During one of our first visits to an iPad school, students told us that their favorite use of the tablet was for note taking. They had an app that enabled them to leave their paper notebooks at home and organize their notes in one place. We're not opposed to gains in productivity, but if all tablet computers do is replace notebooks with notebook apps, we're unlikely to look back on the United States' investment in tablets with much enthusiasm.
Getting computing devices into schools is relatively easy; changing classroom practice with technology is really, really hard. Over the past century, radio, television, video cassette recorders, desktop computers, laptop computers, handheld devices, tablets, and cell phones have all been heralded as potentially transformative classroom tools (Cuban, 1986, 2003). With every generation of computing technology, a small group of educators has been able to use new tools in transformative ways, but on the whole, classroom practices have proven stubbornly resistant to change. Consider this thought experiment: If you could take all the money that schools invested in computer labs in the 1980s and 1990s, would you spend that money again on those labs?
Edgar Dale (1900-1985) was an American educator who is best known for developing “Dale’s Cone of Experience” (the cone above) and for his work on how to incorporate audio-visual materials into the classroom learning experience. The image above was photocopied directly from his book, Audio-visual methods in teaching (from the 1969 edition).
You’ll note that Dale included no numbers in his cone. He also warned his readers not to take the cone too literally.
Unfortunately, someone somewhere decided to add the misleading numbers.
The learning industry also has responsibilities.
Educational institutions must ensure that validated information is more likely to be conveyed to their students, within the bounds of academic freedom…of course.Educational institutions must teach their students how to be good consumers of “research,” “data,” and information (more generally).Trade organizations must provide better introductory education for their members; more myth-busting articles, blog posts, videos, etc.; and push a stronger evidence-based-practice agenda.Researchers have to partner with research translators more often to get research-based information to real-world practitioners.
Kim Flintoff's insight:
As evidence-based practitioners, all teachers are now charged with considering the implications for teaching and learning. Many of us have assumed the validity of the memes that have been circulating.
As teachers we often claim to be informed but I suspect most of us are more trusting than critical when we are offered information in professional development settings. And few of us conduct our own studies.
The flipped classroom approach has been used for years in some disciplines, notably within the humanities. Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson promoted the use of this approach in their book Effective Grading (1998). They propose a model in which students gain first-exposure learning prior to class and focus on the processing part of learning (synthesizing, analyzing, problem-solving, etc.) in class.
The skilled learners of the world don’t always excel in their studies. And I don’t mean Gates and Einstein. I’m talking about the huge number of people who are passionate about knowledge, who have a real knack for remembering facts, who are self-taught musicians and casual scholars. People who ignore homework because it’s boring to them, fail geometry because their teacher makes it boring to them, don’t listen to lectures because they’d rather absorb the information themselves. These people aren’t good students; they’re natural learners. And we’re doing them–and the world– a disservice by treating them like second class citizens.
The challenge is offering opportunities for meaningful engagement of skilled learners. Not everyone comfortably jumps through other people's hoops. Higher Education is charged with ways of enabling skilled learners to set up their own hoops.
"Last September I introduced the recently published Student Discovery Sets from the Library of Congress. These ebooks are collections of primary source sets designed to provide interactive, inquiry learning while introducing students to primary sources on common curricular topics."
In 2012, the University of Washington provost's office, information technology department and Center for Teaching and Learning (CTL) came together to develop an initiative about active learning, with a focus on flipping the classroom. They created five learning communities with a total of 62 faculty members. Each community was led by a facilitator and met every other week for a quarter.
"The agenda was designed by each faculty group," said Beth Kalikoff, director of the CTL. "It is the nature of these learning communities that the agenda is determined by the people in the room." Among the issues they addressed was how to explain the flipping concept to students. "No matter how carefully you set it up, you have to do a good job of explaining to students why you are doing this," she said.
Rather than focus on the technology itself, Sparrow advised, ask, "What do you want students to be able to do at the end of this course? What challenges are you currently facing? If we start with technology as the solution, we are going to get to the wrong answer," she said. "Start with what students need to know and do first, and how technology might fit. Sometimes it is as simple as a whiteboard or an overhead projector. If that is the technology that gets students to talk and share the kinds of problems they are solving in their class and teach those to other students, then that is the appropriate technology."
Someone recently told me that they heard of an approach where all the boring content delivery lecture material is put online so that more active learning can take place in the classroom. They then asked me if this was the best approach for online learning? What they were describing is blended learning or the “flipped” classroom approach. Good blended classrooms have a significant amount of active learning. The active learning philosophies need not only occur in the classroom however. There are ways to leverage the online space to include active learning. Active learning is basically any part of the course that involves active “interaction” instead of just passive tasks. It engages learners into activities that help them clarify, investigate, apply, create and integrate knowledge. Consider the human-factor: any types of human interactions such as Learner-to-Learner or Learner-to-TeachingTeam qualify. However, learners can also interact with their physical or virtual environment and that can be active. Just because you have an online course, it doesn’t mean you have to design learning activities that only involve reading web-pages or textbooks all day. Here’s a list of ideas, across four categories, for active learning online:
A policy expert and author explains why using technology to leverage new forms of teaching excites both teachers and students.
Today's classrooms are outfitted with the latest technologies, but too often the teaching methods don't take full advantage of the options these tools afford. Flipping the classroom — inverting the time spent on lecturing and homework — can create new inroads for learning by leveraging the technology used in classrooms and at home, says Kathleen Fulton, an author and president of Fulton Creative Consulting."
Building on Dewey’s work , David Kolb conceptualized an experiential learning theory composed of four cyclical stages: activity and practice, review and reflections, theories and concepts, applications and case studies. Reality Works has this wonderful free visual with more insights on Kolb’s theory together with some interesting nuggets on what experiential learning is all about.
Thanks to ===> http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2015/04/experiential-learning-visually.html <=== for proposing this great infographic.
Many education reformers and education pundits have been pushing for student-centered classrooms for quite some time. The teacher should simply be a facilitator of the class, and let students construct their own knowledge. Then students, left to themselves, with their natural curiosity and inner desire to learn freed from constraints, will take ownership of their learning and become lifelong learners. The reason many have been calling for this change is that classrooms have been too teacher-centered for a long time. In another post I shared some data from the Marzano Research group that indicates classrooms across the United States are heavily teacher-centered. So I get it. We need to move away from the teacher as the sole deliverer of content. But lets not throw out the baby with the bath water.
In recent years, transmedia has come into the spotlight among those creating and using media and technology for children. We believe that transmedia has the potential to be a valuable tool for expanded learning that addresses some of the challenges facing children growing up in the digital age. Produced by the USC Annenberg Innovation Lab and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center, this paper provides a much-needed guidebook to transmedia in the lives of children age 5-11 and its applications to storytelling, play, and learning. Building off of a review of the existing popular and scholarly literature about transmedia and children, this report identifies key links between transmedia and learning, highlights key characteristics of transmedia play, and presents core principles for and extended case studies of meaningful transmedia play experiences. The authors hope that T is for Transmedia will incite conversation among diverse stakeholders including educators, entertainment industry executives, creative artists, academic scholars, policy makers, and others interested in the future of children’s learning through transmedia.
In general, research has shown that the flipped classroom model has a positive impact on student outcomes. Last year, a University of Washington "meta-analysis" of 225 studies compared student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing vs. active learning: "The results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6 percent in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning," the study noted in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Nevertheless, faculty members, provosts and centers for teaching and learning continue to try to quantify the impact of flipping, using traditional lecture classes as control groups. There is still a lot to learn and a need for more evidence and detail on the many facets of a flip.
Emergency Medical Technician courses are a natural for the flipped classroom It’s 17:00 and I’m walking into the high school cafeteria that is currently host to my Emergency Medical Technician class. The room is set up for maybe two hundred
Jacqui Kelly's insight:
Health Sciences has been flipping activities for a number of years and here's another example providing a detailed breakdown/example of the different active learning activities being used in place of lectures.
Vygotsky’s earlier concept of mediation, which encompassed learning alongside others (Zone of Proximal Development) and through interaction with artifacts, was the basis for Engeström’s version of Activity Theory (known as Scandinavian Activity Theory). Engeström’s approach was to explain human thought processes not simply on the basis of the individual, but in the wider context of the individual’s interactions within the social world through artifacts, and specifically in situations where activities were being produced.
In Activity Theory people (actors) use external tools (e.g. hammer, computer, car) and internal tools (e.g. plans, cognitive maps) to achieve their goals. In the social world there are many artifacts, which are seen not only as objects, but also as things that are embedded within culture, with the result that every object has cultural and/or social significance.
Tools (which can limit or enable) can also be brought to bear on the mediation of social interaction, and they influence both the behavior of the actors (those who use the tools) and also the social structure within which the actors exist (the environment, tools, artifacts). For further reading, here is Engeström’s own overview of 3 Generations of Activity Theory development. The first figure shows Second Generation AT as it is usually presented in the literature.
This handbook is a product of the Digital Commonwealth project which sought to facilitate a creative response to the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games. However, the handbook is designed to be of use to a wider range of individuals, community groups and third sector organisations interested in using digital media (blogs, audio, video and social media) to tell their stories. Please use and share!
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