Rather than focus on the technology itself, Sparrow advised, ask, "What do you want students to be able to do at the end of this course? What challenges are you currently facing? If we start with technology as the solution, we are going to get to the wrong answer," she said. "Start with what students need to know and do first, and how technology might fit. Sometimes it is as simple as a whiteboard or an overhead projector. If that is the technology that gets students to talk and share the kinds of problems they are solving in their class and teach those to other students, then that is the appropriate technology."