Física Interessante
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A Física interessante, sim! É incrível como maus professores transformaram a Física naquele amontoado de fórmulas sem sentido! A Física é mais surpreendente do que a Ficção Científica! Mais incrível que Arquivo X. Newton, Einstein ou Gauss fazem parte da nossa cultura tanto quanto os Beatles, Picasso ou Marx.
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Physics tweak solves five of the biggest problems in one go 

Physics tweak solves five of the biggest problems in one go  | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

It’s not a bad day at work. Five of the biggest fundamental problems in physics seem sorted in one go. The model that can do this, formulated by Guillermo Ballesteros at the University of Paris-Saclay in France and his colleagues, may explain dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, inflation and the strong CP problem. Dubbed SMASH, the model is based on the standard model of particle physics, but has a few bits tacked on. The standard model is a collection of particles and forces that describes the building blocks of the universe. Although it has passed every test thrown at it, it can’t explain some phenomena.

For example, we don’t understand dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up 84 per cent of the universe’s mass. Nor why there is more matter than antimatter. Nor why the universe grew so rapidly in its youth during a period known as inflation. The list continues.

 

So something is still missing from the standard model. “Presumably we need some new particles,” says Mikhail Shaposhnikov at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. “The question is, how many new particles do we need? Some models, like supersymmetry, add hundreds of particles – none of which have been spotted at colliders like the LHC. But SMASH adds only six: three neutrinos, a fermion and a field that includes two particles. That’s a reasonable approach, Shaposhnikov says. “I would start by assuming that the number of new particles is very small,” he says. “And then add new particles only if you really need them.”

 

SMASH is several theories smashed together, says co-author Andreas Ringwald at the German Electron Synchrotron, DESY, in Hamburg. It builds on Shaposhnikov’s model from 2005, which added three neutrinos to the three already known in order to solve four fundamental problems in physics: dark matter, inflation, some questions about thenature of neutrinos, and the origins of matter.

SMASH adds a new field to explain some of those problems a little differently. This field includes two particles: the axion, a dark horse candidate for dark matter, and the inflaton, the particle behind inflation. As a final flourish, SMASH uses the field to introduce the solution to a fifth puzzle: the strong CP problem, which helps explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe.

 

“The best thing about the theory is that it can be tested or checked within the next 10 years or so,” Ringwald says. “You can always invent new theories, but if they can only be tested in 100 years, or never, then this is not real science but meta-science.”

 

SMASH predicts that the axion should be about ten billion times lighter than the electron. Particles this small could be probed by the CULTASK experiment running in South Korea, or the proposed ORPHEUS experiment in the US and the planned MADMAX experiment in Germany. This doesn’t mean it’s game over. It’s more like game on. Physicists will continue to compete to find experimental evidence or a better model. “The battle is open,” Ringwald says

 

Reference:  https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.05414v1.pdf


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A truly mind-boggling GIF and yet, it makes up only about 0.000003% of the entire night sky!!

A truly mind-boggling GIF and yet, it makes up only about 0.000003% of the entire night sky!! | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

A viral image in its own right, the Hubble Deep Field image has been passed around by scientists and stargazers alike as a symbol that (given the enormous probabilities) we are probably not alone in the universe. Some estimates put the total number of stars in the universe at around 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (1 sextillion).

 

But what's not readily apparent to most viewers is how incredibly small the field of view is relative to the entire night sky. According to Hubble, the field of view is 4.6 square arcminutes (arcminutes are used to measure angular size). With the entire sky coming in at 148,510,800 square arcminutes, that means the Hubble Deep Field photos make up about 0.000003% of the entire night sky!!!1 That is very small!! 


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‘Star Trek’ at 50: How a space saga inspired a generation of scientists, engineers and writers

‘Star Trek’ at 50: How a space saga inspired a generation of scientists, engineers and writers | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Fifty years after “Star Trek” made its debut, the science-fiction saga’s biggest legacy may well be its inspirational impact on millions of scientists and engineers, writers and fans over the decades.

Humanity hasn’t yet invented the starships and transporters that are commonplace in the TV shows and movies, but we do have plenty of people who are exploring strange new worlds, seeking out new life and laying plans to boldly go where no one has gone before.

We asked a variety of space-savvy luminaries to reflect on the 50th anniversary of “Star Trek,” which is being celebrated today at Seattle’s EMP Museum. Here are six of the responses:


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Physicists Go Hunting for Consciousness in the Brain

Physicists Go Hunting for Consciousness in the Brain | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Renowned physicist Edward Witten recently suggested that consciousness might forever remain a mystery. But his words haven't discouraged other physicists from trying to unravel it. Yes, physicists.

 

In the past, consciousness was almost entirely relegated to the musings of philosophers; it was too ethereal to be studied materially. But as science advanced, so too did our ability to examine the wispy intricacies of the waking mind. Biologists joined the pursuit, followed by neuroscientists with brain scanners in tow. It was only recently that select physicists shifted their attentions from concepts like the Big Bang, quantum information, and electrodynamics and instead began tendering their two cents on consciousness.

 

Sir Roger Penrose, a mathematical physicist at Oxford University, has openly wondered if the minute interactions taking place within the subatomic world of quantum mechanics might give rise to consciousness.

 

UC-Santa Barbara theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate David Gross has offered other ideas. As Ker Than wrote for LiveScience in 2005, Gross "speculated that consciousness might be similar to what physicists call a phase transition, an abrupt and sudden large-scale transformation resulting from several microscopic changes. The emergence of superconductivity in certain metals when cooled below a critical temperature is an example of a phase transition."

 

Gross might be on to something. One of the leading theories of consciousness comes from neuroscientist Giulio Tononi at the University of Wisconsin. Similar to Gross' concept of a phase transition, Tononi suggests that as the brain integrates more and more information, a threshold is crossed. Suddenly, a new and emergent state arises: consciousness. According to the theory, only certain parts of the brain integrate all that information. Together, these regions constitute the seat of consciousness.


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'T violation' could be the origin of time evolution and conservation laws.

'T violation' could be the origin of time evolution and conservation laws. | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Associate Professor Dr Joan Vaccaro, of Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, has solved an anomaly of conventional physics and shown that a mysterious effect called 'T violation' could be the origin of time evolution and conservation laws.

"I begin by breaking the rules of physics, which is rather bold I have to admit, but I wanted to understand time better and conventional physics can't do that," Dr Vaccaro says.

 

"I do get conventional physics in the end though. This means that the rules I break are not fundamental. It also means that I can see why the universe has those rules. And I can also see why the universe advances in time."

 

In her research published in The Royal Society Dr Vaccaro says T violation, or a violation of time reversal (T) symmetry, is forcing the universe and us in it, into the future. "If T violation wasn't involved we wouldn't advance in time and we'd be stuck at the Big Bang, so this shows how we escaped the Big Bang.

 

"I found the mechanism that forces us to go to the future, the reason why you get old and the reason why we advance in time." "The universe must be symmetric in time and space overall. But we know that there appears to be a preferred direction in time because we are incessantly getting older not younger."

 

The anomaly Dr Vaccaro solves involves two things not accounted for in in conventional physical theories -- the direction of time, and the behavior of the mesons, which decay differently if time went in the opposite direction.

 

Experiments show that the behavior of mesons depends on the direction of time; in particular, if the direction of time was changed then their behavior would also," she says.

 

"Conventional physical theories can accommodate only one direction of time and one kind of meson behavior, and so they are asymmetric in this regard. But the problem is that the universe cannot be asymmetric overall.

 

"This means that physical theories must be symmetric in time. To be symmetric in time they would need to accommodate both directions of time and both meson behaviors. This is the anomaly in physics that I am attempting to solve."

 

Dr Vaccaro is presenting her work at the Soapbox Science event held in Brisbane as part of National Science Week, titled "The meaning of time: why the universe didn't stay put at the big bang and how it is 'now' and no other time."

 

Without any T violation the theory gives a very strange universe. An object like a cup can be placed in time just like it is in space.

"It just exists at one place in space and one point in time. There is nothing unusual about being at one place in space, but existing at one point in time means the object would come into existence only at that point in time and then disappear immediately.

 

"This means that conservation of matter would be violated. It also means that there would be no evolution in time. People would only exist for a single point in time -- they would not experience a "flow of time."

 

When Dr Vaccaro adds T violation to the theory, things change dramatically. "The cup is now found at any and every time," she says,

 

"This means that the theory now has conservation of matter -- the conservation has emerged from the theory rather than being assumed. Moreover, objects change over time, cups chip and break, and people would grow old and experience a "flow of time." This means that the theory now has time evolution.


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Escaping an Acoustic Black Hole: Strongest Evidence Yet for Hawking Radiation

Escaping an Acoustic Black Hole: Strongest Evidence Yet for Hawking Radiation | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

The exotic cosmic objects we call black holes aren’t truly holes, and it turns out that they may not be totally black either. In an article that appears today in the journal Nature Physics, Jeff Steinhauer from the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion) outlines the strongest experimental evidence yet that energy can escape from a black hole.

 

Black holes are extremely dense areas of space defined by an event horizon, a boundary beyond which nothing that gets sucked in can escape—not even light (hence the “black” in “black hole”). Theory predicts that black holes can be the size of an atom or millions of times as massive as the sun, although smaller ones are less stable. As strange and unique as they seem, there are likely millions of black holes in the universe, including at least one at the center of each galaxy.

Nearly 50 years ago, bold work by then-graduate student Jacob Bekenstein inspired black hole expert Stephen Hawking to take a closer look at the theoretical physics governing black holes. In the process, a surprised Hawking discovered that quantum mechanics enables some energy to escape from black holes. Hawking realized that over time this could cause black holes to shrink and evaporate.

Experimentally verifying or ruling out this “Hawking radiation” might seem like just a scientific curiosity, but it is actually an important test of our understanding of the universe and its behavior. Its existence would answer some questions, but raise others.

One of the biggest unsolved problems in physics is how general relativity merges with quantum mechanics. Gravitational effects and quantum effects meet head-on in black holes, so they are an ideal place to study this. However, the Hawking radiation escaping from a cosmic black hole is so small that we aren’t able to detect it directly, at least not yet.

If you can’t study Hawking radiation from a cosmic black hole, why not build your own black hole? Okay, how about a system with similar properties? The experiment reported in the Nature Physics article involved an analogous system called an acoustic black hole. Acoustic black holes don’t occur in nature, but they can be built out of a fluid whose flow changes from subsonic to supersonic. The idea was proposed in 1981 by William Unruh.

An acoustic black hole is similar in many ways to a cosmic black hole, but it traps sound instead of matter and light. It turns out the equations that describe how gravity affects light are the same equations that describe how a flowing fluid affects phonons, which you can think of as a kind of particle that makes up sound waves.

Like the event horizon of a black hole, the event horizon of an acoustic black hole is the point of no return. Any sound that goes in will not come out—unless the hole emits the phonon equivalent of Hawking radiation. The systems are so similar that if you detect phonon radiation coming from an acoustical black hole, Hawking radiation most likely exists too.


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Le récentisme, une falsification de l'Histoire

Le récentisme, une falsification de l'Histoire | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
L'Antiquité n'est que pure invention destinée à légitimer le pouvoir des seigneurs de la Renaissance. Ou bien le Moyen Âge est faux. En tout cas, on vous ment !
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Student’s Faucet Design Saves Water By Swirling It Into Beautiful Patterns

Student’s Faucet Design Saves Water By Swirling It Into Beautiful Patterns | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Simin Qiu, the creator and designer of this concept designed the faucet such that it passes water via a double turbine .The latter rotates as the water courses through it thus bring about a lattice of elaborate and beautiful jets of water. Less water is used to form this intricate swirls, in fact it reduces the flow of water by 15%.This means that less water is utilized at any point in time, thus saving you water. Three nozzles are available all creating different water swirl patterns. The  Design concept award in 2014 was awarded to Qiu for this concept. In order to retain the sleek and elegant design, the operation of this faucet is carried out with a simple touch button at the top.


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Dark Matter Keeps us Still in the Dark

Dark Matter Keeps us Still in the Dark | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Dark matter has an interesting history.  It was first proposed to account for the fact that stars in our galaxy move much faster than they should around the galactic core. Evidence of dark matter has been seen in galactic collisions like the Bullet Cluster, as well as through gravitational lensing by galaxies. On the other hand, we have yet to find any direct detection of dark matter particles. In fact, many of the likely candidates for dark matter have been all but eliminated. Then there is thepuzzling aspect of dwarf galaxies.

 

Although dark matter (specifically cold dark matter) works well on large cosmic scales and within large galaxies such as the Milky Way, it doesn’t seem to match up well with dwarf galaxies for several reasons.  One of this is that computer simulations of dark matter predict that spiral galaxies should have many more satellite dwarf galaxies than they actually do.  For example, models predict that the Milky Way should have about 500 satellite galaxies, which in reality it has only 11.  It should also be the case that these satellite galaxies orbit the main galaxy in random directions, but studies of the Andromeda galaxy finds that satellites are somewhat clustered in a plane.  So either something is up with dark matter, or there is an issue with the simulations.

 

Another problem with dwarf galaxies is known as the cuspy halo (or core-cusp) problem.  Basically if dark matter is “cold”, it should gravitationally clump toward the center of a mass.  This means the distribution of a galaxy’s dark matter halo should have a cusp in the center.  We don’t see such dark matter clumping, even in our own galaxy. This is a particular problem in diffuse dwarf galaxies known as low surface brightness galaxies, or LSBs. With spiral galaxies such a the Milky way, you can argue that the central core of regular matter masks the effects of a dark matter cusp. But since LSBs are diffuse, and they still no cusp of dark matter, that argument isn’t very compelling.

 

So what if dark matter is wrong?  The main alternative to dark matter are a range of modified gravity models.  These propose that on galactic scales gravity differs from the form described by general relativity.  The most popular of these modified gravity models is known as modified Newtonian dynamics, or MoND.  It turns out that MoND works really well for LSB galaxies.  The stellar motion of LSBs matches the predictions of MoND, so you could call it a win for modified gravity. But modified gravity also has several major problems.  It doesn’t account for effects such as the Bullet Cluster, it is completely contradicted by the clustering of galaxies on large cosmic scales, and it incorrectly predicts the motions of galaxies within clusters.

 

So where does that leave us? At this point it is generally thought that dark matter not only exists, it accounts for most if not all of the effects we see. We have enough observational evidence to support the existence of dark matter, and effects such as large scale clustering can’t be described by any modified gravity model that also agrees with the experimental limits of special and general relativity.  The big question is whether dark matter can account for all the effects such as LSBs, which it hasn’t done so far. Without a direct observation of dark matter, all sorts of variations have been proposed that might solve the LSB problem among others.

 

The alternative is that in addition to dark matter there is some new gravitational effect.  Right now most astrophysicists don’t see that as very likely, but if we detect a type of dark matter that can’t account for dwarf galaxies, then it will be clear that modified gravity also plays a role. If that happens, it could revolutionize our understanding of the universe. It would require an extension of Newton and Einstein that are currently the foundation of modern cosmology.


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Geneticists are fun! There are genes named Smaug, tribbles, superman, Kojak, werewolf, and Yoda

Geneticists are fun! There are genes named Smaug, tribbles, superman, Kojak, werewolf, and Yoda | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
It is a well known fact that biologists are a clever bunch. Most of the time they're out applying their intellect and tackling the world's problems, but occasionally (probably at happy hour on

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The black-hole collision that reshaped physics

The black-hole collision that reshaped physics | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
A momentous signal from space has confirmed decades of theorizing on black holes — and launched a new era of gravitational-wave astronomy.

 

The event was catastrophic on a cosmic scale — a merger of black holes that violently shook the surrounding fabric of space and time, and sent a blast of space-time vibrations known as gravitational waves rippling across the Universe at the speed of light. But it was the kind of calamity that physicists on Earth had been waiting for. On 14 September, when those ripples swept across the freshly upgraded Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), they showed up as spikes in the readings from its two L-shaped detectors in Louisiana and Washington state. For the first time ever, scientists had recorded a gravitational-wave signal.

 

“There it was!” says LIGO team member Daniel Holz, an astrophysicist at the University of Chicago in Illinois. “And it was so strong, and so beautiful, in both detectors.” Although the shape of the signal looked familiar from the theory, Holz says, “it's completely different when you see something in the data. It's this transcendent moment”.

 

The signal, formally designated GW150914 after the date of its occurrence and informally known to its discoverers as 'the Event', has justly been hailed as a milestone in physics. It has provided a wealth of evidence for Albert Einstein's century-old general theory of relativity, which holds that mass and energy can warp space-time, and that gravity is the result of such warping. Stuart Shapiro, a specialist in computer simulations of relativity at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, calls it “the most significant confirmation of the general theory of relativity since its inception”.

 

But the Event also marks the start of a long-promised era of gravitational-wave astronomy. Detailed analysis of the signal has already yielded insights into the nature of the black holes that merged, and how they formed. With more events such as these — the LIGO team is analysing several other candidate events captured during the detectors' four-month run, which ended in January — researchers will be able to classify and understand the origins of black holes, just as they are doing with stars.

 

Still more events should appear starting in September, when Advanced LIGO is scheduled to begin joint observations with its European counterpart, the Franco–Italian-led Advanced Virgo facility near Pisa, Italy. (The two collaborations already pool data and publish papers together.) This detector will not only contribute crucial details to events, but could also help astronomers to make cosmological-distance measurements more accurately than before.

 

“It's going to be a really good ride for the next few years,” says Bruce Allen, managing director of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Hanover, Germany. “The more black holes they see whacking into each other, the more fun it will be,” says Roger Penrose, a theoretical physicist and mathematician at the University of Oxford, UK, whose work in the 1960s helped to lay the foundation for the theory of the objects. “Suddenly, we have a new way of looking at the Universe.”


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What’s that fossil? An app has answers.

What’s that fossil? An app has answers. | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

The Digital Atlas of Ancient Life is a free iOS app for iPhone and iPad that allows users to search for photos and information about fossils from three geological periods. It’s a completely packaged app that can be downloaded to a device and doesn’t require cell service for use—which can be handy in rural and remote locations, says Ohio University geologist Alycia Stigall.

 

Stigall and a team of Ohio University students contributed to the National Science Foundation-funded project by digitizing data on 30,000 specimens found in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana from the Ordovician Period, 443-453 million years ago.

 

Colleagues at San Jose State University and University of Kansas, which produced the app, provided data from the Pennsylvanian Period (300-323 million years ago) and the Neogene Period (23-2 million years ago). The app features data on about 800 species.

 

Many fossil specimens collected and described by scientists are housed in natural history museums or in laboratory drawers and are not accessible to the public, Stigall notes. But new software tools and apps now make it possible to digitize that information and put it in the hands of teachers, students, and backyard fossil enthusiasts, as well as the scientific community, she says.

 

The app is available at www.digitalatlastofancientlife.org.


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Fernando de la Cruz Naranjo Grisales's curator insight, April 2, 7:08 AM
Great application of digital technology.
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Great application of digital technology.
Leonardo Wild's curator insight, April 2, 11:27 AM
Great application of digital technology.
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Physicists find extreme violation of local realism in quantum hypergraph states

Physicists find extreme violation of local realism in quantum hypergraph states | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world.

 

Determining whether or not multiparticle quantum states violate local realism can be challenging. Now in a new paper, physicists have shown that a large family of multiparticle quantum states called hypergraph states violates local realism in many ways. The results suggest that these states may serve as useful resources for quantum technologies, such as quantum computers and detecting gravitational waves.

 

The physicists, Mariami Gachechiladze, Costantino Budroni, and Otfried Gühne at the University of Siegen in Germany, have published their paper on the quantum hypergraph states in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.

 

The properties of multiparticle quantum systems are described by quantum states, some of which can be represented on a graph where each point corresponds to a particle and each edge to the interaction between particles. While some quantum states can be represented by ordinary graphs, others are represented by hypergraphs. On an ordinary graph, two points can be connected by an edge, while on a hypergraph, a hyperedge can connect more than two vertices. Whereas an ordinary edge is usually drawn as a straight line between two vertices, a hyperedge is depicted as a curve that wraps around three or more vertices.


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Welcome to Asgardia! A nation (to be) created in space 

Welcome to Asgardia! A nation (to be) created in space  | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Welcome to Asgardia! Today, an international group of researchers, engineers, lawyers, and entrepreneurs announced the creation of a nation in space, named after the city of the skies ruled over by Odin in Norse mythology. Although Asgardia does not yet have any land, it is attracting citizens. Anyone can sign up on the nation’s website. Asgardia would allow space entrepreneurs to flourish, and protect Earth, too.

 

The idea behind the initiative, organizers say, is to create a new legal framework for the peaceful exploitation of space free of the control of Earth-bound nations (governance by Norse deities being preferable, obviously). The nation-building effort is led by Igor Ashurbeyli, a Russian space scientist and engineer who in 2013 founded the Aerospace International Research Center (AIRC) in Vienna, known mostly for publishing the space journal Room. Ashurbeyli told a press conference in Paris today: “The scientific and technological component of the project can be explained in just three words—peace, access, and protection.”

 

The protection component comes in the form of a satellite, scheduled to be launched in 2017, which will provide a “state-of-the-art protective shield for all humankind from cosmic manmade and natural threats to life on Earth such as space debris, coronal mass ejections, and asteroid collisions.” A bold plan, because the combined might of the world’s space agencies and military have yet to figure out how to prevent their own satellites colliding with each other, let alone protect Earth from a rock the size of a city. And it is not clear whether the organizers have the financing or technical capability to launch their own satellite.

 

The initiative appears to be an effort to sidestep the oversight of the United Nations’s Outer Space Treaty, which gives nations the duty of overseeing any space activities undertaken from its territory, whether by government bodies, commercial companies, or nonprofit organizations. The nation then takes responsibility for any damage that launchers and satellites may cause both in space and anywhere on Earth. “By creating a new Space Nation, private enterprise, innovation and the further development of space technology to support humanity will flourish free from the tight restrictions of state control that currently exist,” the project said in a statement. It’s not yet clear, however, what kind of governmental oversight, democratic or otherwise, is provided for in the Asgardian constitution—or whether the nation even has one.

 

Asgardia is not yet recognized by any other nation, nor by the United Nations, and it is not clear how, not having its own territory to launch from, it will be able to loft a satellite without it coming under some other nation’s control as described by the Outer Space Treaty. 

 

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Star is Shooting Planet-Size Balls of Hot Plasma into Space at a high velocity

Star is Shooting Planet-Size Balls of Hot Plasma into Space at a high velocity | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
The Hubble telescope detects a nearby dying star shooting out planet-size blobs of hot plasma at a high velocity.

 

When a dying star goes down, does it go down fighting? That seems to be the case with the dying star V Hydrae, a large red giant 1,200 light-years from Earth that the Hubble telescope has seen shooting super-hot blobs of plasma twice the size of Mars rapidly into space. How rapid? About 500,000 miles per hour. Only 1,200 light years away?

 

According to Raghvendra Sahai from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and author of astudy in The Astrophysical Journal on the discovery, the star-fired hot blobs (over 17,000 degrees F/9,400 degrees C –- twice as hot as the Sun) were detected during an 11-year observation period from 2002 to 2013. The data collected shows the star has been shooting out blobs at a rate of one every 8.5 years for at least 400 years.


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Tardigrades Kept In Deep Freeze For 30 Years Brought Back To Life

Tardigrades Kept In Deep Freeze For 30 Years Brought Back To Life | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Tardigrades kept frozen for more than three decades have been successfully brought back to life. The 1mm long tardigrades were collected from a frozen moss sample in Antarctica in 1983, according to a new paper published in the journal Cryobiology. 

 

Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research stored the 8 legged, segmented critters at -4F for just over 30 years. They thawed and revived two of the animals, which are also known as water bears or moss piglets, in early 2014.

 

One of them died 20 days into the experiment, reports the BBC. But its companion survived and managed to reproduce with a third tardigrade that had been hatched from a frozen egg. It went on to lay 19 eggs, of which 14 survived.

 

Tardigrades, found living in water across the world, are renowned for being tough and have previously survived several days after being blasted into space.

 

According to Japan’s The Asahi Shimbun newspaper, their metabolism shuts down and they enter a cryptobiotic state when faced with low temperatures.  The previous record for tardigrades surviving extreme cold was eight years. “The present study extends the known length of long-term survival in tardigrade species considerably,” researchers wrote in the newly released paper.

 

Lead researcher Megumu Tsujimoto said the team now wants to “unravel the mechanism for long-term survival by looking into damage to tardigrades’ DNA and their ability to repair it.”

 

The tardigrade has some way to go beat the record for surviving in a frozen state, however, which is currently held by the nematode worm - which managed 39 years in deep freeze before being revived.

 

 


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Samuel Viana's curator insight, September 9, 11:19 AM
Será possível os tardígrados serem usados para colonizar novos planetas ?
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'Artificial Atom' Created in Graphene

'Artificial Atom' Created in Graphene | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom -- for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms." Artificial atoms may also feature properties beyond those of conventional ones, with the potential for many applications for example in quantum computing. Such additional properties have now been shown for artificial atoms in the carbon material graphene. The results have been published in the journal Nano Letters, the project was a collaboration of scientists from TU Wien (Vienna, Austria), RWTH Aachen (Germany) and the University of Manchester (GB).

 

"Artificial atoms open up new, exciting possibilities, because we can directly tune their properties," says Professor Joachim Burgdörfer (TU Wien, Vienna). In semiconductor materials such as gallium arsenide, trapping electrons in tiny confinements has already been shown to be possible. These structures are often referred to as "quantum dots." Just like in an atom, where the electrons can only circle the nucleus on certain orbits, electrons in these quantum dots are forced into discrete quantum states.

Even more interesting possibilities are opened up by using graphene, a material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years.

 

"In most materials, electrons may occupy two different quantum states at a given energy. The high symmetry of the graphene lattice allows for four different quantum states. This opens up new pathways for quantum information processing and storage" explains Florian Libisch from TU Wien. However, creating well-controlled artificial atoms in graphene turned out to be extremely challenging.


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IBM: A Quantum Computer Cloud for Everyone to Try! 

IBM: A Quantum Computer Cloud for Everyone to Try!  | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

The IBM quantum computer is now a cloud resource available to anyone who desires. You must request an invitation, but it is an unprecedented opportunity for anyone with a little ‘familiarity with the topic and desire to experiment. IBM has made a quantum computer cloud resource available to all, through its IBM Cloud Platform.

 

IBM is at the beginning of a new chapter in the information revolution. Up until now, this revolution has unfolded based almost entirely on what a physicist would call a classical model of information. This is now known to be too narrow. Breaking out into a fully quantum theory and technology of information processing will enable us to perform some computations that would take more than the age of the universe to do on a classical computer; and to process information in other ways that are so new and different that they cannot even be properly described, let alone performed, within the classical model.

 

The IBM Quantum Experience represents the birth of quantum cloud computing, offering students, researchers, and general science enthusiasts hands-on access to IBM’s experimental cloud-enabled quantum computing platform, and allowing users to run algorithms and experiments, work with quantum bits (qubits), and explore tutorials and simulations around what might be possible with quantum computing.

 

The results of more than 35 years of IBM Quantum Computing research are now available for exploration at the click of a button. Join us to help accelerate innovation in the quantum field, and help discover new applications for this technology.


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Stewart-Marshall's curator insight, May 8, 9:52 AM
IBM has made a quantum computer cloud resource available to all, through its IBM Cloud Platform.
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NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative Opens Space to Educators, Nonprofits

NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative Opens Space to Educators, Nonprofits | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Accredited education institutions, nonprofit organizations and NASA centers can join the adventure and challenges of space while helping the agency achieve its exploration goals through the next round of the agency’s CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI). Applicants must submit proposals by 4:30 p.m. EST, Nov. 22.

 

The CSLI provides CubeSat developers with a low-cost pathway to space to conduct research that advances NASA's strategic goals in the areas of science, exploration, technology development, education and operations. The initiative provides students, teachers and faculty with the chance to get hands-on flight hardware development experience designing, building and operating these small research satellites.


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Physicists have discovered what looks like an entire family of new particles in the LHC

Physicists have discovered what looks like an entire family of new particles in the LHC | Física Interessante | Scoop.it
They can’t be explained by our existing laws of physics.

 

The new particles have been named X(4140), X(4274), X(4500), and X(4700) after their respective masses, and each one has been found to contain a unique combination of two charm quarks and two strange quarks.

 

This makes them the first four-quark particles found to be composed entirely of heavy quarks, Symmetry reports.

 

By 'exciting' the individual quarks inside their new tetraquark particles, the researchers were able to observe their unique internal structure, mass, and quantum numbers. In doing so, they discovered something that doesn’t fit with current physics models that work with so-called ordinary particles, such as composite hadrons built from either a quark and an anti-quark, or three separate quarks, CERN reports.

 

Physicists are now trying to come up with new models to explain their results. The results have been published in two papers on the pre-print website arXiv.org here and here, so are now going to be scrutinized by independent physicists ahead of the formal peer-review process. 

 

The discovers are expecting one of two possibilities to be confirmed with further research: theoretical physicists are either going to have to explain the existence of this new family of particles, or they could be identified as the result of strange 'ripple effects' emanating from never-before-seen behaviors of existing particles.


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New satellite will test Einstein’s general theory of gravity

New satellite will test Einstein’s general theory of gravity | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

The French satellite, Microscope, was launched successfully on 25 April 2016 with the mission of testing the so-called equivalence principle in Einstein’s general theory of relativity. This describes how people in free fall do not feel their own weight and is what ultimately led Einstein towards his theory of general relativity that states that gravity is not a real force. The equivalence principle is central in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and without it, the theory faces real problems.

 

Staff at the Institute of space research and technology at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Space) are happy to see the satellite launch. They developed some of the tools onboard--new cameras to help orient the satellite with unprecedented accuracy, says Professor John Leif Jørgensen, who has been with the project since 2004. "We have delivered two ultra-precise star cameras, which makes it possible to measure the satellite's orientation with an accuracy of 20 thousandths of a second of arc [a measure for calculating angles]--50 times better than any other spacecraft," says Jørgensen.

 

Einstein's general theory of relativity states that gravity is not a force. What we perceive as gravity is actually a curvature of space-time, caused by objects like the Earth. The vast majority of physicists expect that the experiment will confirm that Einstein was right--just like the countless of other experiments in the past 100 years. But if the satellite shows that general relativity is not the whole truth, then the Microscope could lead them towards a new theory of everything--which could be equally exciting.


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Winds a quarter the speed of light spotted leaving mysterious binary systems

Winds a quarter the speed of light spotted leaving mysterious binary systems | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Two black holes in nearby galaxies have been observed devouring their companion stars at a rate exceeding classically understood limits, and in the process, kicking out matter into surrounding space at astonishing speeds of around a quarter the speed of light.

 

The researchers, from the University of Cambridge, used data from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton space observatory to reveal for the first time strong winds gusting at very high speeds from two mysterious sources of x-ray radiation. The discovery, published in the journal Nature, confirms that these sources conceal a compact object pulling in matter at extraordinarily high rates.

 

When observing the Universe at x-ray wavelengths, the celestial sky is dominated by two types of astronomical objects: supermassive black holes, sitting at the centres of large galaxies and ferociously devouring the material around them, and binary systems, consisting of a stellar remnant - a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole - feeding on gas from a companion star.

 

In both cases, the gas forms a swirling disc around the compact and very dense central object. Friction in the disc causes the gas to heat up and emit light at different wavelengths, with a peak in x-rays. But an intermediate class of objects was discovered in the 1980s and is still not well understood. Ten to a hundred times brighter than ordinary x-ray binaries, these sources are nevertheless too faint to be linked to supermassive black holes, and in any case, are usually found far from the centre of their host galaxy.

 

"We think these so-called 'ultra-luminous x-ray sources' are special binary systems, sucking up gas at a much higher rate than an ordinary x-ray binary," said Dr Ciro Pinto from Cambridge's Institute of Astronomy, the paper's lead author. "Some of these sources host highly magnetised neutron stars, while others might conceal the long-sought-after intermediate-mass black holes, which have masses around one thousand times the mass of the Sun. But in the majority of cases, the reason for their extreme behaviour is still unclear."

 

Pinto and his colleagues collected several days' worth of observations of three ultra-luminous x-ray sources, all located in nearby galaxies located less than 22 million light-years from the Milky Way. The data was obtained over several years with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on XMM-Newton, which allowed the researchers to identify subtle features in the spectrum of the x-rays from the sources. In all three sources, the scientists were able to identify x-ray emission from gas in the outer portions of the disc surrounding the central compact object, slowly flowing towards it.

 

But two of the three sources - known as NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1 - also show clear signs of x-rays being absorbed by gas that is streaming away from the central source at 70,000 kilometres per second - almost a quarter of the speed of light. "This is the first time we've seen winds streaming away from ultra-luminous x-ray sources," said Pinto. "And the very high speed of these outflows is telling us something about the nature of the compact objects in these sources, which are frantically devouring matter."

 

While the hot gas is pulled inwards by the central object's gravity, it also shines brightly, and the pressure exerted by the radiation pushes it outwards. This is a balancing act: the greater the mass, the faster it draws the surrounding gas; but this also causes the gas to heat up faster, emitting more light and increasing the pressure that blows the gas away. There is a theoretical limit to how much matter can be pulled in by an object of a given mass, known as the Eddington limit. The limit was first calculated for stars by astronomer Arthur Eddington, but it can also be applied to compact objects like black holes and neutron stars.

 


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LHC data at your fingertips

LHC data at your fingertips | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Today the CMS collaboration at CERN released more than 300 terabytes (TB) of high-quality open data. These include more than 100 TB of data from proton collisions at 7 TeV, making up half the data collected at the LHC by the CMS detector in 2011. This release follows a previous one from November 2014, which made available around 27 TB of research data collected in 2010.

 

The data are available on the CERN Open Data Portal and come in two types. The primary datasets are in the same format used by the collaboration to perform research. The derived datasets, on the other hand, require a lot less computing power and can be readily analyzed by university or high school students.

 

CMS is also providing the simulated data generated with the same software version that should be used to analyze the primary datasets. Simulations play a crucial role in particle physics research. The data release is accompanied by analysis tools and code examples tailored to the datasets. A virtual machine image based on CernVM, which comes preloaded with the software environment needed to analyze the CMS data, can also be downloaded from the portal.


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Scientists have just observed a strange state of matter

Scientists have just observed a strange state of matter | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Researchers have just discovered evidence of a mysterious new state of matter in a real material. The state is known as 'quantum spin liquid' and it causes electrons - one of the fundamental, indivisible building blocks of matter - to break down into smaller quasiparticles.

 

Scientists had first predicted the existence of this state of matter in certain magnetic materials 40 years ago, but despite multiple hints of its existence, they've never been able to detect evidence of it in nature. So it's pretty exciting that they've now caught a glimpse of quantum spin liquid, and the bizarre fermions that accompany it, in a two-dimensional, graphene-like material.

 

"This is a new quantum state of matter, which has been predicted but hasn't been seen before," said one of the researchers, Johannes Knolle, from the University of Cambridge in the UK. They were able to spot evidence of quantum spin liquid in the material by observing one of its most intriguing properties - electron fractionalization - and the resulting Majorana fermions, which occur when electrons in a quantum spin state split apart. These Majorana fermions are exciting because they could be used as building blocks of quantum computers.

 

To be clear, the electrons aren't actually splitting down into smaller physical particles - which of course would be an even bigger deal since that would mean brand new particles! What's happening instead is the new state of matter is breaking electrons down into quasiparticles. These aren't actually real particles, but are concepts used by physicists to explain and calculate the strange behavior of particles.

 

And the quantum spin liquid state is definitely making electrons act weirdly - in a typical magnetic material, electrons behave like tiny bar magnets. So when the material is cooled to a low enough temperature, these magnet-like electrons order themselves over long ranges, so that all the north magnetic poles point in the same direction.

 

But in a material containing a quantum spin liquid state, even if a magnetic material is cooled to absolute zero, the electrons don't align, but instead form an entangled soup caused by quantum fluctuations.

 

"Until recently, we didn't even know what the experimental fingerprints of a quantum spin liquid would look like," said one of the researchers, Dmitry Kovrizhin. "One thing we've done in previous work is to ask, if I were performing experiments on a possible quantum spin liquid, what would I observe?"

 


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Neutrinos can flip between different states effortlessly, hinting at a new type of physics

Neutrinos can flip between different states effortlessly, hinting at a new type of physics | Física Interessante | Scoop.it

Neutrino mutation would not be possible if it weren’t for the particle’s minuscule mass. Because each of the three known mass states is so small and its associated quantum wavelength is so long, the waves corresponding to each state can remain largely in sync, with only small offsets, over cosmic distances. This allows neutrinos to flicker between different flavors in an ephemeral state of multiplicity.

If their masses were larger and their wavelengths shorter, the waves would quickly become so out of phase that this knife-edge balance between different flavors would collapse, forcing the neutrinos into one type or the other. “The different flavors would separate from each other,” says de Gouvêa. “They would have a very binary behavior.” The fact that neutrinos don’t, thanks to their puny mass states, makes sense according to the rules of quantum mechanics, but it is still mind-bending, says neutrino researcher Jason Koskinen of the University of Copenhagen. “I still haven’t wrapped my head around this,” he admits.

There is just one snag: Neutrinos weren’t supposed to have any mass at all. “We built our standard model around the idea that neutrinos are massless,” says Janet Conrad of the Massachusetts Institue of Technology (MIT).

The fact that they have mass, however small, is a big problem. The standard model is physicists’ best idea of how particles and forces interact—a spectacularly strong edifice whose construction was completed in 2012 with the discovery of its last missing particle, the Higgs boson. “Neutrino oscillation is the only confirmed physics right now that can be done outside the standard model,” says Koskinen.

The reason that neutrino mass is so tricky has to do with how any particle gets its mass. Other elementary particles with mass come in two mirror versions—one left- and one right-handed—that correspond to the direction of their spin. Each version can interact with a different force of nature, and both “hands” seem to be required to give particles mass, thanks to their interaction with an invisible quantum “ether” that suffuses all of space: the Higgs field, whose signature particle is the Higgs boson.

The Higgs field acts a bit like a mirror, turning a particle with one spin into its mirror opposite. “The idea is that every once in a while, a left-handed particle will hit the Higgs field and convert to a right-handed particle,” says de Gouvêa. “The net effect is that it looks like a particle with mass.”


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