Europe où se trouvent les marchés demandeurs,

- dans le potentiel encore inutilisé ou manquant de l'agriculture biologique  pour assurer une sécurité alimentaire durable,

- dans l’augmentation de la concurrence d’autres initiatives de développement durable,
- dans la transparence et la sécurité des filières de création de valeur ajoutée,
- ainsi que dans l’amélioration de la communication nuancée avec les consommateurs.

 

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Food Safety in Developing Countries: An Overview

Delia Grace, Octobre 2015, ILRI [International Livestock Research Institute], 83 p.

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Pesticide Food Safety Standards as Companions to Tolerances and Maximum Residue Limits

Pesticide Food Safety Standards as Companions to Tolerances and Maximum Residue Limits | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Winter, C.K. ; Jara, E.A.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture, vol. 14, n° 11, nov. 2015, 2358-2364

 

Abstract: Allowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientifically defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2 000 mg kg−1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg−1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg−1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The benefits of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health significance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universally applied to all potential pesticide residues on all food commodities, can be modified by specific jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of field level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.

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The Role of Private Standards for Manufactured Food Exports from Developing Countries

Mangelsdorf, A. Working Paper - Technical University Berlin

 

Abstract: In this paper, we examine the trade impact of private standards on exports of manufactured food products. Our database covers information from about 12,000 food manufacturing companies from 88 countries – including 53 developing countries -- that are certified with retailer-based International Featured Standard (IFS). We use a dynamic gravity model for the period 2008 to 2013 and find that IFS certifications are significantly positively correlated with exports suggesting that private standards certifications push  exports  of manufactured  food products.  Controlling for geographical  distance and common language and other trade related variables, we find that standards certifications have the largest impact for European countries, followed by American and Asian countries. In contrast, the coefficient estimate for African countries is insignificant. Exports from African countries seem not to benefit from the increased use of private standards which puts into question the poverty reducing effect of private standards for low-income countries. 

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Do Private Standards Benefit Workers in Horticultural Export Chains in Peru?

Schuster, M. ; Maertens, Miet
Journal of Cleaner Production, online first, 21 octobre 2015

 

Abstract: Private standards are spreading rapidly in international food production and trade, and are moving beyond food quality and safety aspect to address environmental and social concerns. We examine how effective private standards are in improving employment conditions in global food supply chains. Using panel data from own company and worker surveys and different econometric techniques, we analyze how the adoption of a variety of private standards, that differ with respect to their focus on labor, influences employment conditions in production, processing and exporting companies in the horticultural export chain in Peru. We find that workers employed in companies adopting private labor standards are more likely to be paid a minimum wage, to have a contract and to receive training but there is no effect of private standards on the level of the wage and on the employment period. We conclude that labor standards are most effective in reinforcing the respect of national labor laws and when there exists a clear cut definition on the employment requirements they push forward. Despite the existence of labor regulations at the national level and the wide-spread use of private labor standards, ethical labor concerns do remain an issue in the Peruvian horticultural export sector.

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Good Agricultural Practices, Quality, Traceability, and Precision Agriculture

Josse De Baerdemaeker ; Wouter Saeys.
In : Qin Zhang (ed.).  Precision Agriculture Technology for Crop Farming. CRC Press,  2016, p. 279-198

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Creating Legitimacy for Private Rules: Explaining the Choice of Legitimation Strategies in Transnational Non-State Governance

Creating Legitimacy for Private Rules: Explaining the Choice of Legitimation Strategies in Transnational Non-State Governance | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Philip Schleifer
Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies ; European University Institute Working Paper n° 62, 2015, 29 p

 

Abstract: Transnational non-state governance supplies a growing proportion of the rules and regulations that govern the global economy, raising pressing questions about its legitimacy. Cutting across established perspectives, this article adopts the empirical approach of legitimation research to explain variation in the choice of normative strategies to create legitimacy for private rules. To this end, it reviews existing explanations of institutional design in private governance research and integrates them into a common framework of analysis. This framework is put to work in three in-depth case studies, tracing the formation of multi-stakeholder governance in the field of sustainable agriculture – currently the most dynamic site of transnational non-state institution building. The case studies reveal that a full explanation of variation in the use of participation-, expert-, and procedural fairness-based strategies needs to consider both the internal mechanisms of institutional choice as well as differences in the political environments in which these choices are taken.

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Governance of Agri-food Value Chains

Governance of Agri-food Value Chains | FOOD SAFETY - STANDARDS - SUSTAINABILITY - QUALITY .......Veille documentaire Equipe Normes MOISA...... | Scoop.it

Special Issue : Governance of Agri-food Value Chains

British Food Journal, vol. 117, n° 10, 2015

 

Keywords: Regulation, Governance, Standards, Value chains, Structural change, Institutional change

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Global Organic Agriculture Governance Through Standards as an Organizational Field

Schwindenhammer, Sandra. Paper presented at the ECPR General Conference,  26-29 August  2015, Université de Montréal, Panel ‘Governing food in an era of crises’

Abstract: The  paper  deals  with  the  global  architecture  of  the  dynamic  and  multi-sectoral  food  and agriculture  regime.  The  special  focus  lies  on  organic  agriculture  governance  through standards as a cross-boundary and multi-dimensional policy field. The analysis considers the interconnectedness of structure and agency and combines a neo-institutional organizational field approach with research on entrepreneurship. It conceptualizes global organic agriculture governance through standards as a historically grown organizational field that is the result of the interplay of context-specific factors and the inter-institutional engagement of public and private  entrepreneurs.  It  traces  three  historical  phases  of  institutional  development  and identifies key entrepreneurs that gained the legitimacy to prescribe how global and regional standard-setting in global organic agriculture governance ought to be designed. Finally, the paper discusses in how far the regulatory shift towards the inter-sectoral interplay of public and  private  actors  poses  challenges  to  the  global  organic  agriculture  architecture  to  be effective and legitimate.

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