Cooling treatment credited with saving a cardiac arrest patientOcalaShe suffered cardiac arrest, her body temperature was cooled by emergency health care workers to slow damage to her brain, and she was put into a coma.
Via Carl Robinson
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There are about 30,000 cardiac arrests every year in the UK and ten times that number in the US. It is one of the most common ways to die.
It is also one of the most common scenarios in which a bystander can save a life through CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the technique used to keep blood and oxygen pumping round the body until emergency help arrives.
This 'kiss of life' has an intriguing history stretching back over 100 years to when electricity was first being installed in domestic homes and, in part, it owes its discovery to the fate of an unnamed lab dog.
Throughout the early 1900s an electrical revolution hit America, and homes became populated with electrical appliances - everything from light bulbs to refrigerators.
But, on the down side, electrocution was a major risk to people working on the newly-installed power lines. Many died of cardiac arrests.Shock tactics
As a result, external defibrillators had been invented to shock the heart back into rhythm without opening the chest - but they were too big and cumbersome to use outside of hospitals.
In the 1950s, the Edison Electric Institute in the US decided to sponsor researchers to investigate the effects of electrical currents on the heart.
Enter Guy Knickerbocker, a fastidious, 29-year-old graduate working under electrical engineer William Kouwenhoven in one of the labs at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland. They were trying to improve the external defibrillator, which Kouwenhoven had invented a few years earlier.
In 1958, before the ethical treatment of animals became a serious consideration, their experiments involved testing on laboratory dogs.
Knickerbocker, now 86 years old, remembers working with a colleague one day when, suddenly, one of the dogs went into cardiac arrest, or ventricle fibrillation (VF).
Thanks to a unnamed dog, Knickerbocker and his colleagues discovered how to slow down the dying process in the 1950s
Normally when this happened, they would use a defibrillator to shock the dog's heart back into rhythm - but that day they were in the lab on the 12th floor and the equipment was on the fifth floor.
The notoriously slow lifts in the building meant they would never get the defibrillator to the dog in time.
"There is very little chance of survival after cardiac arrest that goes on longer than five minutes," says Knickerbocker.'Sprang to life'
Knickerbocker had a brainwave. Only a few weeks earlier he had observed that just the pressure of the defibrillator paddles on the dog's chest caused a change in blood pressure.
Did this change in pressure mean that the blood was moving around the body?
He took a chance: "We started to pump the dog's chest because it seemed to be the right thing to do."
Knickerbocker raced along the stairs to the fifth floor to get the defibrillator while his colleagues pressed the dog's chest for 20 minutes - four times longer than any previous successful attempt.
When he arrived back with the defibrillator and administered two shocks, the dog sprang back to life.
The importance of their discovery cannot be overstated; the experiment established beyond doubt that rhythmic pressing of the chest could sustain life.
Knickerbocker says: "We had found a way to slow down the dying process, and give people time to receive defibrillation".From pooch to people
Knickerbocker excitedly shared his discovery with cardiac surgeon, Dr Jim Jude, who worked in the next-door lab.
Dr Jude immediately realised its potential, and along with Kouwenhoven, set about working out exactly where to push, how often, and how much force to apply - and found they could extend a dog's life for more than an hour.
"I didn't believe the chest compression technique would ever translate to humans, and neither did a lot of my colleagues," he says today.
This included the head of surgery at Johns Hopkins at that time who wanted the team to provide a lot of evidence before he let them publish their findings.
However Dr Jude was convinced the dog-saving technique could work on people.
The chest compression technique, he realised, could be used to simulate up to 40% of normal cardiac activity. The only problem was that there was no-one to test it on.
A little over a year later, a 35-year-old woman, who was admitted for a gall bladder operation at Johns Hopkins, reacted badly to the anaesthetic and went into cardiac arrest.
Dr Jude immediately began applying rhythmic, manual pressure to her chest. Within two minutes her heart started again and she went on to have the operation and make a full recovery.'Happy and proud'
This led Kouwenhoven, Jude and Knickerbocker to publish their discovery in a paper in 1960.
"Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures," the authors concluded. "All that is needed are two hands."
In collaboration with another research group who were looking at ventilation techniques, they developed modern CPR.
Now it is taught across the world and in some countries it is also taught in schools.
The American Heart Association estimates that CPR provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest can double or triple a victim's chance of survival.
A VIDEO reconstructing how a man was saved by a heart-starting defibrillator will be used to encourage more organisations to install the life-saving machines.
Bolton West MP Julie Hilling is backing the British Heart Foundation’s (BHF) push to make it compulsory for children to learn life-saving skills in school.
A mother-of-three is urging people to have first aid training, after a “guardian angel” neighbour helped save the life of her four-week old baby when he stopped breathing.
Tina Westlake, 34, said her son Kane, now eight weeks old, “wouldn’t be here” were it not for the actions of 24-year-old Emily White who administered emergency first aid she had recently learnt and carried out CPR until paramedics arrived.
Kane stopped breathing after choking on milk after being laid down for a sleep at the family home in Foulsham, prompting a panic-striken Mrs Westlake to run out into the street to scream for help, carrying her son in her arms.
Neighbour Mrs White, who was on her way to pick her daughter Jorgie up from school, heard the screams and ran back to put into practice skills picked up at a course run by First Aid at Work Norfolk, based at Ringland Road in Taverham.
The mother-of-two, who went on the course to help her secure a job as a first-aider for Fakenham-based Med PTS, said the “excellent” training she received meant she was able to calmly deal with the unfolding emergency.
Debra Chaffin, 59, was at risk for a sudden cardiac arrest, but fortunately she had the protection of a wearable defibrillator, a white undergarment that she credits with saving her life.
The plans are in response to a campaign by Joanne and Dan Thompson, whose daughter Millie died after choking at a nursery in 2012.
Up to a quarter of defibrillators installed in public places don't work, according to the agency in charge of registering the equipment.
The Automated External Defibrillator Deployment Agency has launched a new set of guidelines in an effort to stop flat batteries and software malfunctions in the units.
The agency's Graeme Pell said electronic defibrillators in workplaces, sporting clubs and other public places did not always work.
"There's nothing more frustrating than coming across somebody who's got a sudden cardiac arrest who clearly needs urgent defibrillation to save their lives and find that the defibrillator that you have in your hand, or in fact can't locate, simply won't do the job," he said.
In the United States, research has found that up to a quarter of equipment installed in public areas at any time did not work because of flat batteries, damage or software malfunctions.
Mr Peel estimated the figures were similar in Australia.
"Probably 20 to 25 per cent of defibrillators aren't working," he said.
"We also know that unless you get fibrillation on a sudden cardiac arrest patient within the first couple of minutes, then their chance of survival is very remote.
"Anecdotally, we believe that there probably are people dying unnecessarily."
Up to 33,000 Australians die from sudden cardiac arrest every year.
The agency today released a set of guidelines that helps businesses and organisations make sure equipment was ready for use in an emergency.
It is also setting a up voluntary register to keep track of all defibrillators around the country.
Mr Peel said there was one positive change already underway - defibrillators were becoming easier to use.
"You open it up and it talks to you. It'll tell you pull out the pads, where the pads have to be located and connections then basically you stand back and wait," he said.
"The battery's got to be working, the pads have got to stick, software has got to be functioning.
"There's been a huge amount of enthusiasm but not as much standardisation."
If you have ever seen a marathon or watched one on TV you may have wondered why, when the runners have all finished the race, they get given those thin foil-like blankets. The blankets they are given help the athlete to regulate their body temperature, after a race a runner’s temperature will drop quite rapidly because they have ceased working their muscles.
Stockport charity set up following baby's death organised petition which received 102,000 signatures and led to a House of Commons debate
THE heroic actions of a quick thinking woman from Alcester and her friend saved a cyclist's life when he collapsed on a country road.
The man was cycling along Fish Hill near the Cotswold village of Broadway last March when he collapsed.
Fortunately he was spotted on the side of the road by Gemma Guedes, 30, from Alcester, and her friend Katie Nightingale, who were only travelling down the road by chance after taking a wrong turn on their way to take Gemma's pet puppy for a walk.
The pair spotted the man receiving CPR from a fellow cyclist and immediately remembered that there were defibrillators kept at the nearby Farncombe Estate, where they both used to work.
"It was very worrying to see someone receiving CPR as it was the first time that I have ever been in that situation," said Mrs Guedes. "We were just very lucky that Farncombe Estate was so close and that they have trained people to use the defibrillator."
The friends called ahead and were met by security supervisor Tony Haines, of Pensham, near Pershore, who had grabbed a defibrillator.
They dashed back to the stricken man with Mr Haines - an experienced St John Ambulance volunteer - in tow and used the defibrillator to re-start his heart.
He was then rushed to Worcestershire Royal Hospital, where grateful medics confirmed the cyclist would not have survived without the defibrillator and their quick-thinking actions.
"When we arrived the man was starting to turn blue around the lips - Tony gave him a single shock and his heart re-started. After a few minutes the man started talking, which was a huge relief to everyone.
"We waited for the Air Ambulance to arrive and once the man was airlifted to the hospital you could feel that everyone felt a great sense of achievement," added Mrs Guedes.
Mr Haines said he was glad the estate had the vital life-saving equipment . Both he and St John Ambulance are now urging more places, especially in isolated rural locations, to get equipment of their own.
Mr Haines said: “We gave the man a single shock and his heart restarted. Within a few minutes he was talking, it was amazing.
“This incident just goes to show what a difference a defibrillator can make and I would urge as many organisations as possible to have one on hand in case of emergency.”
Defibrillators are to be installed in every Scottish NHS dental practice.
The £1m Scottish government scheme aims to boost the survival chances for people who have cardiac arrests.
The 970 defibrillators will also be mapped by ambulance staff so call handlers can direct people to the nearest one while patients wait for paramedics to arrive.
More than 1,500 Scots died in the community last year after suffering a cardiac arrest.
A defibrillator can be used by anyone to deliver an electric shock to the chest to restore a person's heart to a normal rhythm after a cardiac arrest.
'Every second counts'
Ministers said that currently, only 5% of people who have a cardiac arrest in the community survive and every minute of delay cuts their chances.
Public Health Minister Michael Matheson said: "Every second counts when someone's heart goes into cardiac arrest and having access to a defibrillator can mean the difference between life and death.
"As these machines are becoming easier to use it is only right that the public have more access to its life-saving potential in any public place.
"There are almost 1,000 NHS dental practices in the centre of Scottish communities. By giving them this equipment we are providing 1,000 more chances to save a life.
"I believe that this investment will save many more lives."
The machines are expected to be in place by the end of August.
Any dental practice which has already bought a defibrillator will be compensated.
bout half of people in Scotland do not feel confident administering CPR if needed in an emergency, a survey has found.
Here's some news that nap enthusiasts definitely won't get tired of. It turns out that a daily snooze is associated with reduced blood pressure and, even more significantly, may decrease the risk of a heart attack or other cardiovascular events.
New research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia shows that use of public access defibrillation on people suffering cardiac arrest is associated with a large increase in chances of survival. However, despite the great potential, publicly accessible Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are not being used enough, concludes research by Dr Marianne Agerskov and colleagues at Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
When taxi driver Dean Clarke picked up his last fare on Saturday night, he never imagined by the time the journey ended he would have saved a life.
But when a 76-year-old passenger collapsed and began having a heart attack, his instincts kicked in along with advice picked up from an advertising campaign.
Mr Clarke, who has been a taxi driver for Bristol-based Homesafe Cars for two years, administered emergency CPR to John Alexander for 20 minutes, despite having no previous first aid experience.
And the technique he used to save his passengers life were gleaned from watching a campaign backed by soccer hardman Vinnie Jones. In the Staying Alive advert the footballer turned actor demonstrates how to administer CPR accompanied by the Bee Gees' hit of the same name.
The 54-year-old was helping the man and his wife out of the taxi outside their Hanham home after they had been to a pub in Cadbury Heath celebrating their son's birthday.
Mr Clarke said: "As I helped the man out of the car, he collapsed back. It was really frightening, I rang an ambulance and told them what was happening. They talked me through some basic CPR and I just had to keep his head back and his airways open.
"I had never done CPR before, the only knowledge I had of it was from the Vinny Jones' CPR videos. The man on the phone was great, if it wasn't for him I wouldn't have been able to do anything."
Mr Clarke also rang his colleague to go back to the pub and pick up the man's son. After 20 minutes, an ambulance arrived to take the man to hospital where he was treated.
Paramedics told Dean if it wasn't for the CPR he administered, the man may not have survived.
He said: "They said I helped save the man's life, but if it wasn't for the people at the end of the phone talking me through I wouldn't have been able to do any of it, so I owe it to them really. I'm just so glad to hear the man is ok, miraculously he is out of hospital already and doing well I hear so that is all that matters. I was very anxious on Sunday until I heard he was OK.
"I don't feel like I've done anything out of the ordinary, I was just doing my job and what anyone would have done. But it was a very frightening experience and I'm just glad it has been a positive outcome."
The manager of Homesafe Taxis Mark Horman said: "It's amazing really what he did and we are very proud to have him as one of our taxi drivers. He went above and beyond and we are just pleased that the man is OK and out of hospital. His family have been in touch with us through our Facebook page and have thanked us."
Aide White said on the Facebook page: "Thanks guys, this is my father-in-law of 35 years. You lived up to your company's name, Homesafe. You did a great job."
Daughter Louise White said: "Thank you very much this customer is my Dad we have just picked him up from hospital and apart from bruising and a chest infection he is OK as a family we can not thank you enough. My mum and dad will be in contact with you soon thanks again.
It started off like any other normal after-school afternoon.
A new survey has found almost a fifth of Brits don't know what it is and 45 per cent are not confident enough to perform it
EVERY high school in the Capital will be equipped with a life-saving defibrillator to ensure that thousands of teenagers never suffer the terrible fate of teenage footballer Jamie Skinner.
City chiefs have teamed up with the Scottish Ambulance Service to spend more than £34,000 on the vital devices for all 23 secondary schools in Edinburgh, following months of campaigning by the Skinner family and the Evening News.
The move has been hailed as a “great legacy” for super-fit Jamie, who suffered a fatal cardiac arrest while making his debut for Tynecastle FC at Saughton in December 2013.
His heartbroken family has fought tirelessly for better defibrillator provision, teaming up with the News to launch the Shockingly Easy campaign in July to ensure the heart-start machines are installed in every sports club in the Lothians.
(HealthDay News) — In out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiac arrest, public access defibrillation (PAD) prior to ambulance arrival may be only rarely used, according to a study published online February 19 in Heart.
Schools Minister David Laws backs Mail on Sunday campaign to introduce vital CPR lessons in schools
Lib Dem MP Sir Bob Russell, chairman of the all-party parliamentary group on first aid, said he hoped the other two main parties would also add the proposals to their pre-Election manifestos.
Residents from the Fulford and district area attended free, two hour Heart Start & Defibrillator awareness courses on Sunday 29th June 2014.
They learnt vital lifesaving skills, which could help keep a person alive until medical help arrives.
The course was provided by Mike Taylor (of Abacus Training), David Thomas and Mel Avis, who are all volunteer responders with the Fulford & District Community First Responder charity. ‘Heart Start’ is a national scheme that is being supported by the West Midlands Ambulance Service across Staffordshire, in association with the British Heart Foundation.
Mel Avis explained,
Participants attending Fulford & District Heart Start and Defibrillator Awareness workshop on Sunday 29th June 2014, outside the village hall, with Heart Start trainer, Mike Taylor.
Acting quickly when someone is in cardiac arrest is crucially important. Early CPR and Early Defibrillation significantly increase a person’s chance of survival. People should not be afraid to learn how to use a cPAD. They are designed specifically for use in community settings and provide a series of voice prompts and illuminated illustrations to guide the rescuer.
says Mike Taylor (of Abacus Training).
says participant, Sarah Cox
says participant, Jacqui Leach
For more information about First Aid courses or the Heart Start scheme, please contact: Mike@fulfordanddistrictcfr.co.uk or visit www.abacustraining.co.uk
Special thanks to:
About Fulford & District Community First Responders:
Fulford & District CFRs can be followed on Facebook and Twitter @FulfordCFR
A MAN who spearheaded a campaign to purchase defibrillators for use in and around East Grinstead has remarkably had his own life saved by one of the devices.
Jim Miller admits he would be "six feet under" had it not been for the shock he received from one of the machines following a recent heart attack.
The 82-year-old helped to raise enough money to fund three new defibrillators in his role as a volunteer for East Grinstead and District Lions Club back in 2010.
The club purchased the devices to be used by first responders – people living within communities who attend local medical emergencies while paramedics are still on their way.
And another defibrillator, at East Surrey Hospital, ended up saving Jim's own life on March 18.
He said: "I had some discomfort in my chest and I thought it was heartburn.
"I was taken by ambulance to East Surrey Hospital and they were about to send me home. I went to use the phone to tell my wife the good news and that's the last thing I remember. The next thing I knew, I was surrounded by all these people telling me to stay calm and not to move."
Coincidentally, another East Grinstead resident with close links to the lcoal Lions Club also had his life saved by a defibrillator after he suffered a cardiac arrest in February.
Gordon Gould, who runs the charity's website, collapsed at his doctors' surgery, but was resuscitated immediately and transferred to St George's Hospital, in Tooting, by ambulance.
He said: "Defibrillation needs to be applied very quickly, because for every minute that a person is in cardiac arrest before defibrillation, their chances of survival are reduced by about ten per cent. First responders are local volunteers, trained in lifesaving skills and in how to use a defibrillator, and can often get to a scene quicker than an ambulance.
"I am so grateful that a defibrillator was available to save my life, and the more first responders with defibrillators there are, the more lives will be saved."
The defibrillators funded by the Lions in 2010 have been made available for use by first responders in East Grinstead, Lingfield and Dormansland.
Jim, of Fulmar Drive, East Grinstead, said: "The idea is to have a first responder available within eight minutes of an incident. These are people who are trained to use defibrillators and without them, I would be six feet under.
"They saved my life and they saved Gordon's life."
Lifesaving training for first responders is provided by the South East Coast Ambulance Service (SECAmb), though the service admits it does not currently have the funding to support new volunteers. Instead, SECAmb is keen to raise awareness and money for the service.
First responder Richard Herbert, from Dormansland, said: "As first responders, we're not just there for heart attacks. We help with anything an ambulance can help with, such as first aid, cuts and breakages."
Read more: http://www.eastgrinsteadcourier.co.uk/Volunteer-launches-campaign-purchase/story-20894032-detail/story.html#ixzz2yrpyRAVt